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HARVARD UNIVERSITY 




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MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY 



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AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY, 



PUBLISHED BY THE 



Conchological Section of the Academy of Xatural Sciences, 



PUBLICATION COMMITTEE: 

GEO. W. TRYON, Jr., Editor. 
S. R. ROBERTS. 
EDW. J. NOLAN, M. D. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

Published hj 

The Conchological Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences, 

N. W. cor. of Broad and Sansom Streets. 

NEW YORK ! LONDON i 

B. Westerman & Co., Xo. 471 Broadway. Trubner & Co., No. CO Paternoster Row. 

BERLIN : 

^ AsHER & Co., No. 60 Unter d. Linden. 

1871. 



Part 1 published July 7, 1870. 

" 2 " Oct. 6, 1870. 

" 3 " April 4, 1871. 

" 4 " June 1, 1871. 



CONTENTS. 



Fart 1— July 7, 1870. 

Page. 

1. Record of Meetings, ...... 1 

Observations on Marginellidse, by J. H. Redfield, . 2 

2. Remarks on the Species of Melania and Limnaea inhab- 

iting the Hawaiian Islands, with descriptions of New 
Species, by Wna. Harper Pease, .... 4 

3. Materials toward a Monograph of the Gadiniidse, by 

W. H. Dall, 8 

4. Descriptions of Ncav Species of Marine Bivalve Mol- 

lusca in the Collection of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, No. 2, by Geo. W. Tryon, Jr., . . 23 

5. Note on Cyclophorus foliaceus. Reeve [no?i Chemnitz), 

and C. Leai, Tryon, by Geo. W. Tryon, Jr., . . 25 

6. Catalogue of the Shell-bearing Mollusca of Fulton 

County, Illinois, by John Wolf, . . . .27 

7. Remarks on the Anatomy of the Genus Siphonaria, 

with a description of a New Species, by Wm. H. 
Dall, 30 

8. Notes on Mollusca of Monterey Bay, California, by 

John G. Cooper, M. D., 42 

9. Notes on Recent and Fossil Shells, with Descriptions 

of New Species, by T. A. Conrad, . . .71 

10. Notices and Reviews of New Conchological Works, by 

George W. Tryon, Jr., 79 

I. American. — Annals of the New York Lyceum of Nat. His- 

tory ; Davidson's Report on the Oyster Resources of 
-Maryland. 

II. Foreign. — British. — Annals and Magazine of Nat. History ; 

Journal of the Linnean Society. 
French. — Journal de Conchyliologie ; Revue et Magasin 

de Zoologie. 
German. — Decken's Reisen in Ost-Afrika ; Novitates Con- 

chologicse, Martini und Chemnitz. 



iv contents. 

Part 2— October 6, 1870. 

Page. 

1. Record of Meetings, ...... 85 

Letter from Dr. J. Lewis on Limnaidse. 

2. A Revision of the Terebratulidse and Lingulidfe, with 

Remarks on and Descriptions of some Recent Forms, 

by Wm. H. Dall, 88 

3. Review ; Notes on Lingual Dentition of Mollusca, by 

^^\ G. Binney and Thomas Bland. By William H. 
Dall, 169 

4. Rectification of the Synonymy of certain Species of 

Marginella, by John H. Redfield, .... 172 

5. Notices and Reviews of New Conchological Works, by 

George W. Tryon, Jr., 174 

I. Ameeicax, — Report on the Invertebrata of Massachusetts, 

by A. A. Gould, M. D., Edited by W.G. Binney; An- 
nals New York Lyceum of Nat. History ; Proceedings 
Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. ; American .Journal of Science. 

II, Foreign. — French. — .Journal de Conchyliologie : Revue et 

Magasin de Zoologie. 

APPENDIX. 

6. Catalogue of the Known Species, Recent and Fossil, 

of the Family Marginellidge, by .John IL Redfield, 215 

7. Catalogue of the Recent Species of the Family Mela- 

nidae. By A. Brot, M. D., 271 

Part 3— April 4, 1871. 

Page. 

1. Record of Meeting.s, 181 

Ptemarks of Mr. Tryon on Phy.sella Berendtii, — Ex- 
tract of Letter from W. H. Dall on Limngea involuta. 

2. On the Relations of the Amphiperasidae, by Theodore 

Gill. . . 183 

3. Notes on the Land Shells of East Tennessee, by James 

Lewis, M. D., 188 

4. Descriptions of New Fossil Shells of the Upper Ama- 

zon, by T. A. Conrad, 192 



CONTENTS. V 

5. Descriptions of New Tertiary Shells, with Notes on 

Two Genera of Lamellibranchiata, by T. A. Conrad, 199 

6. Notes on Lingual Dentition, No. 2, by W. G. Binney 

and Thomas Bland, 202 

7. On the Shells of the Holston River, by James Lewis, 

M. D., 216 

8. On the Limpets ; with Special Reference to the Species 

of the West Coast of America, and to a more Natu- 
ral Chissification of the Group, by Wm. H. Dall, . 227 

9. Notices and Reviews of New Conchological Works, by 

George W. Tryon, Jr., 28a 

I. American. — Synopsis of the Family Unionidoe, by Isaac Lea ; 

Canadian Naturalist; Proceedings California Academy 
of Sciences; Proceedings Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia. 

II. FoRKiGN. — British. — Proceedings of Zoological Society; 

Proceedings of Asiatic Society of Bengal; i\nnals and 

Magazine of Natural History; Morphological Researches 

.on the Mollusoa; Conchologia Iconica, etc. 
French. — Journal de Conchyliologie ; Revue et Magasln 

de Zoologie ; Senoner's Notes Malacologiques, etc. 
German. — Kreglinger's Binnen-Mollusken ; Archiv fur 

Naturgeschichte ; Kuster's Conchylien Cabinet; Novi- 

tates Conchologicae, etc. 

Part 4— June 1, 1871. 

Page. 
X. Record of Meetings, 297 

2. Descriptions of Nudibranchiate Mollusca inhabiting 

Polynesia, by W, Harper Pease, .... 299 

3. Notes on some New Forms of Terrestrial and Fluvia- 

tile Mollusca found in Trinidad, by R. J. Lechmere 
Guppy, 306 

4. On the Lingual Dentition of Pompholyx cifusa, by 

Thomas Bland and W. G. Binney, . . .312 

5. Palncontological Notes, by T. A. Conrad, . . . 314 

1. Figure and Reference to Fasciolaria subtenta. 2. Synopsis 
of the Eocene Species of Catinus. 3. Des(;ription of a new 
Fresh-water and a Land Shell of the Oregon Tertiary. 



Tl CONTENTS. 

6. On the Opercula of the Family Strepomatidge, by W. 

D. Hartman, M. D., . . . . • . 316 

7. Note on Gadinia and Rowellia, by J. G. Cooper, M.D., 319 

8. Note on Waldheimia pulvinata, Gld., by J. G. Cooper, 

M. D., 320 

9. Additions and Corrections to the Catalogue of Monte- 

rey Mollusca (published in the American Jour. 
Conch. Vol. vi, Part 1, p. 49), by J. G. Cooper, 
M. D., 321 

10. Notices and Reviews of New Conchological Works, by 

Geo. W. Tryon, Jr., 323 

British. — Anuals and Magazine of Natural History; Concho- 
logica Indica. 

French. — Journal de Conchyliologie ; Revue et Magasin de 
Zoologie ; Actes de la Societe Liuneeuue de Bordeaux. 

German. — Novitates Conchologicae ; Systematisclies Conchy- 
lien Cabinet. 

APPENDIX. 

11. Conservator's Annual Report, by E. J. Nolan, M. D., 329 

12. Report of Librarian, by E. J. Nolan, M. D., . . 329 

13. Report of Publication Committee, .... 332 



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LIST OF AUTHORS 

AND THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS. 



Binney, ^^^ G., and Thos. Bland. Notes on Lingual Den- 
tition, 202 

On the Lingual Dentition of Pompholyx efFusa, . 312 

Cooper, J. G. Notes on Mollusca of Monterey Bay, Cal., 42 

Note on Gadinia and Rowellia, .... 319 

Note on Waldheimia pulvinata, Gld., . . , 320 

Additions and corrections to the Catalogue of Mon- 

terey Mollusca, published in the Am. Jour. Con- 

chology, Vol. vi, Part 1, p. 49, .... 321 



Conrad, T. A. Notes on Recent and Fossil Shells, with 

descriptions of new Species, 
Descriptions of new Fossil Shells of the Upper Ama 

zon, ........ 

Descriptions of new tertiary Shells, with notes on 

two Genera of Lamellibranchiata, 
Palteontologicai notes, ..... 



71 

192 

199 
314 



Dall, W. H. Materials towards a Monograph of the Gadi 
niidse, ....... 

Remarks on the Anatomy of the Genus Siphonaria, 
with a description of a new Species, . . .30 

A revision of the Terebratulidse and Lingulidie, with 
remarks on and descriptions of some recent forms, 88 

Review. Notes on Lingual Dentition of Mollusca. 
By W. G. Binney and Thos. Bland, . . .169 

On the Limpets ; with special reference to the spe- 
cies of the West Coast of America, and to a more 
natural classification of the group, . . . 227 



Vlll LIST OF AUTHORS. 

Gill, Theo. On the relations of the Amphiperasidse, . 183 

Guppy, R. J. Lechmere. Notes on some new forms of ter- 
restrial and fluviatile Mollusca found in Trinidad, 306 

Hartman, Dr. W. D. On the opercula of the family Stre- 

pomatidse, . . . . . . . 316 

Lewis, Jas. Notes on the Land Shells of East Tennessee, 188 
On the Shells of the Holston River, . . . 216 

Pease, W. H. Remarks on the Species of Melania and 
Limnsea inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands, with 
descriptions of new Species .... 4 

Descriptions of Nudibranchiate Mollusca inhabiting 

Polynesia, 29^<f 

Redfield, J. H. Rectification of the Synonomy of certain 

Species of Marginella, ..... 172 

Tryon, Geo. W., Jr. Descriptions of new species of Marine 
bivalve Mollusca in the Collection of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences, No. 2, . . . .23 
Note on Cyclophorus foliaceus. Reeve [non Chem- 
nitz), and C. Leai, Tryon, . . . . .25 
Notices and Reviews of New Conchological Works, 

79, 174, 283, 323 

Wolf, J. Catalogue of the Shell-bearing Mollusca of Fulton 

County, III, .27 



JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY. 



NEM^ SERIES. 

PUBLISHED BY THE 

CONCHOLOGICAL SECTION of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 

Vol. VI. 1870-71. Part 1. 

Meeting Jan. Isi, 1870. 
Eight members present. 
Dr. Ruschenberger, Director, in the Chair. 
Donations to the Museum and Library were announced. 

The following papers were read by title, and referred to Com- 
mittees: 

" Remarks on the Species of Melania and Limnea inhabiting 
the Hawaiian Isles, with descriptions of new species ;" by Wm. 
Harper Pease. 

" Notes on the Mollusca of Monterey Bay, California ;'' by 
Dr. J. G. Cooper. 

Meeting Feb. Sd, 1870. 

Nine members present. 

Dr. Ruschenberger, Director, in the Chair. 

After several donations to the Museum and Library were read, 
the following papers were offered for publication in the Journal : 

" Materials toward a Monograph of the Gadiniidse ;" by Wm. 
H. Dall. 

1 



JL AMERICAN JOURNAL 

" Descriptions of new Bivalve Mollusca in the collection of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences. No. 2 ;" by Geo. W. Tryon, Jr. 

"Note on Cyclophorus foliaceus, Reeve, and C. Leaii, Tryon ;" 
by Geo. W. Tryon, Jr. 

" Catalogue of the Shell-bearing Mollusca of Fulton County, 
Illinois ;" by John Wolf. 



Meeting March 2>d, 1870. 

Nine members present. 

Mr. Tryon, Vice-Director, in the Chair. 

Donations to the Museum and Library were read. 

The following papers were read by title, and referred to Com- 
mittees: 

" Catalogue of the known Recent and Fossil Species of the 
Family Marginellid?e ;" by John H. Redfield. 

" Remarks on the Anatomy of the genus Siphonaria, with de- 
scription of a new species ;" by Wm. H. Dall. 

*' Notes on Recent and Fossil Shells, with descriptions of new 
species ;" by T. A. Conrad. 

"Notices and Reviews of New Conchological Works;" by 
Geo. W. Tryon, Jr. 

In presenting his Catalogue for publication, Mr. Redfield 
made the following remarks upon the family Marginellidae : 

The earliest figures of Marginella which I know are found 
in Bonanni's Recreations, in 1684. He figures three species, — 
M. cingidata, M. persicula and M. glabella, — all Gambian. 

Lister, in 1688, figures rudely the same species, and four 
others, — viz.: M. faba, M. pulchraf M. elegansf, and M. py- 
rum, — one of them West African, one Caribbean, and the others 
from Indian Ocean. 

In 1691 Bonanni first figures the large Brazilian species M. 
bullata. 

Sloane, in 1707, indicates the well known West Indies species, 
M. guttata, which, however, was not figured until 66 years after- 
wards. 

Petiver about 1711 gave figures of two other species ; they are 
rude, but best answer to M. rosea and 31. Delessertiana, the one 
from South Africa, the other from Mauritius. 

Adanson added five species, all (perhaps with one exception) 
West African. 

Thus sixteen species had been indicated before the publication 
of the tenth edition of Linnaeus' Systeraa Naturie, which work 
includes but six of these species, compressing them, however, 
into five, to which another was added in the twelfth edition. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 3 

Martini in 1773 added figures of four species to those already- 
made known, and before the century closed about seven more 
were figured, making in all about thirty species known at the 
close of the last century. 

The Napoleonic wars were not favorable to the progress of 
science, and the next twenty years added but four species to the 
list. Dillwvn's Catalogue of 1817 enumerates but eighteen spe- 
cies, though thirty-four had been figured or named in various 
works. Lamarck, in his Anim. sans Vert., in 1822 added five 
more, and yet enumerates but twenty-six, Volvaria included. 

From Lamarck's time downward, the addition of new species 
to the list has been so rapid that it would be tedious to particu- 
larize them. About fifty-eight new ones were published from 
1825 to 1845, inclusive ; and Sowerby, with others, added twenty- 
nine in 1846, since which time about one hundred more have 
been made known, making the total number of catalogued species 
at the present time about two hundred and twenty-eight. 

The earliest fossil species known were Marg. ovulata and Vol- 
varia buUoides, figured in Enc. Meth. in 1798. None were added 
until the present century, and now about fifty species are known 
which are exclusively fossil. 



Distribution of Recent Species. 






3Iargim 


?Ua. 


Erato. 


Caribbean, 


55 




2 


Mediterranean, 


5 




1 


West African, 


34 






South African, 


14 




1 


Indo-Pacific, 


41 




11 


Australo-Zealandic, 


14 






Panamic and Peruvian, 


10 




4 


Unknown, 


35 




1 



208 



20 



Fossil Species. 



Miocene, 

Oligocene, 

Eocene, 

Cretaceous, 

Unknown, 



Marginella. 


Erato. 


Volvaria. 


25 


1 




9 






13 


1 


2 


1? 






1 







4,9 



AMERICAN JOURNAL 



REMARKS ON THE SPECIES OF MELANIA AND LIMNiEA 
INHABITING THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, WITH DE- 
SCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES. 



BY WM. HARPER PEASE. 



Having made extensive collections of the species of the above 
genera the past year, on several of our islands, especially Kauai, 
which is by far the best watered of our group, I furnish here- 
with the facts I have been able to gather. 

LIMN^A, Brug. 

Eight species of this genus have been described as inhabiting 
the Hawaiian Islands, viz : 

L. Oahuensis, Soul., volutata, Gld., Sandivichensis, Phil., 
affinis, Soul., rubella, Lea ; also, Physa producta, Migh., iim- 
bilicata, Migh., reticulata, Gld. 

Having examined the animals of several hundred specimens, 
from various localities, I am confident that no species of Physa 
inhabit the islands, however closely the shells may resemble that 
genus. 

The animals of the several species above differ but little in 
their general shape and proportions. The foot extends beyond 
the head when in motion. When the animal is at rest or feeding 
the tentacles are subulate, somewhat flattened laterally, and 
swollen at their inner bases, on which the eyes are situated. 
When fully extended they assume a cylindrical shape, sharply 
pointed, and the protuberance at the base scarcely perceptible. 
The mantle does not project outside the shell. 

Sinistral and dextral specimens of the same species are found 
in company with each other; the latter are rare at all localities. 

All the species may be referred to two types, which may be 
distinguished by the characters of their columella. 

1. Represented by Oahuensis, Sowb., the columella furnished 
with a fold, more or less twisted, and, with few exceptions, either 
colored o.r stained reddish, which includes the following species: 



OF CONCHOLOQY. 5 

L. Oahuensis, Soul. 

1830. L. Oahuensis, Soul., Voy. Bonite, Vol. 2, p. 527, pi. 29 
fig. 38—41. 
" L. affim's, Soul., Voy. Bonite, Vol. 2, p. 528, pi. 29, 
fig. 42—44. 

1842. L. Sandwichensis, Phil,, Archiv f. Naturg. 

" Chemn., 2d ed., pi. 4, fig. 25-26. 
1847. L. vohitata, Gld., Proc. Bost. Soc, Vol. 2, p. 211. 
1852. " " Am. Expl. Exp., p. 122, fig. 142. 

L. RUBELLA, Lea, plate 3, figs. 1 — 2. 

1843. L. rubella, Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc, Vol. 4, p. 12. 

This species inhabiting the Island of Kauai may possibly 
prove to be a var. of Oahuensis. It differs from that species in 
color, and varies very widely in shape. 

At some localities its whole surface is beautifully reticulated, 
thus connecting it with the following species : — 

L, RETICULATA, Gld. 

1847. Physa reticulata, Gld., Proc. Bost. Soc, p. 214. 
1852. " " Am. Expl. Exp., p. 118, fig. 140. 

L. UMBILICATA, Mighels. 

1845. Physa umbilicata, Migh., Proc Bost. Soc, Vol. 2, p. 21. 

I have not met with any umbilicate specimens of this genus 
on the Islands. 

L. PRODUCTA, Mighels. 

1845. Physa producta, Migh., Proc Bost. Soc, Vol. 2, p. 21. 

The two species described as above by Dr. Mighels must 
probably be abandoned. The types were destroyed by fire, and 
I cannot discover any specimens in other collections in the 
United States. It is impossible to identify them from the 
descriptions. 

2. The columella of the following species differs from that of 
the above in being straight, simple, generally flattened, and 
white. They may have escaped notice heretofore, the first for 
reason of its variety, and the other two from their small size. 

L. TURGIDULA, Pease. Plate 3, fig. 3. 

T. solidiuscula, ovata, striis incrementis tenuiter notata ; 
transversim minutissime striata ; anfr. 5, convexis, ultimus turgi- 
dulus, J longitudinis testce fere sequans ; sutura impressa ; spira 



b AMERICAN JOURNAL 

acuta ; apertura oblongo-ovalis ; columella subrecta, planulata, 
ad umbilicum vix everta, alba ; fusco rubida, interdum rufo- 
cornea. 

Long. 15, Diam. 8 mill. 
Hah. Oabu. 

L. COMPACTA, Pease. Plate 3, fig. 4. 

T. elongato-ovata, solidiuscula, nitida, laevi, sinistrorsa, flaves- 
cente-cornea, interdum albida; anfr. 5, convexis; apertura ob- 
longo-ovata ; columella vix arcuata, planulata, simplex, callosa, 
alba. 

Long. 7, Diam. 3| mill. 
Hah. Oahu. 

L. AMBIGUA, Pease. Plate 3, fig. 5. 

T. tenui, ovata, sinistrorsa, Isevi, nitida, interdum transversim 
obsolete tenuiter striata ; spira acuta ; anfr. 4-5, convexis, ulti- 
mus vix turgidulus, interdum superne rotundato-angulatus ; su- 
tura impressa; apertura oblongo-ovata ; columella vix arcuata, 
callosa, infra everta, expansa, alba, cornea, rarissime rufescenti- 
cornea. 

Long. 10, Diam. 6 mill. 

MELANIA, Lam. 

M. Mauiensis, Lea. 

1856. Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., vol. 8, p. 145. 

The above, described from specimens collected on the Island 
of Maui, is also found at Oahu, but is most fully developed on 
the Island of Kauai, where it attains to the size of 40x15 mill. 
It is finely compressedly ribbed transversely, interstices concave, 
and striate longitudinally. The ribs of the spire, and generally 
those on the upper part of the last whorl are granulose. 

M. Newcombii, Lea. 

1856. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phil., vol. 8, p. 145. 

M. Verreauxiana, Lea. 

1856. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phil., vol. 8, p. 144. 

I have met with no specimens which answer to the description 
of the above species. It is described as smooth, without men- 
tion of striae or plicae. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 7 

M. Kauaiensis, Pease. Plate 3, fig. 6. 

T. crassa, elongata, tenebro-fusca, aut fusco-cornea ; spira tur- 
rita, supra longitudinaliter curvato-plicata ; anfr. 8-9, plano- 
convexis, transversim impresso-striatis ; apertura oblongo-ovata, 
postice angulata, ad basin rotundata, intus olivacea; labro acuto ; 
columella vix arcuata, Isevi ; operculo nigricans. 

Long. 50, Diam. 15 mill. 
Sah. Kauai. 

Same type as "il!/". Neweombii." 
M. CONTIGUA, Pease. 

T. elongata, tenui, omnino transversim regnlariter tenuiter 
sulcata aut impresso striata, cornea; sutura impressa ; anfr. 8, 
planulatis ; apertura elongato-ovata, superne angulata, intus 
albida ; labro acuto ; columella vix incurva : operculo fusco. 

Long. 28, Diam. 9 mill. 
Hah. Kauai. 

Also allied to "ili". Newcombii." It is not plicate and regu- 
larly finely grooved or striate throughout. 



AMERICAN JOURNAL 



MATERIALS TOWARD A MONOGRAPH OF THE 
GADINIIDiB. 

BY W. H. BALL, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 

The genus Cradinia was instituted by Gray in 1824, for the 
Patella afra of Gmelin. In 1840 he instituted for it a special 
family. In his early publications on the subject, he rightly 
placed it near Siplionaria in his classification. Afterwards, mis- 
led by the erroneous description of Philippi, he referred it to the 
Cervicohranchiata, with Tectura and Scurria which have the 
gills over the neck, and Lepeta which has no gills. Most other 
authors have followed Gray. 

The Messrs. Adams combine in the sub-order EdriojotJialma 
the Chitonidce, the Dentaludce, Fissurellidce, Tecturidce, Lepet- 
idce and G-adiniidce, thus reaching a climax of confusion rarely 
equalled. Chenu, as usual, follows the Messrs. Adams, but 
unites a fossil genus (whose affinities are clearly with Eynai'gin- 
tda, etc.) with Gadinia in the Gadiniidce. 

Keferstein, with a singular misapprehension of its affinities, 
places Gadinia in the Acmoeidce and refers it to the Tcenioglossa. 

A more thorough examination of the soft parts than that 
afforded by the single specimen of Dr. Philippi, shows that the 
first conclusion of Dr. Gray was much nearer the truth than any 
subsequent references. 

It is a true pulmonate, breathing air by means of a lung and 
unprovided with gills of any kind. The anatomy shows affinities 
with the Auriculidce, and the dentition has relations with that 
family, but more strongly with that of the Siphonariidoe. 

Order PULMONATA. 

Sub-order BASSOMATOPHORA. 

Family GADINIID^, Gray. 

Genus GADINIA. 

Syn. Gadinia, Gray, Tilloch's (London) Philos. Mag. Ixiii, 1824, 
pp. 214—271. Isis, von Oken, Heft v, col. 460, 1834. 
Mouretia] Sby. (nee Gray), Proc. Zool. Soc. 1835, p. 6. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 9 

Muretia, D'Orb., Voy. Amer. Meridionale, v, pp. 470, 682 

(pars). 
Siplionaria, D'Orbigny (non Sby.), Ibid. pp. 470, 682, 741. 
Clypem^ Scacchi (non Brod.), Osserv. Zool. 1833. 
G-ardinia, Pictet, Traite de Paleon. vol. iii, p. 293, 1855. 

(err. typog.) 
Rowellia, Cooper, Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sci. 1865, p. 188. 

(= G-adinia jun.) 
Gadinia, H. & A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 463. Chenu, 

Man. de Conchyl. i, p. 375, et auctores omnes nov. q. v. 
Pileopsis (sp.), Payr, (non Lam.), Catal. 1836. 
Lepas (sp), Adanson, Hist. Nat. du Senegal, 1757, p. 33. 
Patella (sp), of the older authors. 

Testa univalvis, non symmetrica, oblique conica ; vertice ob- 
tuso, subpostico apertura suborbiculata, irregularis ; cavitas sim- 
plex, sulco in latere dextro, prope limbum anticum impressionis 
muscularis ; impressionis muscularis elongata arcuata submar- 
ginalis. (Gray.) 

Animal pulmone distincto prseditum, branchiis nuUis ; rostro 
bifido, infundibulato. 

Type. 
Gadinia afra, Gray. 

Patella afra, Gmelin, 3715. Dillwyn, Rec. Shells ii. 1046. 

Hanley's Wood's Index Testae, pi. xxxvii. fig. 65a. 
G-adinia afra, Gray, Tilloch's (London) Phil. Mag. Ixiii, 1824, 

pp. 274, 277. Isis, von Oken, Heft, v, col. 460, 1834. 

H. and A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 463, vol. iii, pi. 

Iii, fig. 8, a. Chenu, Man. de Conchyl, vol. i, p. 375, fig. 

2818. 
Lepas gadin, Adanson, Hist. Nat. du Senegal, (Genus Lepas, 

species " Le Gadin "), p. 33, pi. ii, fig. 4. 

G. afra testa oblique conica, alba, radiatim striato-costata, 
subsquamosa, vertice subljBvi, marginibus crenulatis. 

Hah. West coast of Africa. 

This is the typical species. The name of the genus is derived 
from Adanson's trivial name. He found it on the rocks of the 
island of Goree and at Cape Manuel on the adjacent coast of 
Africa. He says they were particularly abundant from January 
until May. At that time they may change their station for the 
pnrpose of depositing their ova. He does not describe the 
animal. 



10 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

Gadinia Garnotii, Payr. 

Pileopsis (xarnotii, Payr, Coq. Corse, pi. v, figs. 3, 4. Phil. 
Enum. Moll. Sicilise, Philippi, Wiegm. Archiv. fur Nat., 
i, 1839, p. 115, pi. iii, fig. 3, a, b. 
CJypeus G-arnotii^ Scacchi, Catalogus, p. 17. 
Gadinia Garnotii^ Gray, Figs. Moll. Anim., p. 93, vol. iv. 
PI. 110, fig. 4. Gray, Guide to Moll. p. 172. H. and 
A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, i, 463, pi. 52, fig. 8. 
G. Testa alba, ovata, conica ; radiatim striato-costata. Ver- 
tice subpostico ; intus Isevissimi, margine denticulato. 

Hah. Living in the Mediterranean, and fossil, in the Tertiary 
quaternaries of Sicily. 

The single specimen of Dr. Philippi afforded him material for 
some anatomical notes upon the animal. Either there is a very 
great difference between this and the Pacific species, or the 
paucity of material led him into error. He has apparently taken 
the renal organ for a gill, and, in this manner, led later authors 
into tlie error of placing Gadinia among the Cervicobranchiata. 

Gadinia stellata, Sby. 

Mouretia stellata, Sby., Proc. Zool. Soc, 1835, p. 6. 
Gadinia pentegoniostoma, Sby., teste Cpr., 16th Rep. Brit. 
Assoc. 1856, pi. vii, fig. 3, a to g. (Not of Angas, P. Z. S. 
1856, p. 220.) 
G. testa depressa, squamiformi, alba, radiatim-costata; margine 
dentato. 

Hah. Real Llejos C. Am. and the Gulf of California. 
Seven varieties of this very variable shell are figured by Car- 
penter, in his first Report on the West Coast Mollusca. 

Gadinia Peruviana, Sby. 

Mouretia peruviana, Sby., Proc. Zool. Soc. 1835, p. 6. lb. 
Zool. Beechey's Voy. p. 147, pi. 39, tig. 1. 

Gadinia peruviana, Woodw., Man. Rec. and Fos. Shells, p. 
155, pi. xi, fig. 26. 

Siphonaria peruviana, D'Orb., Voy. Am. Mer. v, p. 470. 

G. testa subdepressoconica, alba, radiatim striata ; vertice cen- 
trale ; epidermide cornea tenui. 

Hah. Cobija, Peru. 

This is not the type of the genus, nor was it described by 
Gray, as Woodward states. It is the first of three species of 
Gadinia described under the name of Mouretia by Sowerby, P. 
Z. S. 1835. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 11 

Gadinia costata, Krauss. 

Mouretia costata, Krauss. Sud afrischen Mollusken, Stuttgart, 

1848. 
Gadinia costata, (Krauss,) H. and A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, 

vol. i, p. 4iQ'S. 

I have not been able to examine specimens or have access to 
description or figure of this species, which is from South Africa. 

Gadinia conica, Angas. 

Gadinia conica, Angas, Descr. of new sp. of Moll, from N. 

S. Wales, in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 115, No. 127, pi. 

xiii, fig. 27. List of Port Jackson Moll. P. Z. S., 1867, 

p. 220. 
G. testa alba, conica ; costis fortioribus, irregularibus, radian- 
tibus xxxviii ; extus rugis concentricis fortibus, intus alba. 

Convexly conical, white; strongly irregularly radiately ribbed j 
ribs about thirty-eight in number, concentrically ridged. Apex 
sub-central, white within. Alt. 2f lines, Ion. 3| 1., lat. 3 1. 

Ilab. Coodgee Bay, outside Port Jackson heads ; (Angas). 

The figure which accompanies the above description appears 
to represent a young shell. The concentric ridges are promi- 
nent, almost frills. 

Gadinia Angasii, Dall. 

Gadinia pentegoniostoma, Angas, (non Sby.), List of Port 

Jackson Moll., Proc. Zool. Soc, 1867, p. 220. 
G. testa depressa, conica, alba; costis crebrerrimis radianti- 
bus; intus Isevissime. 

A depressedly conical, white shell ; strongly radiately ribbed 
and polished inside. Length nine lines. Coodgee Bay, outside 
Port Jackson heads ; (Angas). 

The specific characters of all the species of Gadinia are so 
faintly marked, that in the absence of information in regard to 
the local habitation, many, if not all the species, might readily 
be confounded. It may safely be assumed, however, that (ra- 
dinia pentego7iiostoma -\- stellata Sby., from Middle America and 
the Gulf of California, is not identical with a species, however 
similar, from a totally distinct zoological province. If not the 
adult of the preceding species, nor an importation, it may take 
the name of G. Angasii. 
Gadinia reticulata, Sby. PI. 2, figs. 1 to 9. PI. 4, figs. 1, 2, 8. 

Ilouretia reticulata, Sby., Proc. Zool. Soc, 1835, p. 6. (Hab. 
Valparaiso, in err.) 



12 AMEKICAN JOURNAL 

Gadinia reticulata, H. & A. Adams. Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 

463. 
Rowellia, sp. Cpr., Suppl. Rep. Br. As., 1863, p. 651. 
Roivellia radiata, Cooper, Proc. Cal. Ac. Nat. Sciences, 

1865, p. 188, (test, jun.) Geogr. Cat. Moll. p. 24, No. 

460, 1867. 
Siphonaria reticulata, D'Orb., Voy. Am. Mer. v, p. 682. 

Testa subcircularis ; apice central! ; colore albo vel ex albo 
virens ; superficies xxx costis radiantibus dichotomis induta, 
per lineas concentricas cruciatis ; intus alba vel livida. Margine 
simplice ; in jun. crenulato ; fovea siphonali bene impressa, mar- 
gine prope extremam foveam, parum inciso. 

Shell normally almost circular ; depressed conical ; white or 
livid, sometimes tinged by the growth of a green or pink nulli- 
pore. The upper surface marked with from thirty to fifty ra- 
diating striae or riblets, which are reticulated by the coarse, 
somewhat elevated lines of growth. The margin in young shells 
is denticulated, but with age this character is lost. The edge is 
usually irregular and owes its form to the locality where the 
animal was stationed ; the notches corresponding to the irregu- 
larities of the surface where the animal lived. The interior is 
usually polished, except on the muscular impressions, which are 
granulous and strongly impressed. The scar is horseshoe-shaped, 
the right anterior limb broad near its extremity. Close to the 
anterior extremity of the left limb is a small oval scar indicating 
an attachment of the mantle to the shell. 

The apex is posteriorly curved, sub-central, smooth, and in the 
youngest specimens 1 have seen exhibits no tendency to spiral 
growth. In older specimens it is usually somewhat eroded. The 
texture of the shell is exceedingly solid, porcellanous and strong. 
Old individuals fill up the cavity of the apex while adding to the 
margin. From the irregularities of their stations most fantastic 
forms occur. The most elevated specimen had an altitude of 
0-45 in. to a longitudinal diameter of 0*56 in. One of the most 
depressed measured 0*36 in. high and 0*98 in. long by 0-96 in. 
wide. In one old specimen the thickness of the shell at the 
apex was 0*32 in. The young shells are usually quite thin, 
averaging about 0*04 in. 

My specimens were identified by Dr. Cooper as his Rowellia 
radiata. The living specimens obtained by him were very 
young. The adults were examined by Dr. Carpenter, who is 
disposed to consider them identical with Sowerby's species, which 
came from Lower California. 

Soft Parts. The external parts are of a livid white. The 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 13 

foot is almost circulnr, tough and muscular, without any sinus, 
tubercles or other appendages. The animal appeared to have 
the power of inflating the cellular tissue between the epiilermis 
and the sides of the foot, in such a manner as to have the ap- 
pearance of blisters. These protuberances are persistent in 
alcohol, though they do not exist in the normal condition. In 
alcoholic specimens such might readily be taken for lobes or ex- 
pansions of the foot. The mantle edge is simple, broad and 
continuous. It is thickened on the right side above the head, 
and in this thickened portion is the opening of the pulmonary 
chamber. It is angular, very minute and closed by a small 
triangular valve or lobe. The head is broad and flattened. 
There are no tentacles, or rather the tentacles are consolidated 
and lost in the expanded lobes of the muzzle. The latter is 
bifid, and the outer extremities are produced into two funnel- 
shaped expansions, which I will call " ears." The ears are not 
continuous, but their inner ventral edges overlap one another, 
while their dorsal edges are separated at their points of inser- 
tion by a space as wide as the mouth, which is situated just 
below in the centre of the double funnel. The edges of the ears 
in the adult are simple, but, according to Dr. Cooper, in their 
young state they are flattened and pectinated. In the adult 
their inner surface is marked with moderately conspicuous folds 
radiating from the mouth. Their exterior surface is smooth. 

The eyes are very minute and black ; they are situated on the 
sides of the head just behind the ears. In alcoholic specimens, 
on account of the opacity of the cuticle, they are invisible, but 
may easily be found by shaving ofl' a thin paring of skin with a 
sharp knife. 

On the right side between the mantle and the foot is a small 
papilla, indicating the genital orifice. Just behind the right 
eye is an almost invisible foramen, exceedingly minute, through 
which the verge is exserted. 

The mantle and foot exude a peculiar milky slime, with a 
strong soap-like odor. 

The head is capable of considerable extension and retraction. 

31uscular System. The foot is composed of solid muscular 
fibre, radiating from a median line. The superior surface, when 
the viscera are removed, is opalescent. The adductor muscles 
are horseshoe-shaped and continuous. The anterior right hand 
limb is broader at its extremity, which is rounded, The edges 
of the muscular impression are somewhat irregular. The faintly 
marked sinus passes close to the anterior extremity of the 
muscle on the right. On the left the mantle is attached to the 
shell, forming a small oval impression, which is not contuiuous 
with the scar of the adductor. 



14 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

The buccal mass is controlled by well marked muscles. A 
broad muscular ribbon is attached to the posterior concavity of 
the adductor, a little on the right. About midway in the cavity 
of the viscera it divides into two parts, one of which is fixed on 
each side of the superior surface of the buccal mass. A similar 
but more slender muscle is similarly attached below. Three 
stout bundles of muscular fibre are attached anteriorly on each 
side to the front of the foot, and posteriorly to the sides of the 
buccal mass, which they serve to extend outwards, while the long 
muscles serve for retracting it. 

A short stout muscle binds the buccal body to the foot, behind 
and somewhat below the protractors, on each side. 

A long and very slender fibre connects the posterior end of 
the penis with the spermatic canal behind the prostate. 

The protractor muscles of the penis are short and thin, blended 
somewhat with the fascia of the preputium. The muscles of the 
female organs will be hereafter described. 

Nervous System. This, in the alcoholic specimens, could not 
be thoroughly traced out. The nervous collar around the oeso- 
phagus at the posterior end of the buccal body consisted of two 
superior ganglia connected with two inferior ganglia and with 
each other, by nerve fibres. Above, these appeared somewhat 
reticulated ; below they diverged without inosculation. A rather 
stout nervous cord extended back from the lower ganglion on 
the right, parallel with the spermatic cord, and provided with 
an accessory ganglion near the prostatic gland. The nerve 
fibres, as well as the blood vessels which supply the foot, enter 
it at or near the buccal mass, on the median line. 

Circulatory and Respiratory Syste7ns. Philippi (in his descrip- 
tion of the soft parts of Pileopsis G-arnotii, Payr,) says that a 
crumpled organ hangs from the lining of the pulmonary cham- 
ber, which is " evidently the gill." He admits that he had only 
a single specimen, in which several of the organs were indeter- 
minable. His figure is extremely indefinite, and is further com- 
plicated by the outline of the head, which is represented, on a 
small scale, as seen from below, while the remainder of the same 
figure represents the back, on a large scale, as seen from above ! 
His representation of the "gill" is unlike anything in the 
species now under consideration, though his "gill " occupies the 
place of the renal organ oi the latter. His account must there- 
fore be regarded as erroneous, the error doubtless being due to 
the small amount of his material. 

The present specits is a true Pulmonate. The pulmonary 
chamber extends over more than half the body, reaching the 
adductor muscle on the left side behind, and thence forward 



OP CONCIIOLOGY. 15 

with the opening as previously described to the right of the head, 
in the mantle margin. The buccal organs and viscera are sepa- 
rated from the chamber by a tough membrane, which lines the 
latter. The lung is leaf-shaped, and included between the lining 
of the chamber and the inner surface of the mantle ; to the left 
of the lung between the membranes are a series of solid, flat- 
tened lobes, which empty by a duct near the pulmonary papilla. 
These are analogous with the renal organ of ^lelampus. They 
do not project into the chamber, nor have they any resemblance 
to a gill. The lung terminates in a bifid papilla just within the 
opening in the mantle. In the posterior part of the lung is a 
capsule which contains the heart. The suture between the au- 
ricle and ventricle is very strongly impressed. The heart is 
closely connected with a network of large blood vessels, from 
which branches penetrate the tissue of the lung, and the smaller 
capillaries anastomose between the membranes beyond the edge 
of the lung in the most delicate and beautiful manner. Dr. 
Leidy, who examined the organ, had no doubt as to its being a 
true lung. 

Several large vessels supply the liver and buccal region, and 
the smaller vessels enter the foot below the buccal mass. 

Alimentary System, The mouth is transversely oval, capable 
of considerable dilatation, with numerous rugae, parallel with 
the axis of the throat, when contracted. There is no jaw. The 
buccal mass is smaller and less muscular than in most pulmon- 
ates. 

The radula contains about four hundred rows of teeth ; the 
lateral rows forming a sharp angle with the rhachis. The for- 
mula is about llO-1-llO, so that the'odontophore contains about 
88,400 teeth. The nearest relations of the dentition appear to 
be with Siplionaria. The rhachidian tooth is minute, incon- 
spicuous, with an ill-defined cusp. The outline of the base is 
hardly perceptible. The cusp is short, oval and pointed. The 
edges of the base are slightly thickened. The bases of the inner 
laterals are obliquely rhombiform. The cusp consists of one 
long prominent tooth, flanked on each side by a slender, needle- 
like, minute, transparent denticle. These are very liable to be 
overlooked from their extreme transparency and small size. 
They are shorter, proportionally, toward the edge of the radula. 
Occasionally the main point of the cusp is bifid, or the smaller 
points are blended more or less with it; these forms, however, 
are evidently abnormal. 

(It is noteworthy in cases, such as this, when the radula con- 
tains a large number of similar and minute teeth, that the ten- 
dency to variation among them is much greater than when the 



1-6 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

radula is much narrower and contains fewer teeth. The same 
generalization holds good in regard to the individual teeth. The 
larger the number of denticles on the cusp, the greater the ten- 
dency toward variation among them. In working over the den- 
tition of the Pulmonata, especially, it is very desirable that as 
large a number as possible of ribbons of each species should 
be compared to correct such errors of variation from the normal 

The main point of the cusp in the inner laterals is about twice 
as long as the base ; it becomes proportionally shorter toward 
the edges of the radula. 

All the denticles or teeth of the cusps are sharply pointed. 
About the seventy-fifth lateral the edges of the cusp on each 
side of the prominent denticle are slightly notched, and the two 
small denticles are almost evanescent. These notches disappear 
about the one hundredth lateral, and the long tooth gradually 
decreases in proportional length, until in the extreme outer 
laterals it is not more than half as long as the base. 

The oesophagus leaves the buccal body above and before the 
posterior extremity of the latter, and is slightly dilated there. 

It enters the ventral side of the stomach with a short double 
flexure. The stomach is oval in shape, and in all the specimens 
dissected was filled with a dark green vegetable matter. Leaving 
the stomach at the posterior end, the intestine turns upon itself 
and passes over the superior surface of the liver, diagonally 
across the body, terminating just inside the opening in the mantle. 
The sinus in the shell is due to the anterior extremity of the 
lung, and does not quite correspond with the course of the rec- 
tum. The latter half of the intestinal canal is divided interiorly 
by incomplete septa, which serve the purpose of expelling the 
faeces in oval pellets. 

Reproductive System. The ovary is situated to the right of, 
and below the stomach. It consists of a number of convoluted 
tubes, more or less spirally twisted upon each other. The ovi- 
duct is short, and provided Avith an accessory mucous gland. 
Near the anterior extremity of this a small muscle is attached, 
and is fixed at the other end to one corner of the nearly triangu- 
lar vagina. The uterus is a kidney-shaped organ, and the duct 
passing from it into the vagina is provided with a genital bladder 
as in other Pulmonates. > The vagina terminates in a small pa- 
pilla externally. In small specimens this is almost invisible. 

The exact extent of the testicle was not clearly made out, but 
it is very slender and situated at the posterior end of the animal, 
in or upon the surface of the liver. 

The vas deferens is long and slender, passing through a pear- 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 17 

shaped prostatic gland about midway of the body, it is pro- 
longed to the penis. 

The latter is long and larger at its posterior extremity, grow- 
ing more filiform anteriorly. The foramen opens on the side of 
the neck, just behind the right eye, and is of extreme minuteness. 
A slender retractor muscle is attached to the posterior end of 
the penis, and at its other extremity to the vas behind the pros- 
tate. The protractors are on the right side of the penis, shorter 
and stouter than the retractor. 

Special Organs. The specimens were so much contracted by 
the alcohol that no auditory capsule was visible. The eyes are 
minute, oval and black. The liver occupies nearly half of the 
visceral cavity. Part of it was a light brown, and part was 
whitish. No differences of structure or line of separation could 
be made out under a very high power. 

Two small pear-shaped salivary glands are attached to the 
upper posterior surface of the buccal mass. 

In the form of the verge, the renal organ, lung, muscular 
bands and other particulars, the general structure of this mollusk 
recalls Melampus, as figured by Souleyet. 

Sabitat. Close to high water mark on the rocky beach be- 
tween Point Pinos and Point Cypress, near Monterey, Cal., I 
noticed a colony of forty-eight individuals. They were stationed 
pretty close together, on the rounded under side of a large, per- 
fectly clean, granitic boulder. In calm weather and during ordi- 
nary tides they would have been dry at high water. 

While refreshing myself after my morning tramp, I sat down 
on the beach, as the tide was falling, and watched the colony. 

As long as the rock on which they were remained damp, they 
continued with the margin of the shell firmly applied to it. The 
shells were notched and emarginated to correspond with the ru- 
gosities of the stone, and adhered to it so firmly as to be im- 
movable, unless great force was applied. 

There was absolutely nothing on the rock which could have 
supplied them with food. 

As soon as the boulder became dry, under the hot sun, I per- 
ceived a simultaneous motion in the colony. Each shell was 
raised above the surface of the stone, the head and foot were 
protruded, and the orifice of the pulmonary cavity was expanded. 
They were evidently enjoying the warm air. Some of them be- 
gan to move, and I thought that they were about to descend to 
the pebbles below, where an abundance of soft green algoe offered 
an inviting repast. Their motions were so slow and my time so 
limited, however, that I made a prize of the whole colony with- 

2 



18 AMERICAN JOURNAL ' 

out further delay. They evidently moved about to obtain food, 
and by some mysterious instinct returned to their stations before 
high tide. The margins of the shells showed that they must 
have been formed by the peculiar inequalities of the station 
where I found them. Some of them had lost their way at times, 
as the lines of growth showed, where sudden changes had taken 
place in the curves of the margin where it touched the rock. 
Some of them had assumed the most fantastic forms from this 
cause ; one exactly resembled a planter's straw hat, and others 
showed curious constrictions or expansions of the margin. 

In some cases one or more small ones were mounted on the 
back of a larger individual, and there were erosions more or less 
deep, of a circular form, of the diameter of the rider's foot. This 
erosion was most extensive around the margin, which was often, 
deeply excavated, while the central portion of the circle was 
hardly eroded at all. It was probably due to the action of the 
radula, as faint strioe might be distinguished by means of a glass. 
In one case the indefatigable moUusk had gnawed through a 
stratum of shell a quarter of an inch thick on the apex of an old 
individual, which must have carried the incumbrance about for a 
long time. The rocks exhibited no erosion. 

The species was originally described from the Gulf of Califor- 
nia or Lower California, though by some misplacement of labels 
the habitat was published as Valparaiso, in deep water. 

I found a few dead specimens on the same rocky beach. Dr. 
Cooper and Mr. Rowell have obtained it from the Farallones, 
Half-Moon Bay, New Year's Point, Santa Barbara and Santa 
Catalina Islands. I have some small but exactly similar speci- 
mens from Cape St, Lucas. Dr. Newcomb obtained this species 
from Santa Cruz Island, 

The number of specimens examined while investigating the 
anatomy of this species, is thirteen ; the number of shells which 
have passed through my hands is about seventy-five. 

Gadinia carinata, n. sp. PL 4, figs. 12, 13. 

Testa rotundata, depresso-conica, tenui, alba, subpellucida ; 
apice Isevi, subpostico et oblique marginem dextrum versus resu- 
pinato ; superne, striis multis minutis versus marginem radianti- 
bus ; intus Isevi, sulco cojispicuo munito, qui extus carinam va- 
lidem format. Lon. 0*66, lat. 0-60, alt. 0*16 in. Animal 
incognitum. 

Coll. Phil, Acad. Nat. Sciences. 

Hah. Aspinwall, Central America, Dr. E. Palmer. 

The thin depressed shell, fine striiTe, smooth and dextrally bent 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 19 

apex, and the somewhat prominent carina formed by the internal 
groove, which causes an emargination of the anterior edge, readily 
distinguish this from the other species of the genus. The lines 
of growth are impressed and moderately strong. 

It is noticable that the apex is dextral, while in G-. excentrka 
it appears from the figure to be sinistral. The latter is reported 
to inhabit corals in deep water, and it is possible that the animal 
may prove to differ from the true Gadhiice, as living in such 
situations it can hardly be an air-breather. 

Gadinia excentrica, Tiberi. 

G-adinia excentrica, Tiberi, Journ. de Conchyl. 1857, p. 37, 
pi. ii, fig. 6, 6a. 

Testa ovalis, oblique conoidea, glaberrima, nitens, striis exi- 
lissimis longitudinaliter et transversim decussata ; vertex excen- 
tricus, posticus, oblique recurvus, infra apicem lateraliter situs, 
apertura ovalis ; margo simplex, acutus. (Tiberi.) 

Hob. Mediterranean, on the coasts of Sardinia. 

This species presents marked points of difference from all 
other described species of the genus, in its smooth exterior and 
twisted apex. It is said to be found in the masses of coral 
brought up by divers in the Mediterranean. The animal is un- 
known, and needs examination. 

This completes the list of species of this genus as far as I have 
been able to ascertain. They are widely distributed over the 
world, but appear to be almost entirely confined to the eastern 
coasts of the two great oceans. 

Woodward speaks of the Red Sea as affording a species, but I 
have not been able to find any description of a Gradinia from 
that locality. 

Genus DESLONGCHAMPSTA, McCoy. 

Beslongchampsia, McCoy, MS. in Morris and Lycett, Mon. Gt. 

Ool. Moll. p. 94, pi. xii, f. 13, 1850. 
Hemitoma, Woodw. (non Swains.), Man. Rec. and Foss. Shells 

(in errata), p. 151, 1851-56. 
Deslongchampsia, Chenu, Man. de Conchyl., p. 376, f. 2819- 

20. i^ot=3Ietoptoma, Phil., 1836, as Chenu avers.) 

D. testa orbiculata, conica ; apice subcentrali, versus marginem 
anticum inflexo ; costulis radiantibus, antico sulco lato longitu- 
dinali in laminam appendiculatam producto. 

Shell suborbicular, conical ; apex acute, subcentral, curving 



20 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

slightly forwards ; with a wide longitudinal anterior sulcus, pro- 
duced into a rounded lobe beyond the margin. 

This genus differs from Gadinia in the sulcus being straight 
and longitudinal, instead of directed to the right ; in the termi- 
nation being produced beyond the margin, instead of producing 
an emargination ; in having a mammillated apex and externally 
conspicuous sulcus, while in (Jadinia the apex is inconspicuous 
and the sulcus is usually invisible externally; and finally in having 
the apex probably directed forward instead of backward, as 
seems to be the normal state of G-adinia. 

Its affinities appear to be rather with Emarginula than G-ad- 
inia^ and I have appended this notice of it because the synonymy 
is confused, and Chenu has placed it in the Gadiniidoi. 

It is certainly not identical with Jleniitoma, Swainson, with 
which Woodward unites it, of which the type is Suhemarginula 
tricostata, Sby., sp. It also differs essentially from 3Ieto23toma^ 
Phil., which Chenu gives as a synonym. The type of Metoptoma 
is the shell figured as "P. Solaris,'' Chenu, p. 376, i, fig. 2821, 
according to Prof. F. B. Meek. 

Type. 

Deslongchampsia Eugenei, McCoy. 

i). Eugenei, McCoy, MS. Morris and Lycett, Mon. Gt. Ool. 
Moll, i, p. 94, pi. xii, fig. 13, 13a, 1850. Morris, Cat. 
Brit. Foss. 1854. Chenu, Man. de Conchyl. i, p. 376, 
figs. 2819, 2820. 

D. testa suborbiculata, conica, apice subcentrali, acuto, sulco 
antico lato striato ; costis numerosis, longitudinalibus, transver- 
sisque decussantibus, sulcus interstitialibus profundis. Alt. 31., 
lat. 6 1. 

Fossil in the Great Oolite beds of Minchinhampton, found 
rarely in the white stone of Eastcombs and Bussage. 

Chenu's figure gives the idea of a much smoother and more 
regularly radiated shell than that figured by Morris and Lycett. 
The regular crenulations of the margin, as figured by Chenu, are 
not found in the original figure, in which the apex is also much 
less smooth and mammillated. 

Deslongchampsia loricata, Laube. 

D. loricata, Laube, Gast. des braunen Jura von Balin ; Sitz. 

Kais. Ak. Wiss. Wien, 1866, p. 82 (name only). Sto- 

liczka. Pal. Indica, Vol. II, p. 324. 
This species is catalogued by name without description or 



OF CONCHOLOQY. 21 

figure, but accompanied by the remark that " it differs from D. 
appendiculata by its greater elevation and reticulated exterior, 
and from D. Eugenei by its more el.ivated form and alternating 
stronger and weaker striae " (Laube, loc, cit.) The discrepancies 
between the figures of Chenu and Morris have been already 
alluded to ; in default of a figure, the author might at least have 
afforded an intelligible description ; at present the species can 
hardly be said to have been established. It is merely referred 
to by name by Stoliczka. 

Deslongchampsia appendiculata, Desl. 

Patella appendiculata^ Desl., Mem. Soc. Linn, de Norm, vii 

pi. xi, figs. 1, 2. 
Deslongchampsia appendiculata^ M. and L., Mon. Gt. Oolite 

Moll. p. 94, vol. i. 

D. testa subovata ; costis simplicis, grandis, radiantibus. 

Shell suboval, with large simple radiating costjfi. 

According to Prof. McCoy, the genus was first recognized, but 
not described, by M. Deslongchamps, who had only seen this 
species. 

There are a number of fossils which bear a strong resemblance 
to this genus and to G-adinia^ but they are usually described as 
Patella, and the external surface, only, figured, so that it is im- 
possible to decide on their affinities. 

I have in each case, when practicable, copied the author's 
original description. 



References to Plate 2. 
Gfadinia reticulata, Sby., Monterey, Cal. 

Fig. 1. Soft parts from above, a, anus, b, opening of the 
pulmonary cavity, c, vaginal papilla, d, foramen of penis, m, 
buccal mass, showing the two nervous ganglia, the oesophagus, 
the adductors and retractor muscles, and the position of the 
radula. h, heart. /, papilla of the lung, o, ovary. I, liver, 
indicated by the darker shade, a, m, muscles of attachment to 
the shell, i, lung, r, renal organ. 

Fig. 2. Ganglia, d, dorsal, v, ventral. 

Fig. 3. Foot stripped of all appendages, showing the mode of 
growth of the muscles. 

Fig. 4. a, central and six lateral teeth of the radula as in 
situ, d, 6th lateral, h, 24th lateral. /, abnormal 25th lateral. 
b, 75th lateral, c, 80th lateral, g, 100th lateral, e, extreme 
outer laterals. 



22 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

Fig. 5. Muscular impressions on the shell, nat. size, a, cica- 
trix of the mantle. 5, 5, horse-shoe-shaped muscle cicatrix, d, 
sinus. (Drawn as if seen from above.) 

Fig. 6. Animal, nat. size, as moving. 

Fig. 7. a, anterior rhachidian teeth. 5, the same near the 
middle of the radula. c, side figure of 6th lateral, d, do. of 
75th lateral. 

Fig. 8. Section of the rectum. 

Fig. 9. Side view of alimentary canal. 

References to Plate 4. 
Fig. 1. Side view of normal specimen of (r. reticulata, Sby. 
Fig. 2. Same from below. 
Fig. 3. Curious variety of the same. 
Fig. ] 2. G-adinia carinata, Dall, from above, nat. size. 
Fig. 13. Same from below. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 23 



DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES OF MARINE BIVALVE 
MOLLUSCA IN THE COLLECTION OF THE ACADEMY 
OF NATURAL SCIENCES.— No. 2. 



BY GEO. W. TRYON, JR. 

7. Macha Wilsonii, Tryon.— Plate 1, fig. 2. 

Deseriptmi. — Shell oval-oblong convex, anteriorly broadly 
obliquely rounded, posteriorly truncately rounded, white under 
a light corneous epidermis, with rugose growth-striae, and with 
raised oblique irregularly curved lines extending from the poste- 
rior dorsal margin towards the central part of the ventral margin, 
most of them abruptly angled before reaching the margin, and 
thence ascending again obliquely towards the anterior dorsal 
margin. Umbones not very prominent, situated at a little more 
than one-third the total length from the anterior end. Dorsal 
margin a little incurved and descending posteriorly. Ventral 
margin also slightly incurved in the middle. Within glossy 
white. 

Dimensions. — Width 3-25. Length 1-50 inches. 

ffab. — China. 

Observations. — This is a common species, frequently met with 
in boxes of Chinese shells, yet strangely overlooked by the con- 
chologists. In form and sculpture it resembles the Mediterra- 
nean 31. strigiUatus, but it is larger, more solid and white. 
Named in compliment to the late Dr. Thomas B. Wilson, a gen- 
tleman who took great interest in conchology, and to whose 
liberality the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences is 
largely indebted. 

8. DoNAX [Serrula) pictus, Tryon. — Plate 1, fig. 1. 
Description. — Shell convex, obtusely wedge-shaped, broadly 

truncate behind, anteriorly rounded ; posterior angle prominent 
but rounded ; ventrally somewhat arcuated ; umbones prominent ; 



24 AMERICAN JOUENAL 

surface covered with flat ribs, separated by narrow, shallow sulci. 
White, with brownish, longitudinal, pencilled rays. Teeth white, 
prominent ; interior surface white and polished ; margin strongly 
denticulated ; the interstices between the denticulations. on the 
posterior margin dark brown. 

Dimensions. — Length 19, width 28 mill. 

Eah.—'i 

Observations. — I cannot approximate this species to any hith- 
erto publiched. It seems peculiar in its strong denticulations 
and color. The only specimen which I have seen is in the 
Academy's collection. It is somewhat worn, but when fresh, the 
species must be beautiful in appearance. 

9. Tellina {Peroncea) Conradi, Tryon. — Plate 1, fig. 5. 

Description. — Ovate, somewhat inequilateral, rounded in front, 
obtusely wedge-shaped and flexuose behind ; one valve convex, 
smooth, polished ; the other not so convex, crowded with oblique 
fine lines ; dorsal margins somewhat convex, sloping; ventral 
margin convex before, slightly concave behind. Rose color in- 
side and outside. 

Dimensions. — Length 16, width 25 mill. 
Hah.—t 

Observations. — This species has been hitherto confounded with 
T. dispar, Conrad. It differs from that species in color and in 
form, being more produced and flexuose posteriorly. Sowerby's 
figures, 113, 114 (Thes. Conch, i.), included by him in dispar, 
represent this species. 

10. Strigilla producta, Tryon. — Plate 1, fig. 4. 

Description. — Shell solid, subglobose, anteriorly rounded, pos- 
teriorly produced, obliquely finely striated, glossy white, cen- 
trally covered with a large, rose-colored spot outside and inside. 

Dimensions. — Length 6-5, width 8 mill. 

Hab. — Ins. Jamaica. 

Observations. — This species has been confounded hitherto with 
the common West Indian form, S. pisifo7-mis, which it strongly 
resembles, but may be readily distinguished by its much more 
produced posterior side. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 25 



NOTE ON CYCLOPHORUS FOLIACEUS, REEVE (NON 
CHEMNITZ I, AND C. LEAL TRYON. 



BY GEO. W. TRYON, JR. 



When I wrote the description of fCyclostoma Lcai, published 
in this journal (V. part 2), Reeve's Monograph of Cychphorus 
was not accessible to me. I now find that my species is figured 
in the Iconica (figure 52) as Cyclopliorus foliaceus, Chemnitz, and 
the Andaman Islands assigned as locality. Mr. Reeve remarks : 
" It was admirably figured between seventy and eighty years 
ago by Chemnitz, but the figures of the Conchylien Cabinet have 
been regarded as representing worn specimens of the well-known 
Otopoma Naticoides, from Socotra, which has a shelly operculum. 
Dr. Pfeiffer separated it from that species in 1846, in his Mono- 
graph of Cyclostoma, in Klister's edition of the ' Conchylien 
Cabinet ;' but in his subsequent monographs he abandoned that 
view, and quoted it as a synonym of 0. Natieoides. Mr. Ben- 
son's discovery, confirming the original species of Chemnitz, was 
made known in the 'Annals and Magazine of Natural History' 
for February, 1860, and January, 1861. It will be seen that 
Mr. Benson's specimens are smaller than that figured by Chem- 
nitz, but he thinks it probable that larger specimens may be 
found when the exploration of the main island of the group can 
be safely attempted. The varicose repetition of the lip appears 
to be a constant character of the species." 

In 1865 Pfeifier published a second supplement to his mono- 
graph, and therein changes his views of the species in question, 
adopting the opinions of Messrs. Benson and Reeve. 

Neither of my specimens contained an operculum, so that, to 
me, their generic position was doubtful ; but those submitted to 
Mr. Benson contained horny opercula, and thus he has placed 
the species in Cydopliorus. 

That Reeve's shell figured is the same as mine, I do not doubt ; 
but it is certainly different from the species figured by Chemnitz. 
The latter is much larger, and the foliations are continued across 



26 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

the shell for nearly an entire volution. I think it entirely proba- 
ble that Chemnitz's species is from the Andaman Islands, as it 
is in many respects closely allied to mine. Until -we shall re- 
ceive more evidence on the subject, I think my species ought to 
stand, the synonymy to be as follows : 

Cyclophorus Leai, Tryon, 18(59. 

Cyclophorus foliaceus of Reeve and Benson (non Chemnitz), 
1860-61. 

The pattern of the epi^ rmis was unknown to the English 
naturalists. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 



27 



CATALOGUE OP THE SHELL-BEARING MOLLUSCA OF 
FULTON COUNTY, ILLINOIS. 

BY JOHN WOLF. 



SUCCINEA, Drapernaud. 

S. obliqua, Say. 
" vermeta, " 
" avara, • " 
" Grosvenorii, Lea. 
" Wardiana, " 
" Mooresiana, " 
" Nuttalliana, " 

MACROCYCLUS, Beck. 

M. concava, Say. 

HYALINA, Ferussac. 

H. indentata, Say. 
" arborea, " 
" electrina, Grid. 

CONULUS, Fitzinger. 
C. chersina, Say. 

STROBILA, Morse. 
S. labyrinthica, Say. 

ANGUISPIRA, Morse. 

A. solitaria, Say. 
" alternata, " 

PATULA, Held. 

P. perspectiva, Say. 
" striatella, Anth. 

HELICODISCUS, Morse. 
H. lineata, Say. 



PSEUDOHYALINA, Morse. 

P. minuscula, Binney. 

VALLONIA, Risso. 

V. minuta, Say. 

ULOSTOMA, Albers. 

U. profunda, Say. 

MESODON, Rafinesqae. 

M. thyroides, Say. 
" clausa, " 

" Pennsylvanica, Green. 
" multilineata, Say. 
" var. unicolor, " 

STENOTREMA, Rafinesque. 

S. lineata, Say. 
" monodon, var. fraterna, Say. 
" " " Leaii, Ward. 

LEUOOCHILA. 

L. armifera, Say. 
" pentodon, " 
" contracta, " 

PUPILLA, Leach. 

P. fallax, Leacli. 
" corticaria, Leach. 
" rupicola, " 

VERTIGO. 

V. ovata, Say. 
" milium, Grid. 



28 



AMERICAN JOUENAL 



V. simplex, G-ld. 
'* tridentata, Wolf. 

CARYCHIUM, Say. 

C. exiguum. 

LYMN^A, Lamarck. 

L. umbrosa, Say. 
" reflexa, '• 
" caperata, " 
" desidiosa, " 
" humilis, " 
" exigua, Lea. 
" curta, " 
" parva, " 

PHYSA, Drapernaud. 

P. gyrina, Say. 
" hypnorum, Drapernaud. 
" Hildrethiana, Lea. 

HELISOMA, Swainson. 

H. trivolvis, Say. 
" bicarinatus, Say. 

MENETUS, H. and A. Adams. 
M. exacutus, Say. 

G-YRAULUS, Agassiz. 

G. deflectus, Say. 
" parvus, '• 

PLANORBULA, Hald. 
P. armigera, Say. 

ANCYLUS, Geoffrey. 
A. tardus. Say. 

VALYATA, 0. F. Miiller. 
V. tricarinata. Say. ' 
MELANTHO, Bowditch. 

M. subsolida, Anth. 
" rufa, Hald. 
" exilis. Lea. 



VIYIPARA, Mont. 

V. intertexta, Say. 
" subpurpurea, Say. 
" contectoides, Binney. 

SOMATOGYRUS, Gill. 

S. isogona, Say. 

AMNICOLA, Gld. and Hald. 

A. decisa, Hald. 

" limosa, Say. 
" porata, Say. 
" CMcinnatiensis, Antli. 

BYTHINELLA, Leach. 

B. obtusa, Lea. 

POMATIOPSIS, Tryon. 

P. Cincinnatiensis, Lea. 
" lapidaria, Say. 

PLEUROCERA, Rafinesque. 

P. subulare, Lea. 
" Lewisii, " 

GONIOBASIS, Lea. 

Gr. gracilior, Anth. 

" livescens, Menke. 

SPH^RIUM, Scopoli. 

S. solidulum, Prime. 
" triangular e. Say. 
" transversum, " 
" sphsericum, Anth. 
" rosaceum. Prime. 
" occidentale, " 

PISIDIUM, Pfeiffer. 

P. abditum, Hald. 
" var labile. Prime. 

UNIONIDiE. 

UNIO, Brug. 

U. multiplicatus. Lea. 
" pustulatus, " 
" pustulosus, " 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 



29 



U. ellipsis, Lea. 

" elegans, " 

" ebenus, " 

" securis, " 

" spatulatus, " 

" donaciformis, " 

" iris, " 

" zig-zag, " 

" anodontoides, " 

" tenuissimus, " 

*' trigonus, " 

" tuberculatus, " 

" Dorfeuillianus, " 

" occidens, " 

" coccineus, " 

" rubiginosus, " 

" solidus, " 

" asperrimus, " 

" laevissimus, " 

" Cooperianus, " 

" inflatus, " 

" neglectus, " 

" monodontus, Say. 

" alatus, " 

" undulatus, Barnes. 

" gibbosus, " 

" ligamentinus, Lam. 

" gracilis, Barnes. 



U. cornutus, Barnes. 
" triangularis, " 
" parvus, " 

" fragosus, Conrad. 
" luteolus. Lam. 
" crassidens, Lam. 
" rectus, " 

" capax, Green. 
" metanever, Baf. 
" orbiculatus, Ilild. 
" ^sopus, Green. 
" plicatus, Leseur. 

MARGARITA.NA, Schum. 

M. confragosa, Lea. 
" complanata, " 
" rugosa, *' 

" marginata, " 
" deltoidea, " 

ANODONTA, Lara. 

A. corpulenta. Cooper. 

" grandis. Say. 

" ovata, Lea. 

" subcarinata;, Currier. 

" suborbiculata. Say. 

" imbecillis, " 

" edentula, Lea. 



30 AMERICAN JOURNAL 



REMARKS ON THE ANATOMY OF THE GENUS SIPHO- 
NARIA, WITH A DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES. 

BY WM. H. DALL, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 



The genus SijpJionai'ia, described by Sowerby in 1824, is one 
of the most natural and homogeneous instituted at that early day. 
It comprises some ninety species, principally from the tropics, 
but has representatives in most parts of the temperate zone. 
Probably the most northern species yet described is one men- 
tioned in this paper — S. thej'sites, Cpr., from Sitka and the 
coast of Alaska in lat. 57° N. 

If a conchologlst were to take a specimen of this species in 
one hand and in the other a specimen of ^S'. gigas, Sby., from 
Panama, he would hardly be inclined, however, to place both of 
them in the same group. One is smooth, horny and minute, 
with the apex subterminal, and the siphon rib very large ; and 
the other is very large, solid and heavy, with the apex central, 
and no outward indication of the siphon. Between these forms, 
however, we find gradations ; yet the genus, from the shells 
alone, may be separated into two natural groups, perhaps of 
subgeneric value, of which one contains the greater proportion 
of the species. The dentition of a species of Siphonaria (spe- 
cific name not given) is figured by Woodward in his manual, and 
has been copied by all subsequent authors, or described (as by 
IT. and A. Adams) as representing the dentition of the genus. 
The species is from tbe Cape of Good Hope, and from that 
locality all the described species belong to the S. sipho group. 
I have not been able to obtain the soft parts of more than one 
of the species of that group, to confirm Woodward's figure. 

The examination of several species of the group typified by 
>S'. thersites, shows a decided difference in the dentition. 

The following is suggested as an arrangement of the family : 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 31 

Family SIPHON ARIID^. 

Syn. Siphon a7-{adce, Gray, Syn. Brit. Mus. 1840. Mrs. Gray's 

Moll. vol. iv, p. 181, 1859. Cpr. Maz. Shells, p. 181, 

1856. 
SipJionandce, D'Orb., Voy. Amer. Meridionale, 1841. 
Siphonarudcv, H. and A. Adams, Vol. ii, p. 270. Gon. Rec. 

Moll., Nov., 1855. Binney, L. and F. W. Sh. of N. 

Amer. ii, 152. Chenu. Man., vol. i, p. 485, 1859. 

Genus SIPHONARIA, Sby. 

Syn. Siphonaria, Sby., Genera of shells, part xxi, 1824. Proc. 

Zool. Soc, 1835, p. 6. Blainville, Diet. Sci. Nat. vol. 

xxxii, p. 267, 1825. Rang, Man. des. Moll. p. 141, 1829. 

H. and A. Adams (as of Blainv.) Gen. Rec. Moll. vol. ii, 

p. 270. Woodw. Rec. and Foss. Shells, pp. 155 and 174. 

Hanley P. Z. S., 1858. 
3Iuretia, D'Orb., (as of Sby.) Voy. Amer. Meridion. p. 682, 

1841. 
Trimusculus, Schmidt., MSS., 1832. Isis, p. 132. 
Liria, Gray, MSS. Phil. Mag., 1824. 

Lepas sp. [Le Mouret) Adans., Coq. du Senegal, p. 34, 1757. 
Patella sp. various authors. 
Nacella, sp., Cpr. 

Type Siplionaria sijjJio, Sby. China, Japan. 

The genus may be divided into two natural sections, as fol- 
lows : 

A. [Siplionaria.) 

Shell solid, porcellanous ; apex central or sub-central ; pro- 
vided with more or less elevated radiating ribs or ridges, which 
by their projection render the margin irregular. In many of 
the species the siphonal groove is produced internally beyond, or 
passes around, the apex on the left side. In Quoy's figure of S. 
diemenensis the gill is represented as passing before the heart. 
The inner lateral teeth have a broad, somewhat oblique, cusp, 
emarginate at the tip. (The outer laterals are also described as 
similar by Woodward, but this does not agree with my observa- 
tions.) The outer laterals are broad and tridentate. The cen- 
tral tooth is slender with a lozenge-shaped cusp. The jaw is 
simple and arcuated. This section of the genus is best typified 
by >S'. gigas, Sby., and S. siplio, Sby. Most of the species are 
tropical. 



32 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

B. [Liriola.) 

Shell thin, horny ; smooth, or furnished with fine radiating 
lines, which do not interrupt the margin. Apex marginal or 
submarginal, twisted to the left of the median line in most of 
the species. The gill passes behind the heart and lung. The 
jaw is simple and arcuate. The rhachidian tooth is moderate, 
with a simple pointed cusp. The inner laterals are long, narrow 
and strongly bidentate. The outer laterals are broad and tri- 
dentate with short cusps. 

This section is typified by >S'. thersites, Cpr., and would in- 
clude jS. lateralis, Gld., S. redemiculum, Rve., S. 3Iacgillivrayi, 
Rve., S. Lessoni, Blainv., and all the similar species, such as 8. 
tristensis, S. Uneolata and others from the South American 
coast. The species are more numerous in the temperate zone, 
though not confined to it. 

If it be considered desirable to give a name to this group, 
Liriola might be used in a restricted sense to indicate it. 

The following species belongs to the first section : 

SnPHONARIA ALTERNATA, Say. 

Patella alternata, Say, Journ. Phil. Acad. Sci. vol. v, p. 

215, Feb., 18-26. 
Siphonaria alternata, Say, Am. Conch, part iv, pi. 38, 1832. 

Binney's Say's Works, pp. 124, 192, pi. 38. Binney L. 

and F. W. Shells of N. Am. part ii, p. 153, fig. 254. 

Chenu, 50, pi. xiii, fig. 3. 

Shell conical, with more or less elevated, unequal ribs, thirty 
or more in number. Apex subcentral, recurved obliquely, the 
tip pointing in a nearly parallel direction with the longitudinal 
axis of the shell, and acute. Color brown, radiated with white; 
base oval. Length three-tenths of an inch. 

Say's figure of this species in Binney's reprint is represented 
as with too few ribs and too smooth interspaces. The wood-cut 
copy in the L. and F. W. Shells of N. A. is also very poor. 

The external appearance of the animal is much like the next 
species. The mantle edge is brown, thick and somewhat corru- 
gated. The remainder is livid slate color. The lobe which 
closes the pulmonary opening is large and thin, gray and edged 
with brown. There were no eyes visible, yet they probably exist 
and are very minute. The anatomy resembles that of the next 
species, except that the penis is larger in proportion to the size 
of the animal. 

The jaw is simple and arcuated. The central tooth is very 
slender ; the cusp has a simple point. The inner laterals have a 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 33 

broad emarginated cusp nearly twice as long as the base. The 
laterals grow broader and shorter toward the edge. The outer 
thirteen laterals are tridentate. The inner laterals from the 
eleventh to fifteenth are bidentate. The formula is 30-1 -^0 or 
15-15-1'15-15. There are about two hundred rows in all. 
The following species belong to the second section : 

SiPHONARiA THERSITES, Cpr., Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist., 
1864, xiv, p. 425. 

Cpr. (MSS.) Suppl. Rep. to the Brit. As., 1863, pp. 627 

and 676. Stearns, shells of Alaska, Pr, Cal. Ac. Sci. 

Vol. Ill, p. 334. 

Testa parva, tenui, baud elevata, valde inequilateral!, dense 

nigro-castanea, Isevi seu interdum costulis paucis, obtusis, obso- 

letis, radiatim vix ornata ; epidermide l»vi, tenui, fugaci ; costa 

pulmonali intus et extus valde conspicua, tumente ; vertice 

obtuso, plerumque ad quadrantem, interdum ad trientem totius 

longitudinis sito ; intus intense nigro-fusco, margine acuto. Lon. 

•46, Lat. -33, Alt. -17 in. 

Hab. Neeah Bay ; Sitka ; Vancouver's Island ; Fort Simpson ; 
N. W. C. Am. 

The external appearance of the animal is very plain. The 
mantle edge, sides of the foot, and head are smooth and even. 
The lobe is stout and short. The head is small, and the eyes 
could not be found with a high power. The soft parts are en- 
tirely contained within the shell. The color in spirits was a 
dusky slate-color. 

The jaw is simple, arcuated and rounded at the ends. The 
rhachidian tooth is slender with a simple pointed cusp. 

The inner nine laterals are provided with an oblique, equi- 
bidentate cusp. The tenth, eleventh and twelfth are tridentate. 
The remainder are much broader and shorter, tridentate ; the 
central point more prominent than the others, and, in the thir- 
teenth, fourteenth and fifteenth slightly emarginate at the tip. 
The cusps grow less conspicuous toward the outer edge, and in 
the outer three teeth are hardly perceptible. The formula is, 
22-1-22, or 7-3-3-9-1-9-3-3-7. 

This species having been obtained in lat. 57° N., is probably 
the most northern representative of the genus. 

SiPHONARiA Tristensis, Sby. 

S. Tristensis, Sby., Genera of Shells, fig. 3. Rve. Mon. Si- 

phonaria, PI. V, fig. 23a, b. 
Patella Tristensis, Leach, teste Rve. 
SipJionaria Lessoni, Blainv., teste Rve. 

3 



34 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

S. testa ovato-conica, tenuicula, vertice sub-oblique acuminato 
et intorto ; sordide virescente, lineis fuscis irregulariter radiatim 
filosa, intus nitente castanea. 

Hah. Tristan d'Acunha, Rve. (in error.) Orange Harbor, 
Tierra del Fuego. U. S. Exploring Expedition. 

External Appearance. The epidermis on the head and sides 
of the foot is granulose, rough to the touch. The mantle edge 
is simple, slightly tuberculose and continuous over the head and 
lobe. The colors, as far as could be judged from the alcoholic 
specimens, had been purplish. The edge of the mantle was dis- 
tinctly marked by well defined stripes of dark brown or blackish, 
and white ; corresponding to the riblets and dark intervals of the 
shell. The head or muzzle is rounded, with the corners some- 
what produced or triangular. The sides of the foot are broad, 
and the sole is smaller in proportion to the aperture of the shell 
than in most patelliform shells. The lobe beneath the pulmon- 
ary opening is triangular and large. It is pierced for the anus. 
On the neck behind the head is a small papilla, indicating the 
foramen of the genitalia. It is on the right side. The end of 
the muzzle is flattened, and the mouth is not conspicuous. 

Alimentary System. The buccal mass is proportionately 
small, and not as muscular as in most pulmonates. The oesopha- 
gus leaves it irom the middle of the superior surface, and at the 
posterior end of the buccal body is constricted and bound down 
by a collar of nerves and muscular fibres. A small elongated 
salivary gland lies on the upper surface of the buccal mass, on 
each side of the oesophagus, and empties into it by the posterior 
termination of the gland. Behind the collar the alimentary 
canal is broadly dilated, forming a sort of crop. This is slightly 
constricted, and behind the constriction is the true stomach. 
This is rhomboidal in shape. The intestine leaves the stomach 
at its anterior end, on the left side, and is reflected over the 
latter in a broad loop to the right, when it turns again, and 
passing around the posterior end of the body opens through the 
lobe, which closes the pulmonary orifice. Some small muscular 
fibres bind the posterior end of the stomach to the foot. 

The jaw is horny and dark brown. The cutting edge is 
smooth and arcuated. The portion which is inserted into the 
flesh is striated and produced into long, stout, muscular fila- 
ments, which are not represented in the figure. There are two 
well marked notches on the superior edge. The jaw is deeply 
grooved behind and the inner surface striated. 

The radula is stout and of a dark brown color. 

The formula is 50-1-50 or 20-30-1-30-20. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 85 

The rhachidian tootli is broad, rounded before, and with the 
base arcuate beliind. The cusp is simple, rounded before, and 
more or less pointed behind. In some individuals this point is 
more prolonged than in others, and in such cases the tip is trans- 
parent, while the rest of the cusp is yellowish. The inner 
twenty-seven laterals have a longitudinally arcuated rhnmboidal 
base, of which the anterior edge is produced before the cusp. 
The latter is long, with one prominent long denticle, and one 
short and triangular on the inner side. The tips of these den- 
ticles are more or less transparent, Avhile the body of the cusp 
is yellow, and the thick base showing through is liable to mislead 
the observer, as to the form of the cusp. The twenty-eighth 
lateral is similar but broader, with a shorter denticle, more or 
less bifid or arcuate at the tip, and the cusp is broadly rounded 
on the outer side. The twenty-ninth has the prominent denticle 
emarginate, broad and rounded, and has a third denticle on the 
outer side. The emargination of the chief denticle is more ob- 
vious in young specimens, and in old ones is not always notice- 
able, except in a smaller number of the laterals. The laterals 
gradually increase in width and decrease in length toward the 
edge of the radula, and in the extreme outer teeth have the three 
denticles rounded, sub-equal, and the base more than twice as 
wide as it is long-. 

The cusps of the inner laterals are, to a certain extent, bayo- 
net-shaped, as will be seen by the figure. There are about two 
hundred and fifty rows. 

3Iuscular System. There are no internal bands of muscubir 
.fibre as in 3Ielampus or Gradhua. The muscles which control 
the buccal mass are not strongly developed. The muscles of 
the preputium are spirally arranged in two layers. 

The adductor is divided into three parts. On the right a 
broad passage exists where the opening of the pulmonary cavity 
lies. The small portion of the right limb of the adductor, an- 
terior to this, is rounded-triangular. The mantle is attached to 
the shell, over the head, so that the scar is continuous. The 
right extremity of the posterior part of the adductor is broadly 
rounded. On the left the scar appears continuous, but the an- 
terior and posterior parts, though approximate, are separated 
by a suture, showing a tendency to bilateral symmetry. The 
left anterior portion closely approaches the buccal mass. 

The foot is moderately thick and muscular, and divided by a 
very faint median line in its internal muscular structure. The 
nerves and blood vessels mostly enter the foot in this line. 

Circulatory System. The heart is enclosed in a sac, of which 



86 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

the longitudinal diameter is parallel with the axis of the body. 
This sac is situated on the left side, between the lung and the 
renal organ. Several large vessels traverse the lung, and one 
crosses it, and follows the median line of the gill. The smaller 
vessels could not be traced, as the specimens had been many 
years in spirits and were extremely rigid. 

Respiratory System. The lung resembles that of Auricula, 
but is less developed than in that genus. It is rounded tri- 
angular, and terminates in a multifid papilla, through which the 
renal organ also discharges its secretions by a special duct. 

The branchise are simply triangular folds of the lining mem- 
brane of the mantle, somewhat attached to each other by a raphe, 
in the line of which the principal vein passes. These folds are 
more or less numerous in different individuals, apparently more 
conspicuous in the older specimens, but by no means constant. 

Some authors have considered the lungs of mollusca as invagi- 
nated gills. The present instance does not bear out the homology. 
The gills are simple modifications of the mantle lining, while the 
lung is a special organ, which serves a specified purpose, and 
none other, and does not involve the mantle lining, except as one 
of the membranes between which the lung is situated. 

Reproductive System. — The genitalia have a common opening 
into a small papilla on the right side of the neck, behind the 
head. The penis is very large and stout. It is contained in a 
preputium, consisting of two spirally coiled muscular layers. 
These are continued in a kind of sac, which is reflexed anteri- 
orly, and contains the testicle. The latter is very small and 
easily overlooked, and the prostate is also inconspicuous. 

The ovary is large and kidney shaped. It is really doubled 
up upon itself. There is a small spiral mucus gland at the pos- 
terior extremity, but the duct of this gland is very long, and 
only enters the oviduct beyond the ovary. The latter leaves 
the ovary with a double flexure, and is prolonged as a simple, 
slender tube entering the rounded-triangular uterus by the left 
posterior angle. The genital bladder enters on the other side 
by a short, stout tube. The former is rounded and transversely 
ovate. The uterus is large and somewhat produced at the pos- 
terior corners. The vagina, if we may term it so, is moderately 
large, and opens into the genital papilla before mentioned. The 
latter is very small in young examples. 

Nervous System. — This principally consists of a stout, ner- 
vous collar, of ganglia united by nerve fibres, encircling the 
oesophagus just behind the buccal mass. More numerous fibres 
are given out below than above. One of the former connects 
•with a small accessory ganglion near the ovary. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 37 

OtJier organs. — The eyes in this species are excoodin;2;ly 
minute, so as to be invisible to the naked eye unless well trained. 
They are circular and deep seated. In alcoholic specimens the 
skin must be carefully shaved away and examined by transmitted 
light in order to find them at all. They can be of little real use 
to the mollusk, as vision must be out of the question, and they 
can hardly be more than sensible to light and darkness. No 
organs of hearing were detected. 

This dissection does not agree with the figures of Quoy 
(*S'. Diemenensis), which, as is the case with many of Quoy's 
figures, seem to owe a good deal to the imagination of the artist. 
I am inclined to refer the differences, especially those of the 
genitalia, rather to this cause than to any real differences of 
structure between the species. 

SiPHONARiA PELTOIDES, Dall ex Cpr. Plate 4, fig. 11, a, b.' 

Nacella peltoides^ Cpr,, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 18G4, i, p. 

474, No. 15. Sup. Rep. Br. Ass. 1863, pp. 418 and 545. 
Nacella, sp. indet., Cpr., Maz. Cat. No. 262, p. 202. Rep. 

Br. Assoc. 1856, p. 252. 
Nacellai?) subspiralis, Cpr., Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. iii, p. 213, 

1866. Sup. Rep. Br. Assoc. 1863, p. 612, No. 65; p. 
650, No. 240 (name only). Coop. Geogr. Cat. Cal. Moll, 
p. 23, No. 443, 1867. 

JSTacella ? vernalis, Dall, MSS. 1866. Stearns, Shells of Pu- 
rissima and Lobitas, Proc. Cal. Ac. Sci. Vol. iii. p. 345, 

1867. Hepburn's Shells, do., p. 284. Shells of Santa 
Barbara, do., p. 344. 

S. testa tenuissima, conica, parva ; vertice subacuto, subpos- 
tico ; Isevi seu interdum costulis paucis, obsoletis radiatim vix 
ornata ; epidermide tenui subfusco seu viridi clari, non b"evi, 
fugaci ; costa pulraonali intus et extus valde inconspicua; testa, 
extus subfusco cum luteo-virido radiatim ; intus liTcvissime. Lon. 
•48, Lat. -86, Alt. 23 in. 

Habitat, Monterey, Purissima, Lobitas, Santa Barbara and 
San Diego, California. Gallapagos Islands, Dr. Hable. Maza- 
tlan (Reigen coll.), Cpr, Cape St. Lucas, Xantus. Catalina 
Id., Cooper, 6 — 10 fms., dead. 

Shell small, thin, conical ; apex recurved, nearly in the median 
line, more or less acutely pointed ; generally somewhat eroded 
in old specimens. Epidermis thin, not polished, smooth, brown- 
ish red on the apex and in dead shells; in fresh or young indi- 
viduals of a bright grass green, somewhat wrinkled and fre- 
quently overlapping the border of the shell ; fugacious. Shell 
smooth, reddish brown, with fifteen or more light yellow green 



38 AMEEICAN JOURNAL 

rays of color, radiating from the spire. There are no ribs or 
costse, but occasionally a moderately sharp line or two may be 
observed radiating from the apex, and impressed, as it were, 
from below. The apex is lighter than the rest of the shell. The 
interior is extremely polished and brilliant, and only in dead 
specimens is the mark of the siphon perceptible without a glass. 
The external colors are visible within, from the translucency of 
the shell. The siphonal groove is not visible from the outside, 
nor does it cause any extension or emargination of the edge of 
the shell. The aperture is roundly oval and the edge simple. 

Some thirty specimens of this beautiful little species were 
found dea4 on the Halfmoon beach at Monterey. One was found 
adhering to the frond of a Laminaria. Dr. Newcomb obtained 
it at Santa Barbara; Mr. Hepburn at San Diego; Mr. Stearns 
at Purissima and Lobitas, San Mateo county, Cal. Among a 
large number of beach shells obtained on the Gallapagos Islands 
by Dr. Hable, this species was not uncommon ; the specimens 
were generally thinner, lighter colored, and smaller than those 
obtained from further North. When this shell was first obtained 
at Monterey, in a hurried list of species found by me at that lo- 
cality, I gave it the MSS. name of vernalis, from the bright 
green epidermis, and referred it doubtfully to the genus Nacella, 
which it externally resembles. Being called away by other du- 
ties to a more northern station, the MSS. and specimens were 
referred to Dr. Carpenter. At first that gentleman was disposed 
to refer the shell to a lost species described by Middendorf under 
the name of Acmcea pileolus. As the shell in question has not 
been found north of San Francisco, it is not probable that Mid- 
dendorf ever saw it, and, moreover, I am informed that his type 
specimens do not agree with his diagnosis, and are probably 
young Acmoeas, while his figures differ from this species. 

Dr. Carpenter called my attention to the mark of the siphon, 
and a more thorough examination showed that it belonged to the 
genus Siplionaria. 

A careful examination of the type specimens in the Smithsonian 
Cabinet has developed the following unexpected coincidences : 

Nacella peltoides, Cpr. (S. I. Cat. No. 4023) is exceedingly 
minute, but appears to be identical with fhis species. The type is 
so young that it is almost^ colorless, but the mark of the siphon 
is perceptible with a magnifier. It is a pity that so inelegant a 
name must be applied to this pretty species.* 

? Nacella mbspiralis, Cpr. (S. I. Cat. No. 11,847). A careful 

* The nnolear whorls, nsnally broken off, are preserved in the unique 
type of suhnpiralis, and in the types of peltoides. I also found them on a 
very few specimens from Mty. and (Jal. Ids. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 39 

Study of the type convinces me that it differs from normal adult 
specimens of peltoides only in being abnormally elevated, dead 
and faded. The siphon mark is evident under a glass. The 
epidermis is gone; and the margin is irregular, showing that its 
station must have been unfavorable to lateral expansion, hence 
the unusually elevated and conical form. 

The animal has not, as yet, been observed. For a littoral 
species it has an extraordinary range ; from Monterey to the 
Gallapagos Islands, and its discovery at the latter point by Dr. 
Hable is extremely interesting. The only other species known 
from Monterey and the Gallapagos are Seinele rupiuni. Shy.; 
(J)3IodioIa capax, Conrad; ('.)BuUa Quoi/i, Gray; and i^l) Pur- 
pura triangularis, Blainv. The three latter are doubtful. Two 
other species of Siphonaria \_S. gigas and S. scuteUum{?)~\ are 
reported from the Gallapagos. (The locality of S. scutellum is 
given by Reeve as New Zealand.) 

The following species are known on the Wtist Coast, north of 
Panama: 

Siphonaria gigas, Sby., Equador to Gulf of California. 

S. lecanium, Phil., " 

S. eharaeteristiea, Reeve {^.-gigas var.), Gallapagos and Pan- 
ama. 

S. peltoides, Dall ex Cpr., Gallapagos to Monterey. 

*S'. scutellum, Blainv., Gallapagos. 

jS. maura, Sby., Panama. 

S. pica, Sby., Panama and Cent. Am. 

*S'. costata, Sby., " " 

S. cequilirata (Reeve), Cpr., Gulf of California. 

S. (? var.) palmata, Cpr., Mazatlan. 

S. thersites, Cpr., Puget Sound to Sitka. 

There are probably several other species on the coast and Gulf 
of California, which I cannot determine from the material at 
hand. There are also one or two species in Japan, which may 
be found on some of the Aleutian Islands. 

ANISOMYON, Meek, 1860. 

Anisomyon, Meek and Hayden, Amer. Journ. Sci. and Art, 
xxix (2d series), p. 33, pi. I {A. patelliformis), Jan., 1860. 

Type A. borealis, Morton sp. (as Hipponyx.) 

This genus was constituted for several rounded, thin, sparsely 

striated, cretaceous, patelliform shells, which have the muscular 

impression interrupted on the right side, and the apex, when 

perfect, subspiral or reflected. They appear to form a passage 



40 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

toward GaJinla iu their 'roundod form, but are more closely 
allied to the Siphonan'uhv. They cannot be affiliated to the Pa- 
t('Jh\hr or Tt'i'(i(n'(hx'. The following species wore onumorated in 
the paper alluded to, as having been definitely identified as be- 
longing to this genus : ^4.. borcalis, ^Morton ; ^-1. sc.vsuIcatuSy 
alreohis, j.)ateUif'orntis, and siibovatus, all of Meek and Ilayden. , 

The student who desires to pursue the subject farther, will do 
well to consult the Conchologia Iconica and the list of species of 
Si'j)honan'a given by llanley in the Proc. of the Zool. Society of 
London, 1858, page 151. 



References to Plate 4. 



Fig. 8. a, side view of Siph. tJicrs/'ti'S, with the shell removed, 
b. view of same in the shell, from below. 

Fig. 9. Nervous system of iSij>houan'a Triste7isis, Sby. 

Fig. 10. Dentition of Siplionaria [Siphonaria) altcrnata, Say. 

b, Rhaehidian tooth. 

a, section of 17th lateral. 

Fig. 11. Si'pJunian'd (^Lin'ola) jh'Itoiih's, Dall ex Cpr. 

a, from above, enlarged one-fourth. 

b, side view. 

Explanation of Plate 5. 

Fig. 1. Dentition of SipiJionan'a [Lin'ola) tristensis, Sby. 

1" a, side view of 45th tooth. 

1" c. 1st lateral 1" b, section of do. 

Fig. '2. Dentition of Sq^honan'a [Liriola) thcrsiti'S, Cpr. 

1' a, side view of 1st lateral. 

Fig. 8. Digestive and generative organs of SipJio)iaria tn'stcjisis, 
Sby. From above. 

a, anus. j, jaw. 

b, genital bladder. * 1, 1, 1, boundar}' of liver. 

c, crop. 1, a, left adductor muscle, 
g. genital papilla. r, a, right " '* 
m, buccal mass. p, a, posterior adductor. 
0, ovary, p, penis. 

r, rectum. s, salivary gland, 

st, stomach. t, testis. 



OF CONCnOLOGY. 41 

Fig. 4. Jaw of )S. tristensis. 

a, anterior view. b, posterior view. 
Fig. 5. Jaw of S. thersites from in front. 

Fig. 6. S'q)honaria tristensis from beloAv, in tlie Bhell. 

Fig. 7. The same from above with the shell removed and the 
mantle turned back. 

m, attachment of the mantle to the shell. 

r, renal organ. 

h, cardial sac cut open to show the heart. 

p, pulmonary papilla and lung traversed by blood vessels. 

b, branchia. 

The dotted line indicates the course of the rectuiHv 



42 AMERICAN JOURNAL 



NOTES ON MOLLUSCA OP MONTEREY BAY, CALIFORNIA. 



BY J. G. COOPER, M. D. 



Monterey is situated in lat. 36° 36', on nearly the same pa- 
rallel as Norfolk, Va., Cadiz, Spain, and the northern part of 
Niphon, Japan, and has of late become quite noted among those 
interested in the conchology of western North America, as an 
excellent locality for obtaining a large variety of species both of 
the northern and southern temperate groups. Its situation and 
local conditions are perhaps better suited for producing a large 
number of marine species of mollusca than those of any other 
point on the coast of temperate North America. It has the ad- 
vantages of an insular and a continental station combined. 

Topography and Hydrography. 

The harbor of Monterey facing north and receiving a constant 
but greatly moderated ocean swell, broken by the promontory 
of Point Pinos, has no large influx of fresh water nearer than 
the Salinas river, 17 miles northward. The rock forming the 
shore west of the town is granite for three and a half miles, and 
by disintegration has made a beach of clear white sand, extending 
nearly around the bay, a distance of 70 miles. For about half 
this distance sand hills border the shores, succeeded by cliffs of 
soft post-pliocene sandstone, whicli border the north end of the 
bay at Santa Cruz, 25 miles directly north of Monterey. This 
sandstone also overlies the granite from near low-water to eight 
fathoms depth, a mile northeast of town, forming a rocky bottom 
for some distance off shore, and prevails throughout a large part 
of the north end of the bay. 

Monterey has thus the conditions for preserving that salt- 
ness and clearness of the water necessary for most marine 
shells, together with a variety of stations suited for various 
species, hard, immovable granite, soft sandstone for borers, 
sand, and at 30 fms., mud. The estuaries, so numerous along 
the coast, especially northward, are all more or less influential 
in diminishing the number of species elsewhere, and even at 



OF CONCHOLOQY. 43 

Santa Cruz, where but a small river is discharged, the number 
known is less than half that of Monterey. 

Carmel Bay lies four miles south of Monterey Bay, and is an 
exact miniature of the latter, having like it sandstone blufls at 
its north end, granite at the south, with a little harbor there, 
and a small river discharging into it near the middle. I found 
no sandstone bottom, but the rocks at the north end are per- 
forated by borers, and contain cavities into which the winter 
storms wash numerous shells not easily obtained elsewhere, and 
much more productive than at Santa Cruz. 

The storms, coming from the southward, are scarcely felt at 
Monterey, but the eddy produced by the waves being broken at 
Pt. Pinos, causes numerous shells to wash ashore between there 
and the town, three and a half miles eastward, so that this por- 
tion of the beach is the most productive of any in such speci- 
mens. 

Numerous whales are cut up annually alang here, and proba- 
bly attract some carnivorous species near shore. A camp of 
Chinese fishermen, usually living there, increases the number 
by throwing the entrails of their fish on the shore, from which 
many deep water species are washed out. Others are found in 
the pieces of sandstone floated ashore on the eastern beach, at- 
tached to the roots of the long kelp [Macroeystis) which grows 
attached to rocks in 5 to 20 fms. 

Many shells have been picked up even by the earlier collect- 
ors, at Monterey, that were evidently imported, either in ballast 
or for making shell-work, and though not always easily elimi- 
nated from the native list, may be considered at least doubtful 
where not found living or by several collectors. The same ac- 
cidental mixture is well known to occur elsewhere in all locali- 
ties. 

History of Previous Collections at Monterey. 

From the researches of Dr. P. P. Carpenter into the history 
of our mollusca, as given in his admirable reports to the Brit. 
Assoc, for Adv. of Science, 1856 and 1863, it appears that some 
of the most characteristic shells of Monterey had reached Euro- 
pean cabinets forty to fifty years ago, probably through the 
trade in hides, etc., then carried on with this coast. It is not 
unlikely, also, that La Perouse, about 1787, and Vancouver, 
in 1795, visiting Monterey in their explorations, and accom- 
panied by naturalists, may have obtained some of the species 
described by early conchologists. The following are most likely 
to have been first obtained at this place, on account of their 
abundance and beauty : 



44 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

HalioHs Cracherodii^ Leach, Zool. Misc., 1814, and var. Cali- 
forniensis, Sbj. 

JI. rufescens, Sby. Bligh Cat., 1822. 
Lucapina crenulata, Sby, Tank. CataL, 1825. 
Olivella biplicata^ Sby. Tank. CataL, 1825. 
Trivia Californiana, Sby. Zool. Journal, 1827. 

Humboldt and Bonpland, though coming no nearer than 
Acapuico, obtained there in 1804 one species that seems exclu- 
sively Californian, probably through some northern coaster, viz., 
Haliotis Californiana, Val., 1838 {non Sby.) = H. rufescens, 

It does not seem that Capt. Beechey's exploration, in 1825— 
28, obtained anything at Monterey, though many species com- 
mon there were collected by him elsewhere. 

The first authentic collections made there were those of the 
late Prof. Nuttall, in 1835, who discovered^ 70 of the more com- 
mon land and sea Ij^ach shells of California, of which only nine 
were from Monterey, with some before described. 

About 1838 the '' Venus " with Ad. Du Petit Thouars visited 
Monterey, and obtained two or three new species, besides several 
of Nuttall's, which were redescribed by DesHayes and Valen- 
ciennes as new. 

The surveying ship '* Sulphur," Capt. Belcher, with the emi- 
nent conchologist Hinds, passed along in 1838-42, but obtained 
nothing new here, though discovering 21 species elsewhere in Cali- 
fornia. Reeve, in Conch. Icon., quotes '•'' Fissurella Lincolni, 
Gray," [G-lypkis aspera, Esch), " Monterey, Belcher." 

Another British surveying ship, the "Pandora," Capt. Kel- 
lett, followed much the same route in 1849, without obtaining 
anything new here. 

The same year Col. E. Jewett collected 45 new species in 
California, and spent a week at Monterey, obtaining there two 
new ones. Lieut. Green, U. S. N., and Maj. Rich, U. S. A., 
also visited there, the latter obtaining two out of his three new 
Californian species at this place, and seven imported species. 

Mr. A. S. Taylor sent four new species from Monterey to the 
Smithsonian Inst, previous to 1860. 

Tlie botanist Hartweg visited the place about 1855, and ob- 
tained one new species' of Chiton. 

It thus appears from Carpenter's reports that only 22 species, 
out of 66 known from Monterey in 1860, Avere discovered there 
by six collectors. 

At that time 277 species were known as Californian, and it is 
very likely that others, of which the locality was uncertain or 
wrongly given, came from Monterey. This error of locality is 



OP CONCHOLOGY. 45 

proved by Nuttall having given " San Diego " for Arionta Cali- 
forniensis, Lea, and is very probable in the cases of several, both 
of his and Jewett's species, not found at the localities stated by 
later collectors. 

Collections made in 1861. 

I visited Monterey from Aug. 12th to Sept. 25th, the worst 
season of the year for beach collecting, as the perfect specimens 
washed up by the storms of the previous winter had been nearly 
all picked up by summer visitors, and the tides did not fall 
enough to obtain the rare ones living near extreme low water. 

I therefore paid attention chiefly to dredging, though poorly fitted 
out for it, having only a little boat 15 ft. long, scarcely large 
enough for myself and two rowers to work in, and too small to 
go far out in, or to work in after the sea breeze began to be 
strong. We therefore had to work chiefly from 11 till 2 
o'clock, and on many days could do little except along shore. 

The following extracts from my notes will serve to show the 
general conditions under which the collections were made. I 
must state, that having to attend to all branches of zoology, I 
did not devote so much time to mollusca as I might otherwise 
have done, yet collected more species in that branch than in all 
others together, the Avhole number of species of animals obtained 
being about 360, of which 197 were mollusca, excluding varieties. 

In Carpenter's report for 1863 only 90 are given as collected 
by me at Monterey, being those of which* I sent him duplicates 
from there, though I might have sent many more had I 
known that .he intended making local lists. Having more or 
better specimens of most of them from other points I did not 
think necessary to send from each one, and reserved all unique 
specimens from every locality. A larger series from each one 
was lost while going to him in the " Golden Gate." Besides, 
there seem to be several locality errors in his table of my speci- 
mens, such being liable to occur in spite of every precaution. 

Carmel Bay, Aug. 13th, 1861. I visited this bay first, be- 
cause it had seemed to Prof. Whitney better suited for collecting 
at than Monterey. Its advantages are a very smooth surface in 
summer towards the north end, sandstone rocks and small ex- 
tent. -Visited some rocky islets a quarter mile off shore, where 
I found eleven of the common littoral species living, and five 
others inhabited by crabs. Have to wait a week for my dredge 
rope, accidently left at San Francisco. 

Aug. 14th. Found two more living and nine dead species 
along shore. Can find only a rope twenty feet long to dredge 
with and a little skiff only fit for smooth water, but with these 
obtained two more living species. 



46 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

During the following week I collected only beach specimens, 
usually so poor that I made no note of them, expecting better 
either from dredging or lower tides. I found scarcel}' any with- 
in the length of my twenty feet rope, the waves drifting the 
sand too much for most living shells at that depth. The holes 
in the sandstone furnished most of the twenty-one additional 
species obtained during that time. 

Nearly two days were occupied in going to Monterey to en- 
gage a better boat and two oarsmen, who rowed it round the 
promontov}' Avith my coil of rope, etc. 

Aug. 20th. Dredged for four hours across mouth of bay, mak- 
ing seven casts in twenty to twenty-five fathoms on a sandy and 
shelly bottom. Added fifteen species, mostly alive or in good con- 
dition, of which Dentalium Indianorum and ThaJotia caffea have 
never been found on siiore, most of others rarely or imperfect. 

Aug. 21st. Carried the dredging out to thirty fathoms along 
the outer limits of the bay, adding six species. Very few living 
or dead found in the pure sand near middle of bay. 

Aug. 2 2d. OIF the mouth of Carmel creek I added two species, 
two more on kelp, and a muddy bottom in thirty fathoms at south 
end furnished six, of which Semele mcongrua has not been found 
on shore ; Janira dentata and Chione simillima (young, living), 
only southwards, Cylichna eylindracea only northward. In the 
north end of b;iy I found twenty-five more species at twenty to 
thirty fathoms sand, Coecum crehricinctum and Fenella inipoidea 
not found on beach. 

Monterey, Aug. 26th. Moved here to try collecting in a new 
field. To-day examined the clay-stones washed ashore on roots 
of kelp, finding nine species of boring or nestling bivalves, be- 
sides a Orepidula. Many are found one Avithin another, having 
successively inhabited the burrow of the original excavator. 

Aug. 27th. Venturing out as far as was safe we cast in forty 
fathoms, one and a quarter miles N. E. of Pt. Pinos, drawing up 
the bag half full of mud with but three species, of which, however, 
Yoldia amygdala and Acilacnstrensis are not be found on shore. 
In thirty fathoms shelly sand obtained many fragments, but only 
two additions, Leda eadata, a deep water species only, besides 
twenty or more before obtained. A third cast, in twenty fathoms 
muddy sand, gave eight additions, and I made two or three others 
landwards to ten fathoms, the last furnishing the beautiful Can- 
cellaria C'ooperi, of which I found only one more broken speci- 
men at San Diego, though Dr. Canfield has since found one on 
the beach at Monterey. 

Aug. 28th. Visited Cypress Point, south of Pt. Pinos, where I 
found Arionta Calif orniensis, var. vincta and Lysinoe Dupetithou- 



OF CONCIIOLOCxY. 47 

arsi in tlie grove ; but the surf is so heavy on the beach that only 
the thick Lucina Calif ornica withstands it unbroken. 

Aug. 29th. Made about twelve casts in from seven to twenty 
fathoms west of town, and obtained only five additions, thou<rli 
with many living or better specimens of others before collected. 

Aug. oOth to Sept. 5th. The tides running lowest this week I 
collected chiefly along shore, finding thirty-three additional spe- 
cies, chiefly dead. , 

Sept. 6th. To try a new ground I sailed three miles N. N.W. 
of town toward middle of bay, finding a depth of thirty-five to 
forty fathoms muddy sand, but obtained only the Ctecum, a young 
Yw'mg Maclicera jjatida and four other species found at low water. 

Sept. 9th. Made five casts in three to ten fathoms near town, 
adding only two to the list. 

Sept. 10th. Tried again in from five to twenty fathoms, add- 
ing three species. Considered the chance of finding more in 
that direction too small to pay expenses. 

Sept. 11th. Dredged along the east or weather beach, though 
my boatman thought it dangerous on account of the heavy surf. 
Found the sandstone reef a mile N. E. of town from which the 
beach fragments are broken off, and in two out of six casts in 
seven to eight fathoms, obtained pieces of rock with five ad- 
ditional species living on them, and_.eight others living, before 
found dead. 

Sept. 12th. Packed up everything, intending to take the 
steamer, Avhich was daily expected, for a more southern locality. 
It passed Monterey however without stopping, and I was obliged 
to wait for its next trip down the coast. During the following 
week I collected only on shore, adding fifteen species. 

Sept. 20th. With a hand-net I dredged up three large speci- 
mens, living, o{ Lunatia Lewisii, which I could see crawling on the 
sand in about twelve feet of water. Also over one hundred of 
Olivella biplieata, which burrows in the sand in colonies about ex- 
treme low water. 

Sept. 21st. Dredged in ten to twenty fathoms off Quarry 
Point, and near the Whalers' tryworks, without finding anything 
new. 

Sept. 23d. Found four more species in the cavities made by 
borers in the clay-rock, making in all nine borers and five nestlers. 

Sept. 24th. Dredged in afternoon for two miles on sandstone 
reef, visited on 11th, making seven casts, but only an occasional 
fragment could be broken oft", from which I obtained about twenty 
species, mostly living and good, but none new. Tried again in 
thirty-five fathoms a mile :N. E. of Quarry Point, getting nothing. 

Sept. 25th. Searched beach for the last time as far as Point 



48 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

Pinos, finding three additions. At the point the light-house 
keeper showed me Lucapina crenulata, saying that it was only 
found alive at spring tides. 

Summary and Additions. 

The whole number obtained thus consisted of one hundred and 
twenty-six first found on shore, and eighty first obtained by 
dredging, (including nine Avhich are scarcely more than varieties 
of others). I also obtained twenty of the dredged species after- 
wards on shore, and all but twelve of them have since been found 
above tides by myself or others, usually, however, dead and im- 
perfect. 

Many, on the other hand, which I dredged only dead, have 
since been found by Dall, Stearns, Newcomb and Canfield living 
among the granite rocks at extreme spring tides, low water, in 
midsummer or winter. Harford has found others by wading in 
below tides, and carrying large stones ashore with the animals 
adhering to them. In such places dredging is impossible. These 
gentlemen have also added largely to the list of Monterey shells, 
which now number about 316 species. Had I wished merely to 
make a local list when collecting there, I might have increased 
it much by preserving many species which I found only in a 
fragmentary state, and thought not worth preserving, as I knew 
they could be obtained better elsewhere. I can even now recall 
to memory many such observed on the beach, but do not include 
them. 

Although imperfect as a local list, the number is remarkable 
compared with what I found at Santa Cruz during a year's resi- 
dence some years later, when I visited the beach often and 
during almost every monthly low tide. I got there thirty-eight 
marine Acephala, seventy-nine Gasteropoda, ten terrestrial, two 
fresh water Acephala, five Gasteropoda, total 134 only. 

And small as the number is, it includes fifty species not in my 
Monterey list, (which, however, are mostly found there,) and I 
have therefore given them with the former locality, as it is situ- 
ated on the same bay only twenty-five miles north of Monterey. 

In the " Geographical Catalogue " I included the additions 
made previous to 1867 by the gentlemen above mentioned, and 
in my manuscript report have tabulated their contributions more 
fully. Since that date, however, twenty or more new species 
have been discovered or determined by them and Carpenter, 
which are not yet published. It would be therefore improper 
for me even to give their manuscript names, as they will doubt- 
less be all published in due time. Six are Chitonidse, three 
Patelloid, the rest mostly minute. 



OF CONCnOLOGY. 49 

The whole number (^ivon by Mc Andrew in Brit. Assoc. Report 
for 185G, as found by him at "south of Spain and Mediterranean 
Sea," was only 4'i5, which, considering the great extent of the 
latter sea, reaching south to lat. 32°, makes it probable that the 
species near Cadiz, though so much longer investigated, do not 
number more than are known at Monterey. 

About GOO species are known in all California between lat. 
82° and 42°, including land and fresh water, (which are not re- 
presented at Monterey by more than ten species.) As may be 
supposed, from the peculiar conditions combined at Monterey, 
many species rare there are numerous in other localities, and in- 
deed many are only found there dead, having been washed away 
from the places where they lived. 

In the following list I have given the results of my collecting 
at Monterey and Santa Cruz, marking only those species with 
an * that were first obtained by me, though many others were un- 
described at the time I collected them, and some of these were 
even received by Carpenter later than mine, from the naturalists- 
of the N. W. Boundary Survey. Still, as they Avere collecting for 
some years before I commenced, they are entitled to priority of 
discovery even in doubtful cases. The name of discoverer at 
Monterey is given when known. 

Several of the Santa Cruz additions were discovered first by 
me at other places and are marked with af. Many others, which 
I discovered at more southern localities, have since been found at 
Monterey, but I do not include them here. I include 7 southern 
species dredged in Carmel Bay, but not yet discovered north of 
Point Pinos. The collection was made for the State Geological 
Survey of California, under direction of Prof. J. D. Whitney. 
The remarks given are usually the result of observations made 
since 18G1. 

Catalogue of Collections. 

The original number is given first; then tlie Geographical Catalogue 
number. 

349 3 Terehratula unguiculus, Cpr. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego, near 1. w. to 20 fms. 
12 dead, 20 fms., shell sand. Lives just below tides. 
401 6 Waldheimia Grayi, Dav. 

New Year Point to Catalina I. — Japan. 
2 dead, 20 fms., shell sand. Santa Cruz, bch., valves, rare. 
927 12 Xylotrya setacea, Tryon. 

S. F. Bay (to San Pedro ?). 
Santa Cruz, common. In timber submerged. 
4 



50 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

424 13 Zirphoea crispata, Linn. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego — N. Atlantic. 
Valves, common on beach. Syn. ? Z. Gabbii, Tryon. 
433 14 Pholadidea penita, Conr. 

Str. Fuca to Santa Barbara, 1. w. 
Many in clay rock. Sta. Cruz, between tides. 
433a 15 Pholadidea ovoidea, Gld. 

Baulines Bay to San Diego ; rare. 
Rare in clay rock. Smithsonian collectors disc. 
444 16 Netastomella Darwinii, Sby. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego — S. America. 
One in clay rock, one living, 8 fms. 
1452 17 Martesia interealata, Cpr. ? 

Farallone Is. to Mazatlan — (in Haliotis.) 
Santa Cruz, rare. Syn. ? Navea Newcombii, Tryon. 
526 18 Parapholas CaUfornica, Conr. 
Baulines Bay to San Diego. 
One in clay stone, beach. Sta. Cruz, below tides. 
528 19 Saxicava pJwladis, Linn. 

Str. Fuca to Santa Barbara — Universal? 
Ten in clay stone, bch. Jewett & Smithsonian coll. 
562 22 Platyodon cancellatus, Conr. 

Baulines Bay to San Diego. 
Sta. Cruz, common living, 1. w. Between tides. 
402 23 Cryptomya CaUfornica,, Conr. 
Str. Fuca to San Diego. 
Valves, bch. to 20 fms. Lives in brackish bays. 
382 24 Schizotluerua NuttalU, Conr. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego — ;Sitka — Japan. 
Valves, one dead, 30 fms. Lives in brackish bays. 
Smithsonian coll. 
378 29 Clidiophora punctata, Qonr. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego, 1. w. to 30 fms. 
3 living, oO fms. mud. Sta. Cruz, valves. 
676 33 Thraeia curta, Conr. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego. 
Valves, rare, bch. (dredged ?) Lives below tides. 

483 35 Lyonsia Calijornica,, Conr. 

Str. Fuca to Santa Barbara. 
Valves, rare, bch. Lives below tides. 
480 36 Lyonsia nitida, Gld. 

S. F. Bay to San Diego. (Young?) 
15 living, 5 — 20 fms. Perhaps = 35. 



OF CONCnOLOGY. 51 

907 37 Entodesma saxicola, Baird. 

Str. Fuca to Monterey. 
Not rare, dead, Sta. Cruz. Lives below tides. 
483 39 BlytiUmeria NuttaUi, Conr. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego. 

1 on bch., dead. Lives below tides. 
461 41 Solen sicarius, Gld. 

Str. Fuca to San Pedro — Japan. 

2 dead, 10 — 20 fms, muddy sand. Lives in brackish bays. 
508 45 MacJuera patula, Dixon. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego — Karatschatka, Japan. 
2 young, living, 35 fms. mud. Lives at extreme 1. w. 
598 47 Psammohia rubroradiata, Conr. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego — Sitka. 
Valves rare, bch. to 10 fms. Lives below tides. 
331 48 Macoma secta, Conr. 

Baulines Bay to San Diego — Japan ? 
Valves common, bch. Smithsonian coll. 
*324 50 3Iacoma indentata, Cpr. 

Monterey ; (to San Diego ?) 
Valves rare, beach, 
f 985 51 Macoma yoldiformis, Cpr. 
Str. Fuca to San Pedro- 
Valves rare, Santa Cruz. 
365 52 Macoma nasuta, Conr. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego — Karatschatka. 
Valves, bch. to 20 fms. Lives in brackish bays. 
365a 53 Macoma inquinata, Desh. 

Str. Fuca to Monterey. Estuaries. 
One dead, 5 fms. Lives in brackish bays. 
377 58 Mera obtusa, Cpr. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego, (= modesta, var. ?) 

6 living, 7 — 40 fms. muddy sand. 
350 59 3Iera variecfata, Cpr. 

Str. Fuca to Catalina I. Bch. to 120 fms. 
1 living, 25 fms. sand, 5 valves, 20 — 35 fms. 

399 Gl 3Ie7'a sabnonea, Cpr, 

Str. Fuca to Monterey. Bch. to 20 fms. 

7 living, 20 fms,, 24 valves 20 — 35 fms. Lives just 
below tides. 

408 G2 Tellina Bodegensis, Hds. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego — Japan. 
Valves common, bch., one young living, 20 fms. sand. 
Lives near extreme 1. w. 



52 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

1168 70 SemeU 

Str. Fuca to Monterey. 
Two valves dredged. White var. Valves, rare at mouth 
of Saquel Creek, Santa Cruz. 
*407 73 Semele incongrua, Cpr. 

Carmel Bay to Catalina I., 16 — 40 fms. rare. 
5 living, many valves, 20 — 30 fms. muddy sand, Car- 
mel only (= rubrolineata, Conr. var. ?) 
527 75 Oumingia Californica, Conr. 

Monterey to San Diego — Mazatlan. 
4 in clay stones, bch., 2 liv., 7 fms. rock. Sta. Cruz, rare. 
606 81 Staridella Californica^ Conr. 
Str. Fuca to San Pedro. 
Sta. Cruz, com. on bch. dead. Lives just below tides. 
469 84 jStandella falcata, Gld. 

Str. Fuca to Monterey — Kodiak. 
4 valves, 10 fms. Lives bel. tides towards Salinas R. 
295 88 Pachydesma crassatelloides, Conr. 

Santa Cruz to San Diego. (Str. Fuca ?) 
Sta. Cruz, common. Smiths, coll,, from Salinas bch. ? 
367 89 Pse2?his tantilla, Gld. 

Str. Fuca to Catalina I., 1. w. to 25 fras. 
Hiving, 8 fms., 2 in 25 fms. sand. Sta. Cruz, valves, bch. 
375 90 Psephis Lordi, Baird. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego ; (southern variety.) 
3 living, 30 fms. mud. 
*1058 95 Lioconcha Newcomhiana, Gabb. 
Monterey to Catalina I. — rare. 

3 young, 30 fms. mud, living. Colorless specimens. 
537 98 Chione simiUima, Sby. 

Carmel Bay to San Diego. 

4 young, living, 30 fms. mud. Carmel Bay only. 

731 100 Tapes tenerrima, Cpr. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego — not " Panama." 
One valve, 20 fms. Lives below tides, Santa Cruz. 
642 101 Tapes laciniata, Cpr. 

Monterey to San Diego — {== staminea, var. ?) 
3 young living, 20 fms. Maj. Rich, U. S. A., disc. 
436 102 Tapes staminea, Conr. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego — Margarita Bay. 
Many living, 1. w. sand. Chiefly in brackish bays. 
436a 103 Tapes staminea, var. Petitii, Desh. 

Str. Fuca to Monterey — Kamtschatka. 
Many living, 1. w. sand. In fresher water. Smiths, coll. 



OF CONOHOLOGY. 53 

436b 104 Tapes staminea, var. ruderata, Desh. 

Str. Fuca to Santa Cruz — Ounalaska. 
Many dead, in clay rock. A rough stunted var. 
436c 105 Tapes stammea, var. diversa, Sby. 
Baulines Bay to San Diego. 
Many living, 1. w. muddy sand. Colored by mud when 
growing ? 
436d lOG Tapes staminea, var. tumida, Sby. 
In cavities of rocks. 
Rare in clay rock, bch. Take the form of the cavity 
they grow in. 
436e 107 Tapes staminea^ var. orhella (Cpr. ?) 
In cavities of rocks. 
Rare in clay rock, bch. Grow in burrows of No. 142, 
499 108 Saxidomus gracilis, Gld. 

Baulines Bay to San Diego — (= aratus, Gld. ?) 
1 young, dredged dead. 
499a 109 Saxidomus Nuttalli, Conr. 

S. F. Bay to San Diego — Sitka ? Japan ? 
Valves, bch. to 20 fms. A brackish water var. o^ gra- 
cilis, Gld. ? 
434 112 Rupellaria lamellifera, Conr. 
Farallone Is. to San Diego. 
Many in clay rock, bch., 20 young, 10 — 20 fms., dead. 
Jewett coll. 
488 113 Petricola carditoides, Conr. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego — Sitka, 
Many in clay-rock, bch., 5 in 8 fms., liv'g. Jewett coll. 

460 114 Chama exogyra, Conr. 

Baulines Bay to San Diego — Mexico. 
Valves, bch. to 10 fms. (= reversed pellucida ?) 
460a 115 Chama pelhicida, Sby. 

Farallone Is. to San Diego — S. America. 
Valves, bch. to 10 fms. Smithsonian coll. 
387 117 Cardium corMs, Ms.Ytjn. 

Str. Fuca to S. Barbara — Sitka, Kamtschatka. 
Valves, bch. to 10 fms. Lives chiefly in brackish bays. 
639 118 Cardiimi quadragenarium, Conr. 
Monterey to San -Diego. 
One valve, 2^0 fms. Carmel Bay ? 
368 119 Cardium blandum, Gld. 

Str. Fuca to Monterey — Sitka ; Asia. 
Many valves, 10 — 20 fms, some fresh. 



54 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

*881 120 Cardium eenfijilosum , Cpr. 

Carmel Bay to Catalina I. 20 — 40 fms. 
One living, 15 fms. mud. Carmel only. 
409 129 Miodon prolongatus, Cpr. 
Str. Fuca to Monterey. 
One living, 20 fms. Carmel Bay. 
403 132 Lazaria subquadrata, Cpr. 
Str. Fuca to San Diego. 
One living, 20 fms., many valves, bch. Lives near ex- 
treme 1. w., rocks. 
490 135 Lucina CaUfornica, Conr. 

Santa Cruz to San Diego. 
Many valves, bch. Lives near extreme 1. w., rocks. 
435 142 Diplodonta orhella, Gld. 

Str. Fuca to S. Diego — in holes of rocks. 
4 in clay-rock, bch. 
437a 144 Kellia Laperousii, var. Ohironii, Cpr. 
Str. Fuca to San Diego. 
10 in clay-rock, bch., 1 living, 8 fms. 
— 145 Kellia rotundata, Cpr. 

Monterey; {^= Laperousii, var., or 146?) 
Taylor disc, 
43Tb 146 Kellia suborbicular-is, Mont. ? 

Str. Fuca to San Diego — Mex. — Pan. — Europe. 
2 in clay-rock, bch. = K. Laperousii, var. ? 
827 162 Pisidium occidentale, Newc. 
» Truckee R., to Santa Cruz, Cal. 

Santa Cruz, in Soquel Creek only. 

922 165 Mai-garitana falcata, Gld. 

S. Cruz, California, north — Nevada; Montana. 
Santa Cruz, in San Lorenzo Creek. 
489 172 3Iytilus Californianus, Conr. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego — Q. Charlotte's I. 
Common living, 1. w. Nuttall disc. 

875 173 3Iytilu8 edulis. Linn. 

Monterey, north — Japan ; N. Atlantic. 
Sta. Cruz, near river. Chiefly in brackish bays. 
576 175 Sejjtifer bifurcatus, Rve. 

Farallone Is. to S. Diego. (Not Myt. bifurc, Conr.) 
Not rare living, Santa Cruz. 
815 177 3fodiola modiolus, Linn. 

Monterey, north — Asia ; N. Atlantic. 
Valves, common on bch., many young living, 10 fms. 
• Jewett coll. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 55 

440 178 3fodioIa fornieata, Cpr. 

Monterey to San Pedro. 
Valves not rare on bch. Taylor disc. 
400 179 Modiola recta, Conr. 

Santa Cruz to San Diego. 
Valves rare on bcli., 2 young living, 20 fms. Sta. Cruz, 
valves rare. 
439 181 Adulafalcafa, Gld. 

San Francisco to San Diego — New Zealand ? 
10 in clay-rock, bch. S. Cruz, living 1. w. Rich, disc. 
*1157 182 Adula styJbia, Cpr. 

Str. Fuca to Monterey. 
4 in clay-rock, bch. Smithsonian coll. 
351 189 Axincea intermedia, Brod. ? 

Monterey to San Diego — South America. 
22 living, 20 fms. Southern var. of 191 ? 
1158 191 Axincea subobsoleta, Cpr. 

Str. Fuca to Sta. Cruz (= septentrionalis var. ?) 
Santa Cruz, 1 valve. 
450 193 Acila castrensis, Hinds. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego — Sitka. 
2 dead, 20 — 40 fms., muddy sand. " 1 in sand 7 fms., 
Sitka." (Hinds.) 
471 194 Leda ccelata, Hinds. 

Bodega Bay to San Diego ; 6 — 20 fms. 
9 living, 20 fms. sand. "6 — 10 fms. Bodega." (Hds.) 
471a 195 Leda cuneata, Shy. ? 

Monterey to San Diego — Peru. 
4 living, 7 fms. sand. Var. of last ? 
449 200 Yoldia amygdala, VaL 
Str. Fuca — Monterey. 
1 living, 40 fms. mud. 
*1189 201 Yoldia Coopcri, Gabb. 

Santa Cruz to San Pedro — Beach, valves. 
1 young valve, 8 fms. = Y. impressa, Conr., foss. ? 
348 204 Lima dehiscens, Conr. 

Monterey to S. Diego — [= orientalis, Ad. ? China.) 
6 valves, 20 fms. Lives below tides. 

366 206 Pecten hastatus, Sby. 

Str. Fuca to Santa Barbara — Sitka ; Aliaska. 
Many valves, to 30 fms. Lives below tides. 
366a 207 Pecten Jiastatus, var. Hindsii, Cpr. 
Str. Fuca to Santa Cruz — Sitka. 
Santa Cruz, common. Valves on bch. 



56 AMERICAN JOUKXAL 

376 210 Pecteji latiauritus, Conr. 
Monterey to San Diego. 
Two young living, 30 fms. 
410 213 Janira dentata, Sby. 

Carmel Bay to San Diego — Gulf California. 
\ fiat valve, 20 fins. Carmel only. 
363 214 Hinnites gigcmteus, Gray. 
Str. Fuca to San Diego. 
Many valves, bch. to 30 fms. Smithsonian coll. 
448 215 Ostrea Im-ida, Cpr. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego. 
6 valves, dredged. Lives in brackish bays. Nuttall coll. 
456 220 Placunanomia macrosehistua, Desh. 
Str. Fuca to San Diego — Japan. 
Valves, bch. to 20 fms. Sta. Cruz, rare, living, 1. w. 
— 221 Anomia lampe, Gray. 

"Monterey, 60 fms." San Pedro to Mexico. 
Maj. Rich coll. ? brought up on anchor ? 

627 228 Hamineavesicida, Gld. 

Santa Cruz to San Diego — Cape St. Lucas. 
Santa Cruz, living in Soquel Creek estuary. 
589 231 Tornatella imnctoccelata, Cpr. 
Santa Cruz to San Diego. 
Santa Cruz, dead, bch. San Pedro, 6 fms., living. 
357 232 Tornatina culcitella, Gld. 
Monterey to San Diego. 
1 living 10 fms., 1 dead 20 fms. San Diego, 1. w., living. 
357a 233 Tornatina cerealis, Gld. 

JMonterey to San Diego (= cnleiteUa, var. ?) 
1 dead 5 fms., 1 dead 35 fms. Sta. Cruz, bch., dead. 
379 236 Cyliclina cylindraeea, Linn. 

Monterey to San Diego — Europe. 
1 living, 3 dead, 30 fms. mud. 
*465 — Tornatina harpa, Dall, MS. 

1 dead, 20 fms. 

*1000 246 Doris albopunctata, Cp. 

Paulines Bay to Catalina I. 
Santa Cruz, rar« on stones, extreme 1. w. - ._"• 

*516 248 Doris 3Ionterei/cnsis, Cp. 

San Francisco Bay to Barbara I. 

2 living, 7 fms. rock. Stones, extreme 1. w. 
*1002 249 Triopa Oatalince, Cp. 

Baulines Bay to Catalina I. 
Santa Cruz, rare on stones, extreme 1. w. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 57 

*675 253 Phidiana lodinea, Cp. 

Santa Cruz to San Diego. 
Santa Cruz, rare on algae, extreme 1. w. 
510 256 Ariolimax Columbianus, Gld. 
Str. Fuca to Santa Barbara. 
Not rare, in woods, in damp places. 
837 264 Succinea Oregonensis, Lea. 
Oregon to Monterey, Cal. 
Santa Cruz, common, in damp places. 
899 271 Macrocycli8 Va7icouverensis, Lea. 
Santa Cruz, Cal. north ; Idaho. 
Santa Cruz, common. 
939 276 Pseudohyali7ia milium, Morse ? 

Monterey to Nevada Co., Cal. — Maine. 
Santa Cruz, rare in decayed stumps. 
tll96 291 Helix sequoicola, Cp. 
Santa Cruz Co., Cal. 
Santa Cruz. In or near Sequoia forest, rare. 

492 294 Helix Dupetitliouarsi, Desh. 

Monterey, Cal. (Point Cypress.) 
3, in or near Cypress Grove. " Voy. Venus," disc. 
909 306 Helix Calif orniensis. Lea. 

Monterey, Cal. Var. vincta, Val. 
Young found in woods. Nuttall disc. ? rare. 
1166 307 Helix nemorivaga, Val. 

San Francisco to Monterey. 
Santa Cruz, common. A variety of next. 

912 308 Helix JVicHiniana, Lea. 

Santa Cruz to Mendocino Co., Cal. 
Santa Cruz, rare. 
858 310 Hehx arrosa, Gld. 

Santa Cruz to Mendocino Co., Cal. 
Santa Cruz, common, in oak groves, etc. 

920 311 Helix exarata, Pfeiff. 

S. F. Bay to Santa Cruz Co., Cal. 
Santa Cruz, common. In poplar, willow, etc. 

901 318 Aplodon Columbianus, Lea. 

Wash. Territory to Santa Cruz, Cal. ; Sitka. 
Santa Cruz, common in damp woods and fields. 

1199 319 Aplodon germanus, Gld. 

" Oregon." Probably = Columh. var. 
Santa Cruz, more rare. Damp woods and fields. 



58 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

1214 341 Limnopliysa ferruginea, Hald. 

"Oregon." (==humiHs, Say?) 
Santa Cruz, common in streams. 
840 364 Fh/sa aahbii, Tryon. 

Mountain Lake, S. F. Co., to Los Angeles. 
Santa Cruz, common in San Lorenzo R. ■ 
1234 378 Planorhis tujnens, Cpr. 

Petaluma, Cal., to Mazatlan. 
Santa Cruz, in San Lorenzo R. 
854 381 Gyraulus vermieularis, Gld. 

Walla Walla, W. T., to Santa Cruz, Cal. 
Santa Cruz, in San Lorenzo R. 
1197 395 Ancylus fragilis, Tryon. 

San Francisco to Santa Cruz. 
Santa Cruz, in San Lorenzo R. 
346 402 Dentah'um Indianorum, Cpr. 
Str. Fuca to Santa Barbara. 
12 living, many dead, 20 — 30 fms. Probably =^pretio- 
sum, Nutt. 
830 406 Crijptocliiton SteUeri, Midd. 

Str. Fuca to Monterey — Kamscbatka. 
Santa Cruz, 1. w., common. Smithsonian coll. 
517 408 Tonicia lineafa, Wood. 

Str. Fuca t,o Monterey — Sitka ; Kamtscbatka. 
Valves, bcb., 1 living, 7 fms. rock. Smithsonian coll. 
310 410 3IopaKa muscosa., Gld. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego. 
Many living, 1. w. Nuttall and Smithsonian coll. 
411 Mojoalia Wossnessenskii, Midd. ? 

Str. Fuca to Santa Cruz — Sitka. 
Santa Cruz, 1. w. 
1412 412 Mopalia Kennerleyi^ Cpr. 

Str. Fuca, W. T., to Monterey. 
Valves, on bcb. 

1367 414 Mopalia Ilindsu, Gray. 

Str. Fuca to Monterey. 
Santa Cruz, 1. w. 

1368 416 3IopaUa vespertina, Gld. 

Str. Fuca to Monterey, Cal. 
Santa Cruz, common. Probably = next. 
1368a 417 3Iopalia lignosa, Gld. 

Str. Fuca to Monterey — Sitka. 
Valves, bch. Hartweg coll. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. ^^ 

— 418 3Iopalia acuta, Cpr. 

" Monterey " (Nuttall coll.) 
Nuttall, disc. 
1087 421 Acanthopleura scabra, Rve. 

Str. Fuca to Santa Barbara. 
Nine living, 1. w. Nuttall, disc. 

— 423 IsclmocJiiton Magdalensis, Hds. 

Monterey to San Diego — Lower Cal. 
Smitlisonian coll. 
*1073 427 Lepidopleurus pectinatus, Cpr. 
Santa Cruz to Catalina I. 
Santa Cruz, common. Extreme 1. w. 
518 428 Lejndopleurus Mertensii, Midd. 
Str. Fuca to Monterey. 
2 living, 7 — 20 fms., rock. Smitlisonian coll. 
329 430 Traclijjdermon intei^sfmctus, Gld. 
Puget's Sound to Monterey. 
2 living, 1. w. ? 

— 435 Trachydermon Harhvegii, Cpr. 

San Francisco to Monterey. 
Hartweg disc. 
325 436 Trachydermon Nuttallii, Cpr. 

Str. Fuca to JNIonterey. 
1 living, 20 ft., rock. Nuttall disc. 

— 437 Trachydermon Jlcctens, Cpr. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego. 
Smithsonian coll. 

420 — 

Chitonid indet. 
Not rare, living, 1. w. 
857 441 Nacella instabiUs, Gld. 

Str. Fuca to Monterey. 
Rare, dead on bch. Sta. Cruz, bch., dead, lives on algae ? 

416 442 Nacella insessa, Hds. 

Baulines Bay to San Diego. 
16 dead, bch. Lives imbedded in algse, 1. w. 

1237 445 Nacella paleacea, Gld. 

Santa Cruz to Santa Barbara. 
Santa Cruz, living, common, on narrow grass, 1. w. 

*344 446 Nacella triangularis, Cpr. 

Baulines Bay to Monterey. 
4 dead, 20 — 30 fms. Probably lives on algse. 



60 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

308 448 Acma^a patina, Esch. 

Str, Fuca to San Diego — Mazatlan — Sitka. 
Manj living, 1. w. Smithsonian coll. 

309 449 Acma^a pelta, Esch. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego — Sitka. 
Many living, 1. w. Smithsonian coll. 
309a 450 Acmcea ^yelta, var. As7m, Midd. 

Baulines Bay to Monterey — Sitka ? 
6 dead, 1. w. Parasitic on living shells. 

306 451 Acma;a persona, Esch. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego — Mazatlan — Sitka. 
Many living, 1. w. 

307 452 Acma'a scabra, Nutt. 

Baulines Bay to San Diego — Mazatlan. 
Many living, 1. w. Common in brackish bays. 
305 453 Acincea spectrum, Nutt. 

Cape Mendocino to San Diego. 
Many living, 1. w. 
472 455 Aemwa rosacea, Cpr. 

Monterey to Santa Barbara. 
4 dead, dredged. "A good species." Cpr. MS. 
328 456 Lottia gigantea, Gray (Sby. ?). 

Farallone Is. to San Diego — S. A. ? 
Many living, 1. w. Smithsonian coll. 
330 457 Scurria mitra, Esch. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego — Sitka. 
Many dead, 1. w. Lives at extreme 1. tide. Nuttall coll. 
330a 458 Scurria mitra, var. funiculata, Cpr. 

Str. Fuca to Monterey ; deep water. 
6 dead, 20 fms. Near Pt. Pinos. 
*826 460 Rowellia radiata, Cp. 

Farallone Is. to Catalina I. 
Rare, bch., 1 dead. Santa Ciuz, living, 1. w. 
338 461 Fissurclla volcano, Rve. 

Santa Cruz to San Diego. 
Many dead, bch. to 20 fms. Nuttall disc. ? 
332 463 Grlyphis aspera, Esch. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego — Sitka. 
Many dead, bch. to 20 fms. Lives near 1. w. 
514 464 Glgphis densiclathrata, Rve. 
Baulines Bay to San Diego. 
Many dead, 1 living, 7 fms. Animal differs from that 
of 332. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 61 

714 465 Lucapina crcmdata, Sby. 
Monterey to San Diego. 
1 young dredged dead, J inch long. Lives near 1. w. 
892 466 Puncturella cueiiUata, Gld. 
Str. Fuca to Monterey. 
1 bch., 5 dead, 20 fms. 
*415 470 Chjpidella bimaculata, Dall (MS.) 
Farallone Is. to Barbara I. 
3 dead, 10 — 20 fms. Lives near 1. w. 
*466 471 Emarginula bella, Gabb. 

Santa Cruz to Monterey. 

3 dead, 10—20 fms. Near Pt. Pinos. 
301 472 Haliotis Cracherodii, Leach. 

Farallone Is. to San Diego — Lower Cal. 
Many living, 1. w. 

383 475 Haliotis rufesceris, Sw. 

Farallone Is. to San Nicolas I. — Galapagos ? 
10 dead, bch. to 10 fms. Less numerous. 
497 476 Haliotis Kamtscliatkana, Jonas. 

Str. Fuca to Monterey — Japan. 
1 dead, bch. Rare. 

358 478 PhasianeJla jmlloides, Cpr. 
Santa Cruz to San Diejjo. 
20 dead, 20 fms. Santa Cruz, rare, living, 1. w. 

— 479 Pomaulax undosus, Wood. 

Santa Barbara to Cape St. Lucas — Monterey ? 
Nuttall, coll.? 
864 480 Pachypoma gibbcrosum, Chem. 

Str. Fuca to Catalina I. — New Zealand ? 
Many dead at Pt. Pinos, 2 living, 2 — 7 fms., rock. 
Smithsonian coll. 
315 481 Leptotliyra sanguinea^ Cpr. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego — Japan — Europe? 
Many dead, bch., 3 living, 2 — 7 fms., rock. Jewett and 
Smithsonian coll. 
*315a 488 Leptotliyra paucicostata^ Dall (MS.) 
Monterey. 

4 dead, dredged ? 

*519 485 Liotia acuticostata, Cpr. 

Monterey to Catalina I. 
4 dredged, dead. 

— 489 Trochiscus Worrisii, Sby. 

Santa Barbara to San Diego — Monterey ? 
Nuttall coll. ? 



62 AMERICAN JOUENAL 

— 490 TrocMsciis convexus, Cpr. 
" Monterey " (Jewett). 
Jewett disc. ?= 489? 

302 491 Chlo7'ostoma funebrale, A. Ad. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego — Sitka. 
Many living, 1. w., on kelp. Nuttall coll. 
302a 492 Chlorostoma funebrale, yar. subajjertwyi, Cpr. 
Neeah Bay, W. T., to Monterey. 
Rare living, 1. w., on kelp. 

316 495 Chlorostoma brunneum^ Phil. 

Cape Mendocino to Santa Barbara. 
Many living, 1. w., on kelp. Smithsonian coll. 
385 496 Chlorostoma Pfeifferi, Phil. 

Baulines Bay to Nicolas I., Cal. 
10 dead, bch. Jewett coll. 

311 499 Calliostoma canaliculatum, Mart. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego, Cal. 
12 dead, bch. Sta. Cruz. Nuttall and Smithsonian coll. 

312 500 Calliostoma costatum, Mart. 

Str. Fuca to Barbara L, Cal. — Sitka. 
Many dead, bch., 5 living, 7 fms. Santa Cruz. Nuttall 
and Smiths, coll. 
523 501 Calliostoma aiinulatum., Mart. 
Str. Fuca to San Diego. 
12 dead, bch., 5 living, 7 fms. Santa Cruz. Nuttall and 
Smithsonian coll. 
*602 503 Calliostoma tricolor, Gabb. 

New Year Point to San Diego. 
Santa Cruz, 20 dead on Soquel bch. 
*476 504 Calliostoma supragranosum, Cpr. 
Santa Cruz to Monterey. 
4 young, dredged dead. Santa Cruz, also. 
*530 506 Calliostoma sjjlendens, Cp. 

Monterey to Sta. Barbara. 
2 young, dredged dead. 
*356 507 Thalotia caffea, Gabb. 

Carmel Bay, 20 fms. 1 dredged 
355 508 Phorcus pulUgo, Mart. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego — Sitka. 
2 dead, bch., 2 dead dredged. Lt. Green coll. 
359 512 Gibbula succincta, Cpr. 

Str. Fuca to Barbara L, Cal. 
2 dead, 20 fms. 



OF CONCHOLOQY. 63 

352 516 3Iargarita pupilhi, Gld. 
Str. Fuca to Monterey. 
10, bch. to 20 fms., dead. 
352a 517 Margarita pupilla, var. salmoiiea, Cpr. 
Monterey to Catalina I. 
1 living, 20 dead, 20 fms. 
351 518 Margarita acuticostata, Cpr. 

Baulines Bay to Santa Barbara. 

1 living, 10 fms., 4 dead. 
1240 520 Margarita Jirulata, Cpr, 

Str. Fuca to Baulines Bay. 
Santa Cruz, 1, bch. 
*388 54(5 Coecum crehricinctum, Cpr. 
Monterey to San Diego. 
10 living, 10 dead, 5 to 35 fms., sand. 

— 553 Cerithidea Californica, Ilald. 

Baulines Bay to San Diego — Mazatlan ? 
Nuttall coll. ? Salinas R. ? (= saerata, (ild.) 
422a 555 Bittium fi.losum,y^\\ esurietis, Cpr. 
Str. Fuca to San Pedro. 
Many dead, bch. 
422b 556 Bittium attenuaturn, Cpr. 
Str. Fuca to Monterey. 

2 dead, bch. {= 555 ?) Taylor disc. 
387 557 Bittium quadrijilatiwi, Cpr. 

Monterey to San Diego. 
]\lany dead, bch. Merging into 559. 
387a 559 Bittium armillatum, Cpr. 

Farallone Is. to San Diego. 
20 dead, bch. to 20 fms. 
369 524 Galerus fastigiatus. Gld. 

Puget's Sound to Monterey — Vancouver's I. 
1 living, 5 dead, 8 — 20 fms. Mistaken for contortus in 
Geog. Cat. 

— 526 Crucihulum spinosum, Sby. 

San Pedro south to Peru, South America. 
Nuttall coll. 1 
1150 527 Crucibulum scutellatuni^ Gray. 

Santa Cruz, Cal. — Lower Cal. to Peru. 
Santa Cruz, 1 dead. Imported ? 
412 530 Crepidida dorsata, var. ? Ungulata, Gld. 
Str. Fuca to Mazatlan. 
1 living, 8 fms. rock, 9 dead, to 20 fms. Santa Cruz, 
bch., common. 



64 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

413 532 CrepiduJa adunca, Sby. 

Str. Fuca to Sta. Barbara — Mexico ? 
Many dead on bch., to 20 fms. Sta. Cruz, bcli., common. 
420 534 Crepidula navicelloides, Nutt. 
Str. Fuca to San Diego. 
Rare, dead on bch. to 20 fms. Sta. Cruz, living, 1. w. 
Nuttall disc. 

420b 536 Crepidula navicelloides, var. jimhriata^ Rve. 
Str. Fuca to San Pedro. 
4, clay rock on bch. In holes of borers. 
420c 537 Crepidula navieelloides, var. explanata, Gld. 
Str. Fuca to San Pedro. 
8, clay rock on bch., 1 living, 8 fms., in holes of 
borers. Voy. "Venus" coll. 

414 589 Hipponyx antiquatus, Linn. 

Monterey south ? — S. America. Atlantic. 
Many dead, bch. to 20 fms. Including serratus, Cpr. ? 

475 541 Capulus tumens, Cpr. 

Monterey to San Diego and islands. 
Many dead, bcii. to 20 fms. 

317 572 Litorina planaxis, Nutt. 

Mendocino to San Diego — Sitka? 
Many living, bch. 

318 574 Litorini scutulata, Gld. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego. 
Many living, bch. Smithsonian coll. 
1156 578 Lacuna porrecta, Cpr. 

Neeah Bay, W. T„ to Monterey. 
Santa Cruz, rare living, 1. w., 10 dead. 
1065 681 Lacuna solidula, Loven. 

Ounalaska to San Diego — Norway. 

2 dead, bch. Sta. Cruz, rare, dead. 
1088 583 Lacuna variegata, Cpr. 

Neeah Bay, W. T., to Monterey. 

3 dead, bch. Sta. Cruz, common, 1. w. 
*682 586 Isapis fenesti-ata, Cpr. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego — Ounalaska. 
Santa Cruz, rare, dead. 
*682a 587 Lsupis obtusa, Cpr. 

Monterey to San Diego. 
Monterey ? dredged ? Carpenter's list, =580 ? 

*723 588 Rissoina interfossa, Cpr. 

Monterey to San Diego — deep water. 
Rare, dead, dredged ? Carpenter's list. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 65 

*717 589 Rissoina pio'piirea, Cpr. 

Monterey ? Santa Barbara to San Diego. 
2 dredged ? dead. Carpenter's list, perhaps distinct. 
*430 592 Eissoa ? Cooperi, Tryon. 
Monterey. 
From brackish spring. Carmel only. 
*443 595 Alvania filosa, Cpr. 
Monterey. 
"From shell washings." Carpenter's list. 
*389 596 Fenella pupoidca, Cpr. 

Monterey, 20 fms., dead. Catalina I. ? 
45 dead, 20 fms. 
390 619 DiaJa marmorea, Cpr. 

Monterey to San Pedro — Cape St. Lucas. 
6 dead, 20 fms. Lives near 1. w. 
*390a 620 Diala acuta, Cpr. 

Monterey to Catalina I. 
2 dead, 20 fms. Probably =619 var. 
470 624 Trivia Califomiana, Gray. 

Monterey to San Diego and islands. 
Many dead, bch. Lives below tides. 
467 628 Erato vitellina, Hds, 

New Year Pt. to San Diego — Margarita Bay. 
5 dead, bch. Lives below tides. 
395 629 Erato columbella, Mke. 

Monterey to San Diego — Mazatlan. 
5 dead, 20 fms. Lives below tides. 

1159 633 Drillia incisa, Cpr. 

Str. Fuca, W. T., to Santa Cruz, Cal. 
Santa Cruz, 2 dead. Lives below tides. 
479 635 Drillia torosa, Cpr. 

Santa Cruz to Santa Barbara. 
Many dead, bch. to 10 fms. Taylor disc. 
423 645 Mangelia variegata, Cpr. 
Monterey to San Diego. 
1 dead, bch. ; 5 living, 5 — 10 fms. sand. 
1253 647 Mangelia angulata, Cpr. 

Str. Fuca to Santa Barbara. 
Santa Cruz, 4 dead. 
*425 648 Mangelia hexagona, Gabb. 
Carmel Bay to Catalina I. 
« 1 dead, bch. Carmel only. 

5 



QQ AMERICAN JOURNAL 

426 655 3Iitromor2)ha aspera, Cpr. 

Monterey, Cal. 
3 dead, bch., 1 living, 7 fms. rock. Taylor disc. 

397 656 3Iitromorpha jilosa, Cpr. 

Monterey to Santa Barbara. 
8 dead, bch. Lives below tides. 
482 658 Conus Californicus, Hinds. 

Farallone Is. to San Diego — Lower Cal. 
6 dead, bch. Broken ones not rare. 

427 664 Odostomia gravida, Gld. 

Monterey to San Diego. 
1 dead, bch. Possibly another sp. 
1254 665 Odostomia injlata, Cpr. 

Neeah Bay to Farallone Is. 
Santa Cruz, 1 dead. 

1430 671 Chemnitzia tride^itata. Cpr. 
Str. Fuca to San Pedro. 
1 dead, bch. Lives below tides. 

428 672 Chemnitzia chocolata, Cpr. 

Monterey to San Diego. 
1 living, dredged. Lives below tides. 
428a 673 Chemnitzia aui^intiay Cpr. 

Str. Fuca to Santa Barbara. 
1 living, 2 dredged ? Lives below tides. 

391 674 Chemnitzia tenuicida, Gld. 
Monterey to San Pedro. 
3 dead, 20 ims. Lives below tides. 

— 678 Chemnitzia torquata, var, stylina, Cpr. 
Monterey to Santa Barbara. 
Monterey ? dredged ? Carpenter's list. 
*1162 680 Chemnitzia Crahoiana, Cp. 

Mt'y. and Cat. I. 1 [^= graciUima, Gabb, not Cpr.) 
1 dead (dredged ?) Carpenter's list, 

459 681 Chemnitzia. 

Monterey to San Pedro, 
1 living 20 fms^., 3 dead to 35 fms, 
421 683 Chemnitzia. 

Monterey to Catalina I. 

1 living, 7 fins. 

386 685 Eidima micans, Cpr. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego, 

2 living, 6 dead, 20 fms. On Asterias- 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 67 

*386a G87 Eullma rutUa, Cpr. 

Monterey to Catalina I, (= micans, var. ?) 
1 living, 10 fms. ; 9 dead, to 20 fms. 
386b 688 EuUma thersites, Cpr. 

Monterey to Santa Barbara. 

1 dead, 20 fms. 

928 689 Scalaria Indianorum, Cpr. 
Str. Fuca to San Diego, 
Santa Cruz, common. Living near 1. w, 
928a 690 Scalaria Indianorum, var. ? tineta, Cpr. 
Santa Cruz to San Diego. 
Santa Cruz, common. Living near 1. w. 
*393 693 Scalaria subcoronata, Cpr. 

Baulines Bay to San Diego, 

2 living, 1 dead, 10 fms. ; 2 dead, 20 fms. Lives below 
tides. 

*393a 694 Scalaria erebricostata, Cpr. 
Monterey to San Diego. 

3 dead, 20 fms. Lives below tides. 

908 696 Opalia borealis, Grid. 

Str, Fuca to San Diego — Kamtschatka ? 
Santa Cruz, rare, dead. Lives near 1. w. 
*361 699 Opalia spongiosa, Cpr. 

Monterey ; ^ inch long. 
1 " shell-washings," Carpenter's list. 
323 702 Cerithiopsis tuberculata, Mont. 

Str. Fuca to Catalina I. — Europe. 
1 dead, bch. 
826 703 Cerithiopsis eolumna, Cpr. 
Str. Fuca to San Diego. 
1 dead, bch. ; 1 young dredged. 
463 709 Cancellaria Cooperi, Gabb. 
Monterey to San Diego. 
1 dead, 16 fms. Not yet found living. 
314 712 Velutina Icevigata, Linn. 

Str. Fuca to Monterey — North Atlantic. 
1 dead, 2 fms. 
335 715 Lunatia Lewisii, Gld. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego. 
Many dead, bch., 4 living, bch. to 3 fms. 
tl050 719 Lamellaria Stearnsiana, Dall MS. . 
Santa Cruz to Santa Barbara. 
Santa Cruz, 5 living 1. w. Variable, and scarcely dis- 
tinct from L. perspicua, Mont., of N. Atlantic. 



68 AMERICAN JOUKNAli 

— 722 Priene Oregonensis, Redf. 

Str. Fuca to jNIonterey — Japan. 
Canfield coll., bch., dead. 
398 725 Marginella JeiveUii, Cpr. 

Monterey to Santa Barbara. 
7 dead, bch. ; 3 dead, 10—20 fms. Including 727 ? 

398b 727 3Iarginella regidaris, Cpr. 
Monterey to San Diego. 
Monterey ? Carpenter's list. 
396 728 Volutella pyriformis^ Cpr. 
Monterey to San Diego. 
7 dead, 20 fms. 
334 730 OUvella hiplicata, Sby. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego. 
Many living, 1. w. sand. 
345 731 OUvella boetica, Cpr. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego — Sitka. 
Many living, 20 fms. sand. Smithsonian coll. 
1076 733 OUvella intorta, Cpr. 

Baulines Bay to Monterey ; Gulf of Cal. ? 
Santa Cruz, 1 living, many dead, bch. = 730 var. ? 
487 734 Nassa fossata, Gld. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego. 
1 dead, bch. Rare living. 
380 737 Nassa mendica, Gld. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego — Sitka. 
10 dead, bch., many living, 7 — 20 fms. sand. Live 
near mouths of streams chiefly. 
468 738 JVassa Cooperi, Fbs. 

Baulines Bay to San Diego. 
4 dead, bch. ; 8 living, 3 — 7 fms. ; 3 dead, 20 fms. 
Lives near mouths of streams chiefly. 
278 740 Amycla carinata, Hds. 

Baulines Bay to San Diego. 
6 dead. Santa Cruz, common, living near 1. w. on kelp. 
278a 741 Amycla carinata, var. ? Hindsii, Rve. 
ISeeah Bay to San Diego. 
10 dead. Sta. Cruz, common, living near 1. w. on kelp. 
383 742 Amycla gausapata, Gld. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego — Lat. 55° N. 
Many dead, 3 living on buoy near shore. 
394 744 Amcyla tvberosa, Cpr. 

Neeah Bay to San Diego. 
* Many dead, 20 fms. Santa Cruz, living on kelp, 1. w. 



OP CONCHOLOGY. 69 

358 747 AmpMssa corrugata, Rve. 

Str. Fiica to San Diego — Lat. 55° N. 
Many dead, bch. Smithsonian coll. 

313 751 Purpura saxicola, Val. 

Str. Fuca to S. Barbara — Ounalaska. 
6 living, rocks ; 5 dead, 1. w. Typical, salt water. 

313a 752 Purjiura saxicola, \^y. fuscata, Fbs. 

Str. Fuca to San Pedro, Cal. — Sitka. 
2 dead. In water more or less brackish. 

313b 753 Purpura saxicola, var. ostrina, Gld. 
Str. Fuca to Santa Barbara. 

2 dead. In water more or less brackish. 
513 754 Purpura saxicola, var. ? emarginata, Desh. 

Str. Fuca to S. Diego— N. Zealand? 
8 living, rocks, 1. w. Appears distinct. 
282 756 Monoceros engonatum, Conr. 
Baulines Bay to San Diego. 

3 living, rocks, 1. w. Common everywhere. 
339 758 31onoceros lapilloides, Conr. 

Monterey to Santa Barbara. 
Many living, rocks, 1. w. 
417 759 Ocinebra lurida, Midd. 

Str. Fuca to Catalina I. — Sitka. 
6 dead, bch. ; 1 living, 7 fms. Santa Cruz, more com- 
mon, dead on bch. 
417a 760 Ocinebra lurida, var. ? aspera, Baird. 
Str. Fuca to Baulines Bay — Sitka. 
Sta. Cruz, dead, bch. Perhaps distinct. 
417b 761 Ocinebra lurida, var. munda, Cpr. 

Str. Fuca to Baulines Bay. 
384 763 Ocinebra interfossa, Cpr. 

Str. Fuca to Monterey — Sitka. 
6 dead, bch. ; 5 living, 7 fms. Smithsonian coll, 
*384b 765 Ocinebra interfossa, var. muricata, Cp. 
Lohitos to Catalina I. 
Santo Cruz, common, dead bch. Perhaps distinct. 
*384c 766 Ocinebra interfossa, var. clathrata, Cp. 
Santa Cruz to San Diego. 
Santa Cruz, rare, dead. Like 3fiiricidea alveata, 
481 768 Cerostoma foliatum, Gmel. 

Str. Fuca to Santa Barbara — Asia ? 
1 living, 4 fms. Bch., common broken. 



70 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

563 769 Cerostoma NuttaUi, Conr. 

Baulines Bay to San Diego. 
Santa Cruz, 1 dead, bch. 
491 772 Nitidella Gouldu, Cpr. 

Str. Fuca to San Diego. 

2 dead, bch. Smithsonian coll. 

515 776 3Iuricidea squamuUfer, Cpr. 
Baulines Bay to S.iin Diego. 

3 living, 7 fms. rock. ^'Trophon,'' Cpr., Sta. Cruz bch., 
=Barbarensis f Gabb. 

411 778 TropJwn mtilticostadis, Esch. 

Str. Fuca to Monterey — Sitka ; Greenland. 

1 dead, 20 fms. 

419 782 Siphonalia fuscotincta, Cpr.? 
Monterey to Catalina I. 

4 dead, bch. Possibly the young of others. 
— 787 Fusus ambustus, Gld. 

Santa Barbara to San Diego — Mazatlan. 
Smithsonian coll. (=788) ? 
956 788 Fusus geniculus, Conr. ? 

Farallone Is. to Cruz I. (Oregon, /oss.) 

2 dead, bch. (^= ambustus, var. ?) 
418 792 Anachis penicillata., Cpr. 

Monterey to San Diego. 
1 dead, bch. Possibly distinct. 

387 794 Octopus punctatus, Gabb ? 

San Francisco Bay to San Diego — Lower Cal. 
1 young, 2 fms. Species doubtful. 

Recapitulation. 

Species found at Monterey (excluding manifest varieties), 197 
Species found at Santa Cruz, but not at Monterey in 1861, 50 

Total found by me in the bay, 247 

Credited to Monterey by former collectors, but not confirmed, 14 

New species discovered b^ me at Monterey, 30 

New species discovered by me elseAvhere, and found 

in the bay, 11 

Total, 41 



OF COXCnOLOGY. 71 



NOTES ON RECENT AND FOSSIL SHELLS, WITH DE- 
SCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES. 

BY T. A. CONRAD. 



MACOMA Leach. 
M. SUBROSEA. PI. 1, fig. 3. 

Description. — Subtriangular, equilateral, convex ; substance 
very thin ; beaks slightly prominent, direct; posterior side cunei- 
form; ventral margin rounded, disk minutely striated concen- 
trically, white and glossy, with a thin, pale ochreous periostraca ; 
cardinal tooth in the left valve compressed, with a minute linear 
sulcus. 

Locality. — Raritan Bay, near South Amboy ; Delaware Ba;/. 

This delicate shell was found amonoj the sea weed cast ashore, 
and all the specimens were dead shells, but with the valves con- 
nected by a strong elastic ligament. The shell is more elevated, 
triangular and equilateral than any other of the small American 
species. 

It has some resemblance in outline to Macoma fusca, Say, 
which accompanies it, but can readily be distinguished by its 
smaller size, more prominent beaks, shiny and iridescent valves, 
flexuous posterior side, &c. Specimens from Delaware Bay are 
larger and rosaceous. 

CYCLOCARDIA. 

Prof. Morse, in the Peabody Acad. Report, makes this genus 
a subgenus under Actinobolus, Klein, the type of which is Circe 
pectinata. Its nearest affinity is Venericardia, Lam. 

CAPULUS, Moiitf. 

C. Shreevei, Amer. Journ. Conch., Vol. V, pi. 13, fig. 3. 

This supposed species proves to be a tooth of Pholas costata. 
It has a tubular character towards the upper end, which is con- 



72 



AMERICAN JOURNAL 



cealed when in place under the umbo, to "which it is attached by 
the flat incurved side. The breaking of the valve on the beach 
has freed the tooth in an entire condition, and it has been 
thought to be an ApJysia., which it resembles. The inclosed or 
tubular part is represented much too long in the figure. 

LAGENA, Bolten. 

L. TiNCTA, Conrad (PoUia.) Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., vol. iii, p. 
25, pi. 1, fig. 9. 

Cretaceous Species. 

^ORA, Conrad. 

Hinge Character. — Right valve — three diverging cardinal 
teeth, posterior one bifid ; cardinal plate broad, deeply channelled 
anteriorly, with a compressed lateral tooth in the middle of the 
channel ; plate deeply channeled posteriorly. Left valve with 
three diverging cardinal teeth, the anterior one v-shaped, ob- 
lique ; one distant anterior lateral tooth with a channel above, 
parallel with the cardinal margin ; nympha crenulated on the 
upper margin ; a distant narrow channel on the posterior hinge 
plate; pallial sinus deep, reaching to a point in a line with the 
posterior extremity of the posterior cardinal tooth ; rounded and 
somewhat ascending;. 

This genus is nearly related to the Eocene genus Isodoma, 
Desh. It diifers in having three teeth in the right valve instead 
of two bifid teeth, and in having no lateral tooth posteriorly on 
the left valve, but a narrow pit in place of a tooth. It has also 
a much wider hinge plate and a crenulated nympha. The v- 
shaped tooth on the left valve is a very peculiar and distinctive 
character. 

M. CRETACEA, Conrad. PI. 3, fig. 8. ' 

Description. — Subtriangular, subequilateral, convex ; end 
margins acutely rounded; umbo slightly prominent; lunule 
lanceolate, slightly defined by an impressed line ; ventral margin 
rounded. 

Locality. — Haddonfield, N. J. 

TENEA. 

Hinge Character. — A v-shaped tooth under the apex of the 
left valve, the anterior lobe of which is continued along the 
margin anteriorly, forming a long, deep pit above it ; one distant 
ver}^ oblique cardinal tooth posterior to the apex. Right valve — 



OF CONCnOLOGY. 73 

two cardinal teeth united above; anterior one falcate, -witli a pit 
on each side ; posterior one curved and directed obliquely back- 
ward. 

T. PARiLis. PL 3, fig. 12. 

Description. — Suborbicular or subovate, inequilateral, ventri- 
cose ; umbo prominent; posterior end acutely rounded ; ventral 
margin profoundly curved ; surface entire. 

Locality. — Iladdonfield, N. J. 

It is thin and fragile, and exteriorly so closely resembles the 
genus 3Iysia (^Diplodonta) that I so referred it in the Journal of 
the Acad. Nat. Sci., vol. vi, pi. 46, fig. 10. 

ASTARTE, Sowerby. 

A. ? STAMINEA, Conrad. 

Description. — Oval, elevated, inequilateral ; beak slightly 
prominent, acute; disk very minutely and densely striated con- 
centrically ; end margins obtusely rounded. 

Locality. — Ripley Co., Miss. 

Journal Acad. Nat. Sci., vol. vi, pi. 46, fig. 8. 

TELLIMERA, Conrad. 

A more perfect hinge of the left valve of this genus gives the 
following character : Cardinal teeth two ; anterior one v-shaped, 
nearly direct, or slightly directed anteriorly; the posterior tooth 
bifid, oblique ; posterior lobe thick, and longer than the anterior 
lobe ; cardinal plate comparatively broad laterally, posteriorly 
channeled ; anteriorly with a small pit, apparently for the recep- 
tion of a lateral tooth. 

This genus was originally made a subgenus of Tellina, under 
the name of Telliiiimera. I have shortened this name in the 
genus, and in its present form it constitutes a proper name of 
Greek origin. 

T. EBOREA, Conrad. PI. fig. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sciences, 
vol. iv, p. 278, pi. 46, fig. 14. Type. 

LINEARIA, Conrad. 

This genus was described in the Journal of the Acad. Nat. 
Sciences, vol. vi, p. 279. At that time I had not seen the hinge 
of the right valve, which has since been obtained in the Iladdon- 
field marl. The hinge shows two small, diverging, nearly equal 
teeth, directed obliquely forward, the anterior one very oblique; 



74 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

and two rather long lateral very distinct pits, the posterior one 
very distant from the apex. The pallial sinus is rounded and 
extends to a direct line between the apex and ventral margin, 
according to d'Orbigny's fig. 5, and beyond that point in fig. 
17. The present species approaches fig. 5 most nearly in out- 
line, but the radiating lines over the whole disk is a distinguish- 
ing character, and the height of the shell is proportionally less. 

PI. 3, fig. 11, represents the hinge of the right valve. From 
Haddonfield, N. J. 

^NONA, Conrad. 

Equivalved, without fold ; hinge character ; two compressed, 
very small, widely diverging teeth in the right valve ; lunule 
very narrow, lanceolate and marked by a deeply impressed line. 

M. EUFALENSis, [TelUna.) Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci., vol. iv, 2d 
series, p. 277, pi. 46, fig. 15. 

M. PAPYRIA, Conrad. 

Description. — Subelliptical, inequilateral, extremely thin in 
substance, convex, anterior side narrowed ; posterior end ob- 
liquely truncated ; ventral margin regularly curved ; surface 
marked by microscopic concentric close lines. Length f inch. 

Locality. — Haddonfield. 

YOLDIA. 

Y. EUFALENSIS, {JSfucula,) Gabb, Journ. Acad." Nat. Sci., 2d 
series, pi. 69, fig. 35. 

YELEDA, Conrad. 

Equivalved. Hinge character ; left valve with a v-shaped car- 
dinal tooth under the apex, and three compressed teeth, posterior 
one elongated and parallel with the dorsal margin, cardinal 
plate channeled, deeply so anteriorly. 

V. LINTEA, Conrad. Journ, Acad. Nat. Sci., vol. iv, pi. 46, fig. 
17. 

This small bivalve externally very closely resembles the genus 
Protocardia, except in being concentrically striated posterior to 
the umbonal slope. I referred it to that genus before I saw the 
hinge. 

VENILIA, Morton. 

V. ELEVATA, Conrad. PI. 1, fig. 7, 7a. 

Triangular, elevated, profoundly ventricose, with three ele- 



OF CONCIIOLOGY. 75 

vated recurved lamelliform concentric distant ribs on the disk, 
and two or three small ribs on the umbo ; posterior slope wide 
and flattened or concave, forming a right angle with the disk ; 
umbonal slope terminal. 

Locality. — Iladdonfield, N. J, 

I found one valve of this singular species nearly entire. 

CARDIUM, Lin. 

Subgenus Criocardium, Conrad. 

INIultiradiate ; interstices spinose, ribs smooth ; anterior lateral 
tooth long and prominent. 

This subgenus presents a singular deviation from the char- 
acter of recent spinose species, in having long, slender spines 
in the interstices between the ribs, while the ribs are smooth. 

C. DUMOSUM, Conrad. 

Description. — Cordate equilateral, ventricose ; umbo broad ; 
summit very prominent; ribs very numerous, small, closely ar- 
ranged, convex ; interstices furnished with numerous long slender 
spines ; posterior margin subtruncated or slightly convex ; height 
1^ inch ; length the same. 

Locality. — Haddonfield, N. J. 

I am not certain whether or not this is C. multiradiatum, 
Gabb. It has a much broader umbo than multiradiatum is repre- 
sented to have. It also closely resembles C. liaulineanum, 
D'Orb., but is much larger, and proportionally more elevated, 
and agrees with it iri having the spines in the interval between 
the ribs. The two species, therefore, must be referred to the 
one subgenus, which appears to be limited to the Cretaceous 
strata. 

SOLYMA, Conrad. 
Hinge cliaracter. Two direct approximate teeth under the 
apex of right valve. The anterior tooth thick and rounded an- 
teriorly. 

Locality. — Haddonfield, N. J. 

This genus is allied to LeptoSolcn.) Conrad, but wants the in- 
ternal rib of that genus ; and differs also in having two teeth in 
the right valve. 

S. LiNEOLATUS, Conrad. — PI. 3, fig. 9. 

Description. — Equilateral, ventricose, substance very thin ; 
anteriorly slightly contracted, end margin rounded ; posterior 
margin obtusely rounded ; umbonal slope rounded; ventral mar- 



76 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

gin nearly straight in the middle ; disk ornamented with minute 
and very closely arranged lines. Length 1^ in. Height | in. 
The figure represents the hinge of the right valve. Left valve 
unknown. 

CAMPTONECTES, Agass. 

C. BURLINGTONENSIS, Gahb, (Pecten). 

I have found the shell and sculpture of this species, which 
prove it to be a Camptonectes. 

LEPTOMYA, Conrad. 

Amer. Journ. Conch, vol. iii, p. 15. 

This name having been previously applied by H, and A. 
Adams to a genus of the family TeUhiidce, I substitute the 
name of Periplomya. This genus appears to connect Anatina 
with Pei'iploma. 

PI. 3, fig. 10, represents the hinge of left valve and the tooth 
of the opposite valve. 

INOCERAMUS. 

I. peculiaris, Conrad, Amer. Journ. Conch, vol. v, p. 43, pi. 
1, fig. 13. This shell should probably be referred to Cercomya, 
Agassiz. 

VENERIDiE. 

ARTENA, Conrad. 

Triangular, thick ; surface with acute, concentric, prominent 
ribs ; hinge with three cardinal teeth in the right valve, two of 
them diverging, distant, the anterior one under the apex, robust, 
direct, curved; left valve with three diverging distant teeth; 
lateral tooth very small, pyramidal ; pallial sinus very small and 
angular. 

CytJierea staminea, Conrad, Miocene Foss., pi. 21, fig. 1. 

This genus is readily distinguished from the other genera of 
the family by one thick anterior tooth in the right valve instead 
of the two approximate teeth o? 3Ieretrix, Carijatis, &c., and by 
the two distant, thick, nearly equal teeth of the opposite valve, 
and also by the very small pallial sinus, the exterior ribs, &c. 

The species is triangular, very ventricose, slightly contracted 
posteriorly, and between the ribs are close, minute, rugose, con- 
centric lines umbonal slope terminal, angular ; posterior slope 
depressed, lunule condate. 

A. UNDULA.TA, Conrad. 

Description. — Subtriangular, profoundly ventricose ; disk un- 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 77 

dulated slightly and having four thick concentric ribs and nu- 
merous prominent lines ; inner margin crenulated. 

Locality. — South Carolina. Cast, in the phosphate deposits. 
Miocene 'i 

These casts are so well defined that the hinge and external 
character of the shell can readily be studied by making moulds 
in wax or plaster. 

The ventricose disks, which are common in the hard or cohe- 
rent phosphate rock, usually show a somewhat undulated sur- 
face. The generic character pei'fectly agrees with that of the 
preceding. Venus Lamarckii is a recent species of this genus. 

DOSINIA, Scopoli. 
D. OBOVATA, Conrad. 

Dione obovata, Conrad, Mioc. Foss. 14, 8, 4. 

YENUS. 

V. (Circumphalos) alveata, Say, figured in Say's American 
Conch, is probably V. (C.) athleta, Con., not alveata, Conrad. 

Univalves, 

DENTALIUM ? 

? D. hamatus. Under a lens this cast shows a minute, very 
closely granulated surface, slightly iridescent. This also appears 
on a fragment of the inner part of the shell. This character, 
together with the expanded base, renders it doubtful whether 
this shell belongs to the family Dentaliidce. I propose to name 
it Falcula. 

D. hamatus, Conrad, Amer. Journ. Conch, vol. v, p. 44, pi. 
1, figs. 12, 16. 

CREPIDULA Lam. 
C. ROSTRATA, Conrad. 

Description. — Thin, inflated, umbo very narrow and promi- 
nent, beak incurved, pointed above the margin of aperture ; 
diaphragm short, margin slightly concave. 

Locality. — Virginia. JNIiocene. 

Allied to C. cymha^formis, Conrad, but may be distinguished 
by its thin substance, narrow umbo and incurved apex ; while 
the umbo cavity is solid in the former species, in this it is open 
to the apex, and the margin of the inner plate is not sinuous as 
in the former. 



io AMERICAN JOURNAL 

C. VIRGINICA, Conrad. 

Description. — Ovate, thick, inclined to be subfalcate ; apex 
laterally curved ; margin about the apex thickened, striated ; 
inner plate long, margin sinuous. 

0. fornicata, Conrad, not Saj. 

Locality. — Virginia. Miocene. 

Very variable from profoundly ventricose to slightly convex. 
In large specimens the margin behind the apex is very thick. 
Length two inches. 

C. RECURVIROSTRA, Conrad. 

Description. — Obliquely suboval, profoundly ventricose, pos- 
terior side obliquely depressed ; anterior side contracted and 
slightly grooved below the apex, which is subspiral and recurved, 
but not detached ; margin of internal plate sinuous. 

Local. — N. C. ? Miocene. 

PERSICULA, Schura. 
P. OVULA, Conrad. Miocene Fossils, pi, 49, fig. 9. 

Description. — Ovate, short, shoulder acutely rounded ; callus 
of labium distinct, subangular, and continued round the upper 
miirgin of aperture ; mouth rather narrow, slightly widest at 
base; submargin of labrum minutely crenulated within; plaits 
eight, upper ones minute, penultimate plait very large. 

Locality. — James River, Virginia. 

MARGINELLA, Lam. 

Marginella constricta, Emmons. 

This Miocene species, bearing the same specific name as a very 
different Eocene species previously described, I propose to name 
Marginella contracta. 

M. constricta, Emmons, Geol. of N. C, fig. 135. 

Having formeily used the name of Dorcellana, Adanson, it is 
necessary to remark, in explanation of my having adopted La- 
marck's generic name, that the former having been given by 
liumphius to CyprcefL, Lin., obliges us to restore 3Iarginella. 

The genus J^rato, llisso, has not been found in the United 
States, and therefore the shells I referred to it must be restored 
to 31arginella. 

The subgenera of Marginella cannot successfully be applied 
to the Eocene species. Marginella larvata would be a Persicula 
if it had not an external margin to the larbrum. So would M. 
crassilabraf, Conrad, judging by the numerous plaits on the 
columella alone, but it has a raised spire and very thick margin 
of labrum. 31. constricta, Conrad, has five plaits. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 79 



NOTICES AND REVIEWS 

OP 

NEW CONCHOLOGICAL WORKS 

BY GEO. W. TRYON, JR. 



I.— AMERICAN. 



Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York. ix. No. 8. 

Dec , 1869. 

Additional Notes on the G-eograpJiical Distribution of Land 
Shells in the West Indies. Bj Thomas Bland. 

Contains additions to the list of species given by the author in 
the seventh volume of the Annals. 

On the names applied to Pisidium, a genus of Corhiculadce. 
Bj Temple Prime. 

The history of Physemoda, Bafinesque, Galilej'a, Pisiim, Gray 
(Muhlfeldt), Musculium, Link, Puglesa, Pera and Cordula, 
Leach, are given. 

List of the species of Mollusca found in the vicinity of 
North Comvay, Neiv Hampshire. By Temple Prijie. 

Report upon the Oyster Resources of Maryland, to the General 
Assembly. By Hunter Davidson. 8vo, 20 pp. Annapolis, 1870. 

The author, Avho is commanding oflScer of the State Oyster 
Police Force, says that oysters are being rapidly exterminated 
from its waters by immense amount of dredging at periods when 
.he beds are full of young moUusks, which are almost totally de- 



80 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

stroyed by the heavy dredges. In 1869 five hundred and sixty- 
three vessels, licensed by the State, dredged and brought to 
market during the season of seven months upwards of six million 
bushels of oysters. In addition to this amount, over three mil- 
lion bushels were taken with the "tongs " (for which over nine- 
teen hundred canoes are licensed) ; making the aggregate yield 
of the year in the waters of Maryland alone ten million bushels. 
A tabular statement of localities aggregates 373 square miles 
of oyster beds in Maryland. 

IL— FOREIGN. 



BRITISH. 
Annals and Magazine of Natural History. July, 1869. 

On a new Volute. By Frederick McCoy. 

Voluta (^Amoj'ia) canaliculata. Hah. — Port Denison. 

Note on the A7iimal of Limncea involuta. By A. G. More. 

The animal of this species is here described for the first time. 
The appearance of the shell induced systematists to suspect its 
intimate relationship with Amphijpeplea, but the animal is not 
difi'erent from European Limncea. 

August, 1869. 

On the Anatomy of Diplommafina, and its affinity with 
Oyclophorus and Pupina in the Cyclophoridce. By 
John Denis Macdonald. 

On the spire of Voluta Thatcheri. By Frederick Mc- 
Coy. 

Nov., 1869. 

On some British Fresh-water Shells. By J. Gwyn 
Jeffreys. 
Planorhis dilatatus of Gould is stated to have become a denizen 
of the Gorton and Bolton Canals at Manchester, its eggs having 
been transported probably in American cotton. 

Species of Terrestrial Mollusca collected on the Island of 

San Lucia. By Ralph Tate. 
Cuttlefish {Sepia) of the Med Sea. By Dr. J. E. Gray. 

The Journal of Anatomy and Physiology. Second Series. Vol. iv, 
No. 5. London. Nov., 1869. 

Sketches to a scale of the Auditory Organs of certain 
common 3Iolluscs. By George Gulliver, F. R. S., 
. with a plate. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 81 

Journal of the Linnean Society, Vol. x, No. 44, Nov., 18G8, No. 45, 
J;iu., 1869. 

Observations on the Septum of the Ccecida\ and sotne re- 
marks on the subject of the suppression of the Genera 
Brochina and Strebloceras or Phleboceras. By tlie 
Marquis Leopold de Folin. Communicated by W. 
Baird, M.D., F.R.S., &c. With a plate. 

The author proposes to suppress the latter genera, and merge 
the species in the genus Ca^ciurn, on the ground of there not be- 
ing suflQcient generic characters to warrant their separation. The 
following new species are described : 

Ccecum formuJosum, Bahamas. 

" decussatum, " 

" infimum^ Aspinwall. 

" biynamillatum, La Guayra. 

" carmenense, Lagunam de Terminos. 

" orientale, Mersina. 

*' auriculatum, Palermam. 

" strigosum^ Rio Janeiro. 

" vestitu77i, Vera Cruz. 

" circumvolutum, Aspinwall. 

" torquatum, Guadaloupe. 

" cuceina, Vera Cruz. 

" Veracruzanum, " 



FRENCH. 



Journal de Conchyliologie. Vol. xviii, No. 1. 160 pp. 8to, and 3 plates. 
Paris, January, 1870. 

Etude sur la mdchoire et Varmature linguale des Cylin- 
drellidce et de quelques genres voisins sous le rapport 
conchyliologique. By H. Crosse and P. Fischer. 

In this paper an attempt at a classification of the Cylindrellas 
is made based upon the lingual dentition, and those species hav- 
ing jaws are removed from the family and placed m Helicidce. 
The species thus separated belong to the genera EucaJodium, 
Berendtia and Holospira, and are essentially Mexican, while the 
true CylindreUas are principally confined to the West Indies. 

The paper is prepared with great care, and will repay study. 
I cannot agree with its authors in their estimate of the import- 
ance of the jaw, and so far from arranging those species having 
it in another family, I am not even convinced that its presence 
is of generic value. 

6 



82 



AMERICAN JOURNAL 



Catalogue des Coquilles terrestres recueillies par les nafu- 
ralistes de la commission scientifique cspagnolc sur 
divers points de V Amerique meridionale. By Dr. J. 
G. Hidalgo. 

Two hundred species collected in South America are enume- 
rated, with more or less precise localities, and remarks. 

Descriptions d'espeees nouvelles de V Archipel. Caledonien. 
By M. SouvERBiE and R. P. Montrouzier. 

Caledoniella Blontrouzieri, Souv. Bulimus submariei, Souv. 
Lamhertia Montrouzieri, " " Annihal, " 

Stomatella crassa, Mont. " Boulariensis^ Souv. 

Bulimus Groroensis, Souv. " Ouveana, " 

Wote sur Vhahitat exact de deux esp^ces de Coquilles ter- 
restres et de trois especes de Volutes. By John Bra- 
zier. 

Observations sur I'espeoes de Coquilles terrestres qui habitent 
Vile de Kauai [lies Hawaii)^ aecompagnees de desci'i])- 
tions d'especes nouvelles. By W. Harper Pease. 

Leptachatina^ Gld. L. extensa, Pse. 

Ij. turqidula, Pse. L. lucida, Pse. 

L. costulata, Pse, L. antiqua, Pse. 

L. Icevis, Pse. Amastra sphcerica, Pse. 

L. balteata, Pse, " rugulosa, Pse. 

L. tenebrosa, Pse. Catinella rubida, Pse. 

Succinea elongata, Pse. 

Descriptions d'esplces nouvelles. By H. Crosse, 

Voluta JTamillei, Bulimus Corydon, 
Murex Pazi, " Aristceus, 

Helix ancylocliila^ Pupa guhcrnatoria, 

" abrochroa, Truncaiella Areasiana, 

" cyrene., Ostrea Pauluccice. 
" cymodoce., 

Faune 7nalacologique terrestre et fluviatile des iles Viti, 

d'apres les envois de Dr. E. G-raeffe. By Albert 
MoussoN, (Fourth Memoir.) 

Nanina fragillima, Stcnogyra novemgyrata, 

" nodulata, Tornatellina columellaris, 

" excrescens, Physa gibberula, 

Zonites plicostriatus, Auricula intuscarinata, 

Patula subdcedala, 3Ielampus avcnaceus, 

" inermis, Trochomorpha accurata. 

" adposita, 



OF CONCnOLOGY. 83 

Diagnoses Mollusconun Novce Caledonle incolarum. By 
li. Crosse. 

Helix Cffiiitiisiaiia, Biilimus Pancheri, 

" Goulardiana, Microtina Heckeliana. 

Description d'un Ildix inedit provenant de la Nouvelh' 
CaUdonie. By E. Marie. 

Helix Abax, Marie. 

Diagnoses d'especes inedites provenant de la Nouvelh- Caledonie. 
By J. B. Gassies. 

Succinea Pauluccia;, Helicina mediana, 

Helix subcoacta, Planorhis Fouqueti, 

" 3Ielitce, Melanopsis curta, 
" Deplanchesi, " Zonites, 

Dnlimus buccalis, " robusta, 

" Ouensis, " fusca, 

" Pinicola, " fusiformis, 

'^ Theobaldianus, " Souverbieanay 

Scarabus Maurulus, Neritina 7norosa, 

" Crosseanus, " Pauluceiana, 

Cyclostoma Vieillardi^ " Lenormandi, 

Helicina G-allina, Navicella excelsa. 

BibliograpMe. Neerologie. Nouvelles. 



Revue et Magasln de Zoologie. No 8, Paris, 1869. 

Descriptions de quelques Paludinidees, Assiminidees et Mel- 
anidees nouvelles. By Dr. Paladilhe. (Continued.) 

Belgrandia Bigorrieneis, n. sp. Pyrennees. 

" gibber ula, " France. 

Hydrobia Paludestrinoides, " Pyrennees. 

" peracuta, " Lyons, France, Nyons, 

Switzerland. 
Paludestrina procerula, " France and Spain. 
" pachygastra, " Sicily. 

No. 9. 1869. 

Description dune espece nouvelle de Cyprcea. . By Dr. F. 

JOUSSEAUME. 

Cyprcea Avibryana, Guadaloupe. 

No. 10. 18G9. 

Descriptions de quelques Paludinidees, AssiminicUes et 
3Iilanidees nouvelles. By M. Paladilhe. (Continued.) 



84 A>[LRICAN JOURNAL 

Assiminea oheliscus. Algiers. 
Lartetia Bourguignati. Jura, France. 
Lartetia Moussoniana. '" " 



GERMAN, 



Baron Carl Claua von der Decken's Reisen in Ost-Afrika. 3d 

volume : Quadrupeds, Birds, Reptiles, Crustaceans, Mollusks and Echi- 
noderms. 8vo. Leipzig and Heidelberg, 1869. 

The chapter on mollusca is by Dr. E. Von Martens, and in- 
cludes the following new species : 

Helicarion aureofuscus, Nanina, var. alhopicta. 

Nanina jjyramidea, Bidiminus rJwdotceuia, 

" 3fossambicensis, Physa Seychellana^ 

The illustrations consist of three lithographic plates. 



Novitates Conchologicae. Supplement IIL Monographie der Mollusk- 
engatlung Venus, Liune. By Dr. Edward Romer. 20th and 21st Parts, 
with 6 colored plates. Oct., 1869. 

This issue completes the monography of Circe. The new spe- 
cies are : 

C. speciosa, Philippines. C. lirata, China. 



Novitates Conchologicas. Supplement IV. Japanische Meeres-Conchy- 
lien. A contribution to the knowledge of the Mollusca of Japan, with 
various reflections upon their geographical distribution. By Dr. C. E. 
LisCHKE. Parts 5 — 8, with 7 colored plates. 1869. 

This important work is now completed. There are no species 
first described in the present issue, but many interesting obser- 
vations are made on synonymy. 



Systematlsches Conchylien-Cabinet of Martini and Chemnitz. (2d 

Edition.) 194th Part. 4to. Nurnberg, 1S69. 

Contains the commencement of a monograph of Donacidce, by 
Dr. Edward Romer. 

Bijdragen tot de Dieikunde. Published by the Society iXatura Artis 
iMagistra of Amsterdam. .1869. 

Catalogue des Coquilles de la famille dcs Conides, qui se 
trouvent au 31usee de la Societie Zoologiqiie d' Amster- 
dam. By A. Oltmans. 

This rich collection is catalogued alphabetically, and embraces 
230 species and numerous varieties. 



Amertc<^rji JoftrTui/. of" (hj/ch/ylo^y.^ /870. Plate. 7 





<!-^^.iePliV>*'v4:efr.i<ii 










Tryon, On new^ Afar-i^i£^ Jii^^^^i^^s . 







W.h.OML, rtfOM NATUH^ 



Anu^m^^ Journ^ of ChruJvoLo^y: JS70. Pl^t^^ ^ 





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T^^y^ J^r^.-A Water SlteOs of ScuubruJi Jslands. 



A//irr7x:a,/ .Inf/r/iaJ or ronr7io7oq\'. //^70. /'Late /> 

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^MERICA.lSr 

JOURxNAL OF CONCHOLOGY. 



NEW SEKIES. 

PUBLISHED BY THE 

CONwHOLOGICAL SECTION of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 
Vol. VI. 1870-71. Part 2. 

Meeting April 7th, 1870. 

Seven members present. 

Dr. W. S. W. Ruschenberger, Director, in the Chair. 

A number of additions to the Library and Museum were an- 
nounced. 

The following paper was offered for publication, and referred 
to a Committee : 

"Monograph of the Fluviatile Mollusca of the United States. 
Part 4th (completing the work) ;" by Geo. W. Tryon, Jr. 

Mr. Tryon read a communication from the family of Guiseppe 
Stabile, of Milan, late a Correspondent of this Section, an- 
nouncing; his decease. 

The followinn: communication was read, and directed to be 
printed in the Journal : 

3Iohau'k, K r., April 2d, 1870. 
To Dr. Jos. Leidy : 

It will be remembered that those Avriters who have spoken of 
the soft jmrts of certain of our species oi Lijmncea have been 
unable to point out any differences that would aid the student in 
discriminating. My own observations, so far as they relate to 
the group that embraces the forms to which have been given the 

7 



86 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

names elodcs^cataseopium^emargiiiata^fragiUs^ka., seem thus 
far to add nothing to the observations of others. In fact, the 
soft 'parts of all these are too slightly varied to admit of a suspi- 
cion of specific difference. We are left then to consider the 
forms and appearances of the shells ; and those for any of the 
supposed species referred to above exhibit a succession of varia- 
tions that blend the whole mass into one. The presence or ab- 
sence of ferruginous or other coloring matter determines the 
color of the shell in a remarkable degree. The temperature of 
the water determines the mode of development of the shell in a 
very obvious manner ; abundance or scarcity of food will deter- 
mine in a remarkable manner the size of the soft parts, and of 
course that of the enclosing shell. Whether the whorls of a 
shell be regularly and symmetrically rounded, or on the other 
hand assume a malleaied appearance, as if little plane facets had 
been formed on a soft convex surface by hammering, is not a 
specific character. It depends upon the rapidity of the growth 
of the soft parts, and whether there be at the same time a sufii- 
cient amount of calcareous matter in the food of the mollusc to 
give the shell a sufficient solidity not to yield to the external in- 
fluences by which the mollusc is surrounded. 

I have often taken L. elodes while in rapid growth, and found 
the margins of the shells so thin and fragile that the slightest 
handling would fracture them. In all such cases the appearance 
of the surface of the shell is of the character called " malleated." 
We do not often find this appearance in those shells we call 
catascopium, for the reason that the shells so called are generally 
found in bodies of water of very equal temperature, often rapidly 
moving; food is also less abundant, and the growth of the soft 
parts is not so rapid but that the whorls of the shell retain their 
rotund form. It may be suggested, then, that the following 
differences in station account for»the supposed species that pro- 
bably are in reality only one : 

An equable temperature, a moderate supply of food, limited 
supply of air, and frequent disturbances of the station of the 
animal by currents in the water, determines the form we call 
catascopium. 

A warmer station, abundance of food, unlimited access to the 
atmosphere, and quiet stagnant water, favor the developuient 
called elodes. 

In the instances I have referred to in my papers in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, and in the Amer. Jour. 
Conch., the eggs o{ catascopium were developed as elodes by be- 
ing transferred to a shalloiv stream, wliere they found favoring 
conditions in the rich confervoid vegetation growing in the inter- 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 87 

stices of a coarse gravel, a warm station in little pools of quiet 
water along the margin of the stream, free access to the air, hj 
their proximity to the surface of the water, always within reach. 
If you regard these remarks of sufficient importance, please 
make use of them in any way that will promote the objects of 
those who seek truth. 

Respectfully yours, 

James Lewis. 



fleeting May 5tJi, 1870. 
Nine members present. 
Mr. Tryon, Vice-Director, in the Chair. 
Several donations to the Library and Museum were reported. 

The following papers were offered for publication in the 
Journal : 

" Revision of the Terebratulidie and Lingulidse ;" by Wm. H. 
Ball. 

"'Notes on Lingual Dentition ' by W. G. Binney and Thos. 
Bland ;" Review by Wm. H. Dall. 

" Rectification of the Synonymy of certain Species of Margi- 
nella ;" by John IL Redfield. 



3Ieeting June 2d, 1870. 
Dr. Rusciienberger, Director, in the Chair. 

The two following papers were offered for publication, and re- 
ferred to Committees : 

" Catalogue of the Recent Species of the Family Melanidi^ ;" 
by Aug. Brot, M.D. 

"Notices and Reviews of New Conchological Works;" by 
Geo. W. Tryon, Jr. 

A letter was read from Prof. M. McDonald, of the Virginia 
Military Institute, at Lexington, Va., reporting the occurrence 
there of living HeUcina occulta, Say, in immense quantities. 
The species was supposed to be extinct until discovered two or 
three years since by Prof. McDonald. It has also occurred, 
rarely, at Milwaukie, Wisconsin. Individuals were found by 
Prof. McD. upon the stems and leaves of plants in some cases 
at an elevation of two to three feet above the surface of the 
ground. 



88 AMERICAN JOURNAL 



A REVISION OF THE TEREBRATULID^ AND LINGULID^, 
•WITH REMARKS ON AND DESCRIPTIONS OF SOME 
RECENT FORMS. 



BY W. H. DALL, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 



In the preparation of this paper I have been much indebted to 
the Smithsonian Institution, under the direction of Prof. Joseph 
Henry, for the use of its collection of recent Brachiopoda, and 
for the use of the cuts which illustrate the text of this article. 
I am under great obligations to Mr. F. B. Meek, of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, for assistance, especially in regard to the 
fossil forms ; his knowledge of the latter being only equalled by 
his kindness in imparting it. 

I am also indebted to Thos. Davidson, Esq., F.G.S., &c., for 
much useful information and assistance, and for his unfailing 
courtesy in correspondence. 

I have derived much assistance from the works of Messrs. 
Suess, Deslongchamps, Hall, King and Davidson, and especially 
from the admirable plates which accompany the excellent mono- 
graphs of the last-named learned palaeontologist. 

The fact that I have departed from the arrangement hitherto 
in general use, is due to the belief that the practice of combining 
under one name forms differing in structure as well as detail, is 
detrimental to the interests of science. With few exceptions, 
the forms which I have separated sectionally, or generically, 
have been accurately figured and described by other authors ; 
yet, in order to refer to them specially, the student must make 
a special study of all the forms, and search through paragraphs 
and pages relating to other forms which have been united with 
those of which he desires information ; a course which, though 
popular from the greater latitude which it allows to the careless 
and superficial observer, is yet reprehensible, as destructive of 
the care and accuracy in detail which are so greatly needed in 
the study of recent as well as fossil forms. 

The great interest which attaches to the theory of evolution 
renders close discrimination all the more valuable at the present 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 89 

day, whether the opinions of the observer incline to accept or to 
reject it. 

Again, the whole system of nomenclature is only useful as an 
index to the members of the animal kingdom. The more accu- 
rate, full, and discriminating the index, the greater its value in 
generalization, and the more accessible becomes a true apprecia- 
tion of natural laws. On the other hand, the combining in 
unnatural and heterogeneous groups, for purposes of conveni- 
ence, forms which exhibit structural differences of greater value 
than the characters of the united group, is a course directly in 
opposition to all principles of science, and one which lays the 
greatest obstacles in the path of study. The argument used 
against an extended nomenclature, of its overtaxing the memory, 
&c., as Dr. jNIcirch truly observes, is unworthy a moment's con- 
sideration from scientific minds, and is only adapted for the non- 
scientific and popular masses. Such a train of reasoning carried 
to its logical conclusion would take us back to the system of 
Linnaeus, or Aristotle himself. 

In these remarks I must not be understood as reflecting in any 
way upon the very valuable labors of the authors above men- 
tioned. To Mr, Davidson we are under great obligations, for 
restraining the premature cacoefhes nominandi in the group of 
Brachiopoda. However, I believe the time has arrived when 
our knowledge of the internal structure of these mollusks is 
sufficient to Avarrant their separation into natural groups, which 
should no longer be left without definite appellations. 

The position of the BracJdopoda with respect to the other 
classes of the animal kingdom has been frequently the subject of 
discussion, but of late years naturalists have almost unanimously 
agreed in considering them as closely allied to the Ascidians 
and Polyzoa, and as occupying a place in that subdivision of the 
subkingdom Mollusca of Cuvier, to which the name 3Iolluscoidea 
has been applied. The researches of Mr. E. S. Morse into the 
embryology of Terehratuliiia septentrionalis, would seem to sub- 
stantiate this view entirely, and the only question still undecided 
would seem to be whether the Brachiopoda or the Ascidia should 
be considered as the most nearly allied to the Lamellihranchiata. 
As naturalists have generally come to the conclusion that linear 
classification is impossible, this point, though of interest, can 
hardly be said to be of great importance. But, more recently, 
Mr. Morse,* after enjoying great facilities for the study of the 
living animal of Lingula, has announced as his opinion, that the 
Brachiopods and Polyzoa must be removed from the mollusca 

*Sillimaa's Journal, July, 1870, p. 100. 



90 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

including the Ascidians, and that the former are, as he expresses 
it, " true articuhites and not niollusks, and that their proper 
place is among the worms, forming a group near the tubicolous 
Annelids." 

A statement at once so startling and so utterly at variance 
with the received ideas upon the subject, naturally awakens a 
sentiment of opposition ; such being the case, we should en- 
deavor to use the utmost impartiality in discussion, and to give 
due consideration to the facts bearing upon either side of the 
question. It is, I believe, generally admitted that, in classify- 
ing forms which lie upon the boundaries of the great subdivisions 
so closely as to render their position a matter of doubt, a con- 
clusion is more fairly reached by considering the sum total of 
the characters than by an exclusive classification based upon 
any one of them; and also that in arriving at a decision a com- 
prehensive view of the general types of structure is more re- 
liable than minor morphological considerations. Taking this 
view of the case, we may judge more clearly of the value of Mr. 
Morse's proposition by comparing the general structure of the 
Mollusca with that of the Annelids and then deciding from the 
facts, to which of them the structure of the Brachiopods and 
Polyzoa offers the greatest affinity. 

Clark has shown very clearly* that the mollusca as a group 
are characterized especially by a bilateral development of single 
organs, that is, " among the zoophytes and articulates we find 
an excess of repetitions, of multiplicity of parts ; but here 
(among the mollusca) every part or organ is single or in a single 
pair, and, instead of repeating itself, it develops its uniformity 
to relatively extreme proportions." 

The main characters of the mollusca are as follows : 

The circulatory system varies in extent, the ascidians possess- 
ing a simple unilocuhir contractile vesicle and incomplete vascu- 
lar apparatus, while the cephalopod developes a trilocular heart 
with a distinct arterial and venous system. The heart, when it 
exists, is usually on the opposite side of the alimentary tube, 
from the principal nervous centre. The blood is colorless or 
colored. t 

The nervous system essentially consists of a collar of nerves 
and ganglia around the oval opening or anterior portion of the 
alimentary tube. The principal nerve-mass is usually on the 
opposite side from the heart. 

The alimentary system consists essentially of a tube invariably 

*Mincl in Nature, 1865, p. 195. 

t Colored blood lias been observed in Chiton; in Tunicata by Milne 
Edwards ; the circulating fluid oi Hinnites is of a deep wine-color. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 



91 



more or loss bout upon itself, and in most cases with the excur- 
rent orifice adjacent to the incurrent or oral opening. 

The muscles of Salpa abound in transversely striated fibres 
While among the mollusca transverse bands of muscular fibre 
are not uncommon, yet these never enclose a succession of simi- 
lar nervous, vascular or reproductive organs ; nor do they in- 
clude the whole body except in some Tunicates. The majority 
of the molkisca possess a calcareous shell, secreted by an organ 
called the mantle, to which they are permanently attacbed by 
strong muscles, and from winch they cannot emerge and live. 
Our knowledge of their embryology is too limited to admit of 
sweeping generalizations. 

Chitine is very generally secreted by them in the form of 
teeth, jaws, byssus, bristles* or opercula. 

On the part of the Articulates, and especially the Annelids, 
their most strongly marked and typical feature is that of a 
repetition of similar parts ; " we find it equally conspicuous 
among the internal organs, the intestines, heart, lungs or gills, 
nervous system and the reproductive system," " the highest of 
them do not attain to that singleness of character which exists 
even in the lower middle ranks of mollusca. "f 

Their principal structural characters are as follows : 

The circulatory system is highly developed, complete and 
closed. The place of a heart is supplied by several large con- 
tractile vessels,! or by the contraction of the vascular channels 
or of the body itself.§ The vessels anastomose at both extremi- 
ties, and by transverse vessels in the separate segments. The 
blood is colored or colorless. 

The nervous system is composed of two cords which connect 
successive ganglia, or, instead, send off lateral branches at 
regular intervals, along the median line of the body, while the 
most anterior and principal ganglion lies above the oesophagus. || 

The digestive apparatus almost without exception opens by a 
mouth at the anterior end of the body and terminates by an 
anus at the posterior end. It is usually straight, rarely having 
convolutions and frequently divided by muscular constrictions 
into many sections. 

The muscles of the Annelids, though highly developed, appear 

*The bristles of Chiton are well known, in Acanthocliites especially 
they are gathered in regular bundles, in follicles, corresponding to the 
segments of the shell, while in Cryptochiton they are spread over the en- 
tire surface. 

t Mind in Nature, p. 214. 

i Siebold. Anat. Inv., p. 167, et seq. Burnett's translation. 

§ In the Nemertoida. 

II Siebold, p. 15G-60. 



92 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

without notable exception to be destitute of transverse stria- 
tions.* 

The whole body is enveloped by subcutaneous muscular layers ; 
(1) of transverse muscles ; (2) of longitudinal muscles, and in 
many forms a third, of obliquely twisted fibres, is interposed 
between the two. 

Such of the Annelids as possess a shelly covering form it by 
a secretion from a collar which surrounds the anterior extremity, 
which either deposits a calcareous matter or a fluid which serves 
to agglutinate grains of sand or other substances together to 
form a tube. But in no case are the inhabitants provided with 
permanent muscular attachments to such tubes ; they can emerge 
without injury, especially when young,f and form another habi- 
tation without inconvenience. The shells of Annelids are al- 
ways univalve, and no Annelid is known to attach itself by a 
byssus or by a portion of its integument, to any extraneous 
object. 

In the Brachiopods and Polyzoa we find the following details 
of structure : while it is noteAvorthy that they are formed on the 
plan of uniformity, characteristic of the mollusca, and exhibit 
no trace of the reduplication of similar parts, which is the most 
salient feature of the Annelids and articulates in general. 
There is no vascular system or heart in the Polyzoa. The heart 
in the Bracldopoda is indistinct and the circulation is incom- 
plete, recalling a similar condition of things among the ascidians. 
Two or four accessory, contractile vesicles assist in propelling 
the blood. They are distinct from the blood vessels, in which 
the circulation is assisted by ciliary action. The blood is colored 
as in Chiton and many Ascidians. The nervous system in the 
Polyzoa consists principally of a ganglion placed between the 
afl"erent and efferent openings as in Ascidians. In the Brach- 
iopods it is more highly developed and consists of a series of 
ganglia and nerves, forming a collar surrounding the oesophagus 
" as in all true mollusks," with the greater portion of the gan- 
glia below the oesophagus, while in worms it is above it. 

The digestive canal is bent upon itself in both Polyzoa and 
BracJtiopoda, without exception. This is doubtfully reported, 
as far as I know, of but one worm, a larval form [Phoronis) ; 
other characters of this Annelid will presently be mentioned. 
In some of the Brachiopods the canal is closed, while in others 
it opens laterally. It is never divided into sections by muscular 
constrictions as in worms. 

*Siebold, 1. c. p. 154. But one or two species of Aunelids have been 
asserted to have striated muscular fibres. 

t Johnstone, Cat. Brit. Nouparasitical worms, pp. 1 k 81. 



OF COXCHOLOGY. 93 

The muscles of the PoJyzoa are not striated ; in arrangement 
they strongly I'ecall those of Saljxi. On the other hand the 
muscles of many of the Brachiopods are notable for their very 
conspicuous and remarkable striation. 

The peduncle of Lingida anatina consists of four layers ; an 
outer horny layer, imperforate and smooth, or slightly villous 
under a very high power, and transversely wrinkled by contrac- 
tion into irregular annulations ; second, a gelatinous, homo- 
geneous layer of pellucid matter, probably of the same essential 
character as the outer layer, but softer ; third, a very thin, 
delicate single layer of transverse muscular fibres ("delicate 
membrane," of Hancock) the most worm-like of all the char- 
acters of the group in question. But an exact parallel to the 
three layers just described may be found in the siphons of 
Lamellibranchs (for instance Mya arenaria) though the fourth 
layer, which in the Brachiopods is composed of simple longitu- 
dinal muscular fibres, is, in the other group, modified for the 
special use for which it is designed.* A similar arrangement 
of circular muscles is found in the higher Ascidians. 

Finally, we find one special character worthy of mention upon 
which Mr. Morse has laid much stress, namely, the "bristles " 
Avhich fringe the mantle-edge in most of the brachiopods, and 
which lie has found *' identical " with the setee of worms. 

These " bristles " or cirri in the brachiopods are very peculiar, 
and unlike anything reported by all writers on worms, accessible 
to me. They emerge one or two, or rarely more, from follicles 
on the edge of the mantle, exactly as we find the bristles of 
Acantliochites doing among the chitons. The bristles of Plaxi- 
p7i07'a, however, are not homologous, being more accurately re- 
garded as dermal prolongations. But, while seated in follicles, 
as among Chitons, the cirri of the brachiopods are less like 
Chiton-setK than the latter are like worm-bristles. The last- 
mentioned are solid,f usually falciform, rarely jointed, and of 
homogeneous consistency, quite insoluble in boiling caustic 
potash. They are sometimes serrated, and often provided with 
a hook ; and in the tubicolous Annelids are repeated with every 
segment. The Chiton-setse resemble them in being solid, and 
homogeneous, but they are more simple in form, shorter, and in 
some species strengthened with a limy deposit. 

* It is not impossible that, to some extent, the peduncle may be 
analogous to the siphon ; especially as in M tiller's figure of an em- 
bryonic Disa'na, a little organ below the mouth (which Morse compares 
with an Annelidau operculum) seems from its position, at least, to be 
analogous with the '■ foot " of bivalves, while the peduncle occupies rela- 
tively the same position that the siphon would. 

t See Johnstone, loc. cit. p. 79, et. seq. 



94 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 



The cirri of the brachiopods are tubular and composed of two 
layers. The inner one is composed of slender, brittle, longi- 
tudinal fibres of chitine ; the outer is membranous, very thin and 
regularly imbricated, the imbrications perhaps indicating stages 
of growth. In Liyigula anatina and Discina lamellosa these 
bristles are covered with small short pointed setellce, irregularly 
disposed upon the surface. These setellee resemble the thorns 
upon a rose bush, being larger at the base, but the portion of 
membrane upon which they are seated is sometimes constricted 
beloAY the base, giving them a pedunculated appearance. They 
are not articulated however as they might appear at first sight. 

Some of the cirri are flattened a little and the transverse im- 
brications are closer than in some others. This may be due to 
differences in rapidity of growth. 

When the cirri are boiled in caustic potash the outer mem- 
brane, setellce, and most of the imbrications disappear entirely. 
Nothing remains but the chitinous tube, which, deprived of its 
envelope, splits readily into longitudinal fibres, or collapses. 

When the difference in their construction and the fact that 
they are confined to the mantle edge and are not found upon 
the peduncle or other parts of the body, are recognized, it be- 
comes very evident that they are by no means " identical "' with 
the setae of the worms. 

The brachiopods are invariably attached by permanent mus- 
cles to bivalve shells, while the Annelids have no muscular con- ' 
nection with their univalve tubes of mud or sand. The fact 
that Lingula 'pyramidata forms a " sand-tube " about the pe- 
duncle, though interesting, has no bearing on the subject, since 
it is obvious that it cannot be formed in the same manner as the 
worm-tube, with Avhich it might be compared, and does not bear 
the same relation to the animal. 

The brachiopods are, as a rule, pedunculated and usually at- 
tached by their peduncles to submarine objects ; Lingula forms 
no exception ; though non-attached individuals are abundant, 
others of the same species are permanently fixed to stones or 
shells. 

None of the Annelids are pedunculated nor attached by the 
integument to submarine objects. Plioronis and Orepina, larval 
Sipunculoid worms, Avhich have been relied upon to bridge the 
chasm between the Polyzoa and the Annelida, have a distinct 
arterial and venous system, the latter, certainly, and the former, 
probably, have a straight intestine terminating in a posterior 
anus,* and in fact if the crown of ciliated tentacles be hidden, 

*See Strethill Wright, pp. 314-316, (Ed. new Philosoph. Jouru. Vol. 
if, 1856,) and compare Johnstone loc. cit. p. 266. 



\ 



AMERICAN JOURNAL 95 

the sight, in the words of Van Beneden, the describer of Crepina, 
and a well known student of the Annelids and Pohjzoa, is 
enough " to drive the very idea of a Polyzoon far away" !'*' 

To conclude, it is impossible to avoid the impression that in 
hastily referring the Brachiopods and Polyzoa to the Annelids, 
Mr. Morse has judged the case on inadequate grounds, and from 
the evidence before us it is not unsafe to predict that they will 
remain in the future as in the past, unmolested among the 
Molluscoidea, with their nearest allies the Tunicates. 

The recent observations of M. E. Deslongchamps on the 
spiculae contained in the mantle and circulatory system of most 
of the genera, go far toward proving the erroneous nature of the 
homologies which have been drawn between the calcareous sup- 
ports oi Thecidium and the apophyses of other forms of Brackio- 
poda. This is elsewhere discussed. 

I have preferred using the terms neural and h£emal to indicate 
the difl'erent valves, rather than the appellations ventral and 
dorsal, which can hardly be applied to the shells of this group. 
I have considered the pedunculated extremity of the shell as the 
posterior, and the opposite end as the anterior portions of the 
mollusk. 

In the details of the apophyses, I have used terms whose 
meaning is sufficiently evident ; dividing them into the crura, 
hcemal processes, neural processes, lateral loops, neural loop, septal 
processes, lateral processes, septum, &c., according to their rela- 
tive position with regard to the shell, as will readily be under- 
stood. 

The nomenclature of the figures is essentially the same as that 
of Woodward's Manual, in which most of them originally ap- 
peared. 

As no list of the recent species of Rliynclionella has been 
lately published, I have added one, with appropriate references, 
for the convenience of students. 

* Van Beneden, " Notice sur un Annelid" &c., Bull, de 1' Ac. Royale de 
Belgique, 2d. Series, V, 1858, p. 4.57. 

Note. — I would add, that so far as I have carried my dissections of 
Lingula anatina, the results obtained agree entirely with those of Mr* 
Hancock, in his magnificent paper on the organization of the Brachio- 
poda ; which stands unsurpassed in the annals of the comparative ana- 
tomy of invertebrates ; and, while some of the surmises put forth in it 
have not been confirmed by further researches, yet in the laborious ac- 
curacy of the dissections it may ever serve as a model to students. 



96 OF CONCHOLOGY. 



Synopsis of characters. 

TEllE BRAT ULID^E.— VxxnGi^ie, foraminated, pedunculate, 
valves articulated. Brachiferous, with non- 
spiral apophyses. 
TEREBRATULINaE.— Hsemal valve bearing a simple loop, 
attached only to the hinge margin ; pro- 
vided with crura. 
Terebratula. — Loop simple, crura separated. 

Terehratula. — Shell ovate. Brachia behind the mouth, 
provided with two lateral and a median spiral 
lobe. 
Gentronella. — Mesial sinuation of the loop prolonged 

neurally, as a thin lamina. 
? Epithyris. — Hinge plate pointed, prolonged beneath 

the loop. 
Pygope. — Shell bilobed when young ; lobes uniting and 
leaving a central perforation, in the adult. 
Renssel^RIA. — Hinge plate perforate internally. Anterior 
part of the loop pointed before, wider behind, 
long, with a slender process neurally perpen- 
dicular to the posterior edge. 
Tereeratulina. — Loop with the tips of the crura united 

forming a more or less sinuous ring. 
Waldheimia. — Loop elongated and reflected, crura sepa- 
rated. 
Cryptonella. — Loop with a transverse band uniting the 

apophyses behind the crura. 
Waldheimia — Ovate, inflated ; crura short, cardinal pro- 
cess and border moderate. 
Meganteris. — Orbicular, compressed, nearly equivalve. 
Crura long, projecting over the edge of the re- 
flected loop. Cardinal process and border, large. 
STRINGOCEPHALIN^.— Cardinal process produced and 
bifid. Loop not reflected, submarginal ; 
attached to the crura by their neural 
edges (?) ; both valves with a septum. 
Stringocephalus. — Loop provided with thin processes 
converging internally. Neural septum fitting 
into the bifurcation of the cardinal process. 
Foramen very large, triangular, when young ; 
round and small when adult. 
MAGASINiE. — Loop reflected, attached both to the hinge- 
line and to a haemal septum. 



AMERICAN JOUKNAL 97 

Terebratella. — Apophyses with their h£emal arms con- 
nected with the septum by two septal processes. 
Trigonosemus. — Area large, flat ; beak produced ; fora- 
men minute, apical. 
Lyra. — Beak much produced, divided internally by the 

prolongations of the dental laminte. 
Terebratella. — Shell usually ovate. Brachia with two 
lateral lobes meeting behind the mouth, median 
lobe absent, or obsolete. Septum not promi- 
nent, posterior neural loop free. 
Laqueus. — Shell ovate, foramen usually entire, posterior 
neural loop attached on each side by slender 
processes to the h»mal processes, near the at- 
tachment of the septal processes. 
Kingena. — Posterior part of the neural loop broad, angu- 
lated, with the corners brought down and 
attached to the septum. Exterior rough or 
pustulate. 
Ismenia. — Lateral loops and neural loop broad, and 
blended posteriorly with the haemal and septal 
processes, forming a broad funnel-shaped ring ; 
lateral loops anteriorly open. Exterior as in 
Terebratella. 
Megerlea. — Apophyses as in Ismenia, but lateral loops 
closed with calcareous matter. Shell transverse, 
hinge-line straight ; striate outside, pustulate 
inside. Median brachial spiral lobe prominent. 
Brachia passing behind the mouth. 
Magas. — Apophyses attached by the sides of the haemal 
processes to the septum. 
Magas. — Reflected portion of the loop incomplete. 
Magasella. — Reflected portion of the loop complete. 
KRAUSSININ^. — No loop. Apophyses comprising tAVO 
laterally extended lamellae attached to the 
upper part of the prominent mesial septum 
of the hfBmal valve. 
Kraussina. — Shell externally sculptured, beak truncate ; 
foramen large, incomplete ; septal lamellee an- 
teriorly inclined. Mouth behind the brachia, 
mesial spiral lobe minute. 
Bouchardia. — Shell externally smooth, beak produced ; 
foramen minute, complete ; septal lamella pos- 
teriorly inclined. 
PLATIDIINjfE. — Brachia sigmoid, meeting behind the mouth ; 
no spiral lobe. 



98 OF CONCHOLOGY. 

Platidia. — Loop simple, not reflected ; attached to a me- 
sial septum. No cardinal process. Foramen 
encroaching on both valves. 
MEGATHYRIN^. — Mouth central, surrounded hj a mem- 
branous disk, bounded by non-spiral sub- 
marginal brachia. 
Megathyris.- — Hinge-line straight ; loop not reflected, 
submarginal, attached. Mantle adherent to the 
shell. 
Megathyris. — Foramen and area large. Shell sculptured. 
Loop attached to three or more submarginal 
radiating septa. 
Cistella, — Shell smooth or sculptured. Loop attached to 
a single submarginal mesial septum, Avhich in- 
terrupts the brachia. 

* ♦ * ♦ 

? THECIDIIN^.— Shell attached by the substance of the 
neural valve, and with the foramen closed 
when adult. Young with a minute apical, 
foramen. Loop entirely absent. Mantle 
supporting the brachia (which are non-spiral 
and irregularly lobed), and itself supported 
by a self-secreted irregular calcareous net- 
work. 
Thecidium. — Shell thick, oval, rounded. Area large and 
flat. Crura united in a bridge over the visceral 
cavity. Brachia usually separated by a mesial 
ridare and its branches. Calcareous network 
variable. 

Note. — Eicliwaldia, Bill, which is doubtfully referred by Bronn to the 
Terehratulidce, is founded on a shell [E. subtrigonal/s, Rep. Prog. Can. 
Sur. p. 192, 1858) of which the internal structure is unknown, but which 
resembles externally, in the position of the foramen and general appear- 
ance, Magasella Camingii, Davidson, pp., P. Z. 8. 185'2, pi. xiv, fig. 10 — 
16. The genus was published in the Rep. on the progress of the Canadian 
Geol. Survey, 1858, p. 192, fig. 24, a to e, and the type is from the Coal 
Measures of Canada. 

Leptocoelia, Hall, is closely related to Atrypa. 

Hyrmiphoria, Suess, is unknown to me. 

Tropidoleptus has been referred doubtfully, by Prof. Hall, to the Tcre- 
bratididce. The type is Strophomena carlnata, Conr. I do not feel suf- 
ficiently confident of its true position to admit it at present. The apo- 
physes appear to resemble a Magas, without the upper reflected portion. 

F?<i<Zi»a, Hall, is somewhat undecided in its relations; V. pustuloiu, 
Hall, is the type.— T7t/e Pal. N. Y., vol. iv. 



AMERICAN JOURNAL 



99 








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OF CONCHOLOGY. 101 



Family TEREBRATULIB.^. 

Shell punctate. Neural valve perforated at or near the apex, 
and attached to submarine objects by a peduncle passing through 
the perforation, or by a portion of the valve itself ; provided 
with two teeth, which are articulated into sockets in the hgemal 
valve, which, in its turn, possesses a more or less prominent 
(cardinal) process which interlocks with the neural valve. 

Animal with ciliated brachia more or less provided with non- 
spiral calcareous supports, which proceed from the hoemal valve. 

Section TEREBRATULIN^. 

Haemal valve with a simple loop proceeding from the hinge 
margin, more or less sinuate, and possessing two pointed pro- 
cesses or crura which have their origin near the hinge margin, 
to which alone the loop is attached. Deltidium composed of two 
pieces, often united. 

Genus TEREBRATULA (Llhwyd), Auct. 

Shell provided with a simple sinuous loop. Crura separated. 
Neural valve perforate at or near its extremity; attached by a 
pedicel. 





Fig. 1. Fig. 2. 

Fig. 1. Terebratuln vilrea, Born, haemal valve. 
Fig. 2. Same, with tbe animal. 

Subgenus Terebratul.a. (Llhwyd), Auct. 

Shell ovate, margin entire. Brachia passing behind the 
mouth, provided with two symmetrical lateral lobes and a double 
spiral median lobe. 

Type. Terehratula maxillata, Sby., Min. Conch, p. 52, pi. 

436, f. 4, 18-22, = 
T. minor subrubra, Llhwyd, Lith. Brit. Ichn. 1699, pi. xi, fig. 

890. 

8 



102 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

The genu?! Tcrchriitula of Llhwyd, who was not a binomial 
author, was adopted by Miiller (Prodr. Zool. Dan. ITTG, pp. 
xxxi and 249). although not in the restricted sense in which it 
is at present employed. Ilis Tcrebratuhv embraced several spe- 
cies nuw ilistributod in difterent genera. In 1799, Lamarck, in 
his Prodr. Nouv. Class, des Coquilles, adopted the name, taking 
T. perovah'ft, Sby., as his type. This example has been followed 
by almost all subsequent authors. The generic term Anomia 
used for species of this family by Bolten (1798), Linnreus, and 
other authors, has in modern times, with equal unanimity been 
applied to a genus of Lamellibranohiate mollusca. 

The type most commonly cited for the genus is the recent 
Tcrebratula vitrea of Born (= ^-l^ow/a terebratula, hm. Syst. 
Nat. 1153, and trn/phus I'itrea, Megerle, Berl. Mag. 1811, p. 
64:), which inhabits the Mediterranean and is found fossil in the 
Pliocene deposits of Sicily. 

Terebratula unguicula, Cpr. 

T. unguicuJa, Cpr., Proc. Zool. Soc. Feb. 14. 1865, figs. 1 to 
4, p. 201. Cooper, Geogr. Cat. of Cal. Mollusca. p. 3, 
No. 3. 

ITab. San Diego, 6 fm. ; Monterey, 20 fm., Cooper. Van- 
couver Id., Forbes. Sitka, under stones at low water ; Unga 
Id., 4 fms., Dall. 

This remarkable and very distinct species is provided in the 
young state with strong, radiating, simple ribs, and in this con- 
dition the hi^mal valve resembles, exteriorly, a small J^ecten. In 
older speciuiens the ribs bifurcate and become less pronounced, 
and the resemblance to a young 2\-reb}'ati(Iina eaput-serpentis 
becomes more marked. The principal difterences are that the 
Terebratuhi is rather the wider, and the intercostal spaces are 
more channelled than in the TerebratiiUna. Even these differ- 
ences may not be constant in a large number of specimens. The 
broad incomplete loop, of course, is abundantly sufficient to 
identify this species. The umbo of the neural valves is sharply- 
pointed in perfect specimens ; the foramen is large and incom- 
plete, the area smooth and very short ; there is no deltidiura, 
and the pedicel is usuallv stout and short. 

Smithsonian Cabinet. 'l4.789, 14,892, 15,264. 

Xo. 16,232, a single valve from Neeah Bay, appears to be 
Terebratella eaun'na. Gould, jun., worn. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 103 

Subgenus Centronella, Bill. 

Centronella, Biilinojs, Can. Xat. iv. 1859, p. 131. A. J. Sci. 
vol. 36, p. 287. 

Shell resembling Terebratula, but with the mesial sinuation of 
the loop prolonged toward the neural valve, in the shape of a 
thin lamina. 

Ti/pe. Centronella glans-fagea (Hall sp.), Bill., in Can. Xat. 
1859, p. 131, fig. 1 to 5, and Am. Journ. Sci. xxxvi, p. 
237, fig. 8. 

Fossil in the Devonian of Canada. Plate vi, fig. 8. 

? Subgenus Epithyri.?, King. 

JEpithp-is, King (not Phillips), Perm. Foss. p. 146, 1850. 
Semimda, M'Coy, Br. Pal. Foss. 1855 (not = Seminula, 

MCoy, 1844). 
Dielasiii'i, King, Proc. Dub. Univ. Zool. and Bot. Assoc, vol. 

i, 1859, p. 260. 

Shell with lamellae supporting the teeth of the neural valve, a 
short loop as in Terebratula, but more abruptly sinuated an- 
teriorly, and with the central lamina of the hinge plate, in the 
haemal valve, produced in the form of a mason's trowel, and sup- 
ported beneath by a mesial septum. 

Ti/pe. Epithjris elongata. King, = TerehratuUtes elongatiLS, 
Schloth. Fossil, Permian. Plate viii, fig. 7, after Da- 
vidson. 

Mr. Davidson's figure in the Permian Brachiopoda represents 
the hinge lamina as produced almost as far as the loop, and very 
prominent ; those of Prof. King in the Permian Foss. show little 
more than may be observed in various species of different genera 
in this family. If the last-named figures be correct, the group 
is hardly of subgeneric value. 

Epithyris of Phillips (Pal. Foss. 1841, p. bo) Avas not suffi- 
ciently characterized, and no type was mentioned. Hence the 
name was still available, as it represented nothing. Prof. King 
applied it to this species and others allied to it, naming and 
figuring the species above mentioned as his type. In 1844 Prof. 
M'Coy had given the name Seminula to a group belonging to the 



104 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

Helictohrachiata, composed of an Athyris and two species of 
Rhynchonella. This fell to the ground, and in 1855 he proposed 
to apply the name to the group already characterized by King 
as Epithyris. 

Under the impression that his early name was inadmissible, 
Prof. King again described the group, with the same type, under 
the name of Dielasma. 

According to the strictest rules of nomenclature Einthyris 
must take the precedence, and Dielasma be considered as a 
synonym. 

Subgenus Pygope, Link. 

Pygope^ Link, Physik. Erdbeschr. ii, 1830. King, Perm- 
Foss. p. 144, 1850. Woodw., Man. Rec. and Foss. 
Shells, p. 215, pi. XV, fig. 2. 

Antinomia, Catullo, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. vii, 1850, 
p. 74. 

Loop as in Terehratula. Shell punctate. Young bilobed, 
the emargination being in the median line. In the adult the 
inner edges of the valves unite, leaving a circular perforation in 
the centre of the shell. 

Type. Pygope diphya^ = Terehratula dipJiya, v. Buch, Ueb. 
Ter. p. 88, pi. 1, fig. 12. 

Fossil in Jurassic beds of Europe. 

The very remarkable conformation of the adult shell cannot 
have been without some corresponding differences in the soft 
parts, and is sufficient to entitle the group to subgeneric rank, 
although the apophyses resemble Terehratula. 

Another species, P. diphyoides^ d'Orb. (Pal. Fran. Ter. Cret. 
iv, p. 87, pi. 109), is found in the Neocomian of France. 

The recent species of the genus Terehratula, not previously 
mentioned, are : 

Terehratula uva, Brod., P. Z. S. 1833, p. 124. Ilab., Gulf of 
Tehuantepec, Cuming ; Falkland Ids., Davidson. 

? Terehratula minor, Phil, and Suess., Dav. Ann. Nat. Hist. 
1861, p. 35. Ilab., Mediterranean. 

Terehratula Davidsoni, A. Adams, P, Z. S. 1867, p. 314, pi. 
19, fig. 30, Satanomosaki, Japan, 55 fathoms. 

?? Terehratula transversa, Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, 
vol. vii, p. 323, Sept., 1860. Otia Conch., p. 120. Dav., Ann. 
Nat. Hist. 1861, p. 38. (Not T. transversa, Sby., which is a 
synonym of T. dorsata, Lam.) Suess. Wohns. i, p. 27, 1859. 



OF CONCIIOLOGY. 105 

The type of tins species is not to be found, and I am unable 
to suggest its proper place from Dr. Gould's description. Suess 
(1. c.) refers it to Blegerlea. Hub., Hakodadi Bay, Japan. 

Terehratula eubensis, Pourt., Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. No. 7, p. 
109. W. Indies. 

Genus RENSSEL^RIA, Hall. 

Atrypa^ Conrad, Ann. Rep. Geol. of New York, 1839, p. 45. 

Pentamerus, Vanuxem, Journ. Phil. Ac. Nat. Sci. viii, p. 266, 
1843. 

3Ieganter{s, Hall, An. Rep. Reg. Univ. N. Y. Pal. Foss, 
1857. 

liensseko'ia, HsiW, 12th An. Rep. Reg. Univ. N. Y. p. 39, Oct. 
1859. 

Shell punctate, inequivalve ; neural valve with a prominent 
apex ; foramen complete or incomplete, terminal, sometimes con- 
cealed. Teeth supported by receding plates, which are attached 
in the cavity of the apex of the neural valve; septum pi-esent. 

Haemal valve with a more or less prominent hinge plate and 
cardinal process. The hinge plate is perforated near the apex 
of the valve, forming a communication with the cavity of the 
umbo. 

Two moderately stout processes are given out from the hinge 
upon which the crura are attached at a strong angle, projecting 
above and below, and at the lower extremity giving oft" the main 
branches of the apophyses about at a right angle. The latter 
are produced antei'iorly, meeting, and forming a sharp point 
connected by a thin plate of shelly matter, at the posterior edge 
of which, in the median line, a slender process is projected up- 
ward, nearly parallel with the crura, toward the neural valve. 

Type. Rensselceria ovoides, Hall = Terebratida ovoides, 
Eaton, Geol. Textb. 1832, p. 45. 

Fossil in the Lower and Upper Helderberg and Oriskany beds 
of New York. 

Prof. Hall has aptly compared a view of the apophyses with 
the tongue of a bird having the hyoid bones attached. 

Genus TEREBRATULINA, D'Orb. 
Terehratulhia, D'Orb., Comptes Rendus xxv, p. 268, 1847. 

Shell with the foramen incomplete and deltidium usually rudi- 
mentary. Crura united at their tips in the adult, forming a more 
or less sinuous ring. 

Brachia as in Terehratula. 



106 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

Type. Terehratulina caput serpentis. L. sp. 

Anomia caput serpentis, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, 1153, 1767". 
Terthratulina caput serpentis, D'Orb., Ann. Sci. Nat. viii, 67, 

pi. vii, fig. 7, 8, 17, 1848. 
Terehratulina cornea, D'Orb., 1848. 
Terehratula pubescetis, Retz., N. Gen. 15. 
Anomia retusa, Linn., S. N. 12, p. 1151. 
Delthyris spatula, Mke., Syn. ed. 2, 96. 
Terehratula aurita, Flem., Phil. Zool. 
Terehratula costata, Lowe, Zool. Journ. 
Terehratula striata. Leach, Br. Moll. 
Terehratula Gervillei, S. Wood, Mag. N. H. v, p. 253. 

Hah. North and East Atlantic. Smithsonian Cabinet, 14, 187. 

Fig. 4. 





Fig. 3. TerebratuUna caputserpcniis, D'Orb., hasmal valve. 
Fig. 4. Same, showing the animal. 

This species, by the coarser and rougher stride, and usually 
more elongate and less inflated valves, seems sufiiciently distin- 
guished from T. septent7'ionalis. Couth. 

It is reported from Japan, by A. Adams. Perhaps his speci- 
mens may have been T. augusta, Ad. {= T. Japonica^ Sby. 
teste Rve.), or possibly Terehratula unguicula, Cpr. 

The other recent species of this genus are : 

Terehratulina Japonica, Sby., Thes. Conch, vii, p. 344, pi. 68, 
fig. 7, 8. Hab. Japan. 

? Terehratulina Cumingii, Dav., P. Z. S. 1852, p. 79, pi. xiv, 
fig. 17, 18, 19. Hab. China Seas, Japan. 

Terehratulina ahyssicola. Ad. and Rve., Voy. Samarang, Moll, 
p. 72, pi. xxi, fig. 5. Hab. Gulf of Corea. 

Terehratulina radiata, Rve., Conch. Icon. pi. iii, fig. 7 a, 7 b. 
Hab. Gulf of Corea, Belcher. 

Terehratulina cancellata, Koch, Kuster Conchyl. Cab. v, vii, 
pi. ii b, fig. 11 and 15. Hab., West Australia, Suess. 

Terehratulina Caillettii, Crosse, Journ. de Conchyl. 1865, p. 
27, pi. i, fig. 1, 2, 3. Hab. West Indies. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 



107 



Genus WALDHEIMIA, King. 

Waldheifnia, King, Perm. Foss. p. 81, 1850. 

Macandrevia, King, Proc. Dub. Univer. Zool. and Bot. Assoc. 
1859, p. 261. 

Eudcsia, King, Perm. Foss. p. 144. 

Lampas, Humph, (pars.) 

f Rynclioray Dalm. (pars.) 

Waldheimia, Woodw., Gray, Dav. and the generality of au- 
thors. 

Loop elongated and reflected, without secondary attachments. 

Fis:. 5. 




Fig. 5. Muscular system of Waldheimia. 'A nat. size, after Hancock, a, a, 
adductors; r, cardinals; a;, accessory cardinals; p, ^'', z, pedicel muscles; o, 
mouth ; I, apophyses ; /, dental socket. 

Subgenus Cryptonella, Hall. 

Loop exactly resembling that of Waldheimia, proper, except 
in the addition of a transverse band from one side of the apo- 
physes to the other, behind the crura. 

Cryptonella, Hall, 14th Rep. Reg. Univ. N. Y. 1861, p. 102, 20th 
Rep. 1867, p. 20, 21. Pal. N. Y. vol. iv. pp. 392, 393. 

Type, Terehratula rectirostra, Hall. Fossil in the Devonian of 
New York. 
This genus has hitherto been confounded with Centronella, 
Billings, from which it would now appear to be quite difl"erent. 

Subgenus Waldheimia. 

Shell globose, neural beak more or less produced ; foramen 
complete or incomplete. Deltidia separated or united ; pedun- 
culated ; a ridge or septum usually existing in the haemal valve. 

Mouth behind the brachia, which consist of two lateral lobes 
and a central spiral lobe. 



108 



AMERICAN JOURNAL 



Fig. 6. 





Fig. 6. Neural valve of Waldheimia flavescens. /, foramen ; t, teeth ; <f, del- 
tidium ; a, single adductor scar : r, cardinal muscle scar ; a-, accessory muscle 
scar ; p, pedicel muscle scar ; z, pedicel attachment. 

Fig. 7. Haemal valve of the same. /, cardinal process ; <^, dental sockets ; 
p hinge plate ; s, septum ; c, crura ; Z, neural loop ; ?«, adductor scars. 



Fig. 9. 




Figs. 8 and 9. Side and neural views of the auimal of Waldheimia fiavescent 
in the shell. 

Type. Waldhehnia flavescens. 

T. flavescens^ Val. apud Lam., Anim. sans Vert, v, vii, p. 330. 
live., Conch. Iconiea, pi. i and pi. ii a, b. 

Terehratula dentata, Val. 

Terehratula austraUs, Q. and G. 

Terehratula recurva, Q. and G. 

Waldheimia aiistralis, King, jNIon. Perm. Foss. p. 145. Da- 
vids. Int. Br. Foss. Brach. p. 65, pi. vi, fig. 9, 10. 

Ilab. Australia. Smithsonian Cab. 17814. 

Most of the specimens of this species are radiately ribbed ; 
some, however, are quite smooth, especially the smaller speci- 
mens. 

In the latter the foramen is barely complete. There are con- 
Biderable variations in the amount of inflation, and the form va- 
ries from ovate to transverse. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 109 

Waldheimia venosa, Sol. Plate viii, fig. 8 and 11. 

Anomia venosa^ Sol. MSS. Mus. Banks. Dixon's Voy. p. 

355, pi. xi, 1788. Dav., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, xx, 

p. 81—83. 
Terehratula glohosa, Lam., An. s. Vert, v, vii, p. 330. Rve., 

Conch. Icon. pi. ii. fig. 3 a, b, c, pi. vi, fig. 3 d, e. Jour. 

de Conchyl. 1861, p. 122. 
Terehratula callfornica, Sby., Auct. (non Koch). 
Waldheimia dilatata, Lam., Rve., Conch. Ic. pi. ii, fig. 2, pi. 

vi, fig. 2 b, 2 c. 
Terehratula Craudichaudi, Blainville (teste Rve). 
Waldheimia phi/sema, Val., Rve., Conch. Ic. vi, fig. 25 a, b, c. 
Terehratula e.vimia, Philippi (teste Rve.) 
Terehratula Kochii, Kust., Conch. Cab. 
Terehratula Fontaineana, D'Orb., Voy. Am. Mer. v. p. 675, 

No. 782 ; ix, pi. 85, fiig. 30, 31. 

ITah. Orange Harbor, Tierra del Fuego. U. S. Ex. Ex. 
Smithsonian Cabinet, 17,813. 

Of the shells submitted to Mr. Reeve for examination, col- 
lected by the U. S. Exploring Expedition, fifteen specimens were 
returned by him under this name. Externally they presented 
no differences among themselves except in size and coloration. 
An examination of the apophyses showed that, of the whole num- 
ber of specimens, three belonged to a different genus, while ten 
retained no remains of the apophyses. The latter, probably, and 
the two perfect specimens, certainly, were correctly determined. 

This shell does not agree with Sowerby's description as given 
in the Br. Mus. Cat. p. 59. 

In all the specimens examined except one the foramen was 
complete ; in that one a slight fissure existed, seemingly the re- 
sult of erosion. This character, however, is by no means to be 
relied upon, as it is not constant in many of the species. 

The apophyses are very slender and narrow, a breath almost 
being sufficient to destroy them. The cardinal process is very 
prominent, and terminates in two rounded knobs. 

The beautiful red, vein-like markings, present in most of the 
specimens, are simply the remains of the ovaria. They are en- 
tirely composed of animal matter, and may be washed entirely 
aAvay with water. Hence they cannot be relied upon as a diag- 
nostic, though much more permanent than the remainder of the 
animal matter. 

The form of the shell varies from elongate oval to nearly 
circular, with or without an anterior flexure. 



110 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

WaLDHETMIA CRANIUxM, Mull. 

Terehratula cranium, Mull., Prod. Zool. Dan. p. 209. Rve., 
Concli. Icon, pi iii, fig. 6. Journ. de Conchyl. 1861, p. 
123. Jeffreys, Brit. Conch, ii, p. 11, v, p. 163. 

Terehratida vitrea, Flem. (non Born.) 

Terehj-atula subvitrea, Leach (teste Rve.) 

Terebratula glabra, Leach, Brit. Moll. p. 359, pi. xiv, fig. 3, 
4,5. 

Macandrevia cranium, King. 

Hah. — Norway, McAndrew, Smithsonian Cab., 13,979. 

The foramen of this species is incomplete, and the area very 
small. The loop is deeply reflected and of extreme tenuity. 
The shells vary in their different stages of growth from lenticular 
to ovate globose. 

Prof. King, whose perception of differences of structure is re- 
markably keen, separated this species from Waldheimia, under 
the name of Macandrevia, on account of the absence of the 
septum and flat central lamina of the hinge plate, in the haemal 
valve, and the want of the laminse which support the teeth, in 
the neural valve of the typical species, as well as the incomplete 
foramen. 

I have shown elsewhere in this paper that the foramen may 
be complete or incomplete in the same species, that the dental 
laminae of the neural valve may also be present or absent in the 
same species (e. g. Laqueus suffusus), that the mesial septum 
may be found in some species of a genus and not in others, that 
in some species the dental laminae may be absent in the neural 
valve while the central lamina of the hinge plate is still to be 
found in the hasmal valve (e. g. W. Raphaelis) and, therefore, I 
cannot consider the structure in question as of even subgeneric 
value.* 

Waldheimia Grayi, Dav. 

W. Grayi, Dav., Proc. Zool. Soc. 1852, p. 76, pi. xiv, fig. 1, 

2, 3. Rve., Conch. Iconica pi. ii, fig. 5, a, b, c. Journ. 

de Conchyl. 1861, p. 123. Cpr., Suppl. Rep. Br. Assoc. 

1863, p. 636. Cooper, Geogr. Cat. Moll. 1867, p. 3. 

Hah. Catalina Id., Coop. Corea, Belcher. Monterey, Dall. 

Smithsonian Cabinet, 401, Cp. ; 1651. 

This a good deal resembles Kraussina capensis externally. 
The red bands of color in this fine species are sometimes ab- 
sent. In such cases it is impossible to distinguish it from varie- 

■*Mr. W. G. Binney (Iiiv. Mass. 2d ed. p. 211), has placed this species 
in the family Rhynchonellidce ! I 



OF CONCHOLOGY. Ill 

ties of Terehratella eaurina, (jrld., except by the apophyses, 
which are not attached, and by the absence of a septum. The 
foramen is usually larger in this species, in proportion to the 
size of the shell, and the hinge line usually more curved, but 
these differences are inconstant. The deltidia in the largest 
specimen are firmly united, in three or four others they are 
widely separated. The blood of this species is red. 

This species has been termed Eudesia Grayi by some authors, 
but as the plaits, which were the characters upon which the 
genus Eudesia (type Wald. cardium, Val.,) was founded, are 
inconstant characters and by no means of generic value, I cannot 
consider the plaited species as sufficiently distinct to deserve 
separation from the other species of the genus. 

Waldheimia Raphaelis, n. s. Plate vii, fig. a, b, c, d. 

ITab. Japanese coast near Yeddo, R. Pumpelly. Smith- 
sonian Cabinet, 11786. 

Shell ovate, truncate anteriorly ; beak recurved, produced, 
somewhat pointed. Foramen complete, moderate ; area large, 
ill defined ; deltidia united, moderate. Neural valve smooth, 
obsoletely marked with lines of growth. Anterior edge doubly 
eraarginate, with the median portion somewhat produced ; with 
corresponding median emargination and double lateral prolonga- 
tion of the anterior margin of the haemal valve. The lateral 
margins of both are nearly straight. 

The hinge-line is greatly arched ; there are no plate-like 
dental supports ; the shape of the muscular impressions on the 
neural valve is best shown by the figure. They are proportion- 
ately smaller than in W. jlavescens. 

The hinge plate of the haemal valve is broad and somewhat 
excavated between the median line and the hinge teeth. The 
plate forms a triangular table, so to speak, which lies fiat on the 
posterior part of the septum. The cardinal process is rhomboidal 
and stout. The loop is very broad in the reflected portion ; the 
crura are slender, sharply pointed, and strongly curved at the 
tips. The septum is about half as long as the valve. 

The color of the shell is a somewhat deep brown with a slight 
rufous tinge. Externally the valves are conspicuously and regu- 
larly punctate. The punctures are of an oval shape outside, 
and smaller, more distant, and circular within. 

This species diff'ers widely from all described recent forms. 
It is named in honor of the collector, Prof. Raphael Pumpelly, 
the indefatigable geologist, who has added so much to our knowl- 
edge of Japan. 

The other recent species of this group are : 



112 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

Waldlieimia lenticularis^ Desh,, Mag. Zool. 1841, pi. xli. 
Hah. Strait of Fauveau, New Zealand. 

Walclheimia picta, Chemn., Sby. Thes. Conch, vii, p. 351, pi. 
70, fig. 43, 44. Hah. Java, Japan. 

Waldlieimia septigera, Loven, Index Moll. Scandin, 1846, p. 
29. Hah. Norway ; Japan. 

Wahilheimia Jioridana,- Voui't., Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. No. 7, 
p. 127. Hah. West Indies ; Florida coast. 

Subgenus Meganteris, Sucss. 

Meganteris, Suess., (not Hall) Sitz. Ak. Wiss. Klas. Math, 
xviii, 1856, p. 51, pi. i, figs. 1, 2, 8, 5, 16 and pi. iii, 
figs. 3 a, 3 b, (il/. Arcliiaci). 

Shell orbiculate, somewhat compressed, nearly equivalve. 
Area of neural valve small, apex inconspicuous, minutely fora- 
minated, punctate. Deltidia small, wide, united. Cardinal, 
process prominent, with a V-shaped process near the apex for 
the insertion of the cardinal muscles, sulcated on each side, with 
the base excavated. Cardinal border broad, wide, rugose. 
Loop essentially as in Waldheiinia, but with very long crura, 
the main stems of the apophyses being given off at a sharp angle 
with the crura, reflected abruptly and the posterior part of the 
reflected loop behind and below the crura. There is a faint 
mesial septum in the haemal valve. 

Type Meganteris archiaci, Suess. Plate viii, fig. 12, 12a. 
Fossil in the Devonian of the Eisel. 

? Section STRINGOCEPHALIN^, Dav. 

Stringocephalidoiy Dav., 1851, Int. Brit. Brach. p. 73. Loop 
attached to the crura by their neural edges V 

Genus STRINGOCEPHALUS. 

Sfringocephalus, Dav., (emend) Int. Brit. Brach. p. 73, 1851. 
StrigocephaJus, Defr. Diet. Hist. Nat. Vol. li, p. 102, pi. 75, 
fig. 1, la, 1827. 

Fig. 10. 



Fig. 10. Young shell, i nat. size. /;, binge area; b, deltiilium ; p, pseudo- 
deltidium. 

Animal unknown, pedunculated. Foramen large, triangular 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 



113 



in the young ; small and oval in the adult ; deltidium composed 
of three elements. Neural valve with a pointed apex and a well 
developed septum. Ili^mal valve with a very prominent cardinal 
process, forked at the extremity (to receive the edge of the 
neural septum), provided with a mesial septum. The lower por- 
tion of the hinge plate supports the crura of the loop in the 
shape of two flattened lamellas, which, after proceeding with a 
slight upward curve to near the extremity of the septum, are 
suddenly reflected and again approach the sockets before sweep- 
ing submarginally around in the form of a large wide loop, from 
the inner edge of which a number of smaller lamellee branch off 
and convercre. 



Ficr. 12. 




Fig. 11. Htemal valve o^ Slringocephalus Burtini. 

Fig. 12. Profile of shell of same, a, adductor scar; y, cardinal process ; p, 
hinge plate ; s, hjetual septum ; vs, neural septum ; t, dental sockets. 

Type String ocephalus Burtini, Defr., Woodw. Man. Rec. and 
Foss. Shells p. 222, figs. 130, 131, pi. xv, fig. 13. 

With regard to the position of this genus in the arrangement, 
I must dissent entirely from the opinion of M. Suess., who places 
it in the vicinity of Meyatliyris. 

The reflection of the apophyses from the neural edge of the 
crura (if correctly restored) is a remarkable feature, and the 
most casual examination of the loop o^ Megatltyris will show that 
it is totally diff"erent, the reflection in the last named genus being 
from the outer and licemal side of the crura, as in all the other 
genera of the TerebratuUdce, which possess a loop. The lamelloe, 
which have occasionally been noted on the inner edge of the 
loop of Mcgathyris are features of the most trivial nature, and 
analogous instances are found in other species belonging to 
totally difl'erent genera, for instance Terebratella joectunculus^ 



114 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

Schloth., Dav. An. of Nat. Hist. 1850, pi. xv, figs. 5, a, b. The 
structure of Stringocephalus, while sufficiently distinct to de- 
serve a section to itself, is most nearly allied to that of the sep- 
tate Waldheimias, near ^vhich I hnve placed it. 

Stringoceplialus, according to JNIr. Davidson, has only been 
found in strata of the Devonian age. 

Messrs. White and St. John have provisionally indicated a 
new form under the name of Cri/ptaeanthia, (Trans. Chicago 
Acad, Sci., i. p. 119, 1868,) which presents some analogies with 
String ocephahis, Waldheimia and Terehratulina. "The loop 
seems to be essentially like that of Waldheimia in form, but the 
crura of the loop appear to be joined, * * * ^^d the loop- 
band is armed with numerous spines Avhich point outward toward 
the shell (?) in all directions," W. and St. J. loc. cit. It can- 
not be determined from this description whether the spines are 
directed toward the margin or the body of one of the valves,. but 
it affords another argument against affiliating Stringocephalus 
with JlegatJigris from the mere presence of such appendages. 

Type Waldheimia? compacta, W. and St. J. Tr. Chic. Acad. 
Sci. I., p. 119, fig. 3, a, b, c. 

Section MAGASIN.^. 

Blagasina, Gray, B. M. Cat., p. 85, 1853. 

Loop reflected, attached both to the hinge margin and to the 
septum of the hjemal valve. 

Genus TEREBRATELLA. 

Apophyses with their lia3mal arms connected with the septum 
by two (septal) processes. 

Subgenus Trigonosemus. 

Trigonosemus, Konig, Icon. Sect. 1825, p. 3, f. 73. (T. ele 

gans). 
Fissurirostra, D'Orbigny, Pal. Fran. Cret. p. 133, fig. 5*20. 

(F. recurva), 1847. 
Fissirostra, D'Orb., Cours. El. Pal., p. 89, 1849. 

Shell with produced curved beak or umbo in the neural valve ; 
a minute apical foramen ; a large triangular area, flat and 
marked by the outline of the flat deltidium ; cardinal process 
very prominent. Loop as in Terehratella. 

Type Trigo7iosemus elegans. Konig. Fossil in the Cret. 

I can only concur with Mr. Davidson in considering this sec 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 115 

tion as not entitled to generic rank. It may be as well to re- 
tain it for the group it indicates, in a subgeneric sense, as it is 
prior to Terebratella. 

? Subgenus Lyra. 

Lyra, Cumb., Sby. Min. Conch., 1816, {L. Meadii). 
Terehrirostra, D'Orb., Pal. Fran. Cret. iv, p. 146, 1847. [T. 

lyra), Dav,, Brit. Fos. Brach., p. 67. 
Trigonosemus, (part), Konig, [teste Dav.) 
Waldheimia, (part), Gray, Cat. Brach., p. 82. 

Shell having the back of the neural valve very long, almost 
straight, with a false area and narrow deltidium; divided length- 
wise internally by the dental plates ; truncated and perforate 
at the extremity. Loop unknown. 

Type Li/ra 3Ieadn, Cumberland. Foss. Cretaceous. 

D'Orbigny, Davidson and Woodward seem inclined to place 
this subgenus under Tereb7-ateUa, as having the loop attached to 
the septum ; while Gray places it as a section of Waldheimia. 
This group had also better be retained for the same reasons 
given in regard to Trigonosemus. 

Subgenus Terebratella, D'Orb. 

Terebratella, D'Orb., Pal. Fran. Ter. Cret., vol. iv, p. 110, 
1847. Dav. Int. Brit. Brach., p. 65, {T. dorsata). 

? ? Baltliyridoia, McCoy, Syn. Carb. Foss. Ir., p. 130, 1844, 
fig. 2r. 

Delthyris, Menke, (not Dalman or v. Buch,) Syn., ed. li, p. 
96, [D. dorsata, Lam.), 1830. 

Shell with a moderate beak on the neural valve ; usually 
truncate and somewhat recurved, fixed by a peduncle passing 
through the foramen. The latter is usually incomplete and the 
deltidia consequently separated. An indistinct ridge or septum 
sometimes exists in the neural valve. 

Brachia composed of two lateral loops, the posterior limbs of 
which meet behind the mouth and the anterior before it. The 
central spiral lobe is obsolete or entirely absent. 

This section contains the typical forms of the genus and al- 
most all the recent species. The fossil representatives range 
from the Cretaceous upwards. 

The diagnosis of Delthyridcea, as far as external characters go, 
would well agree with such species as T. caurina, but according 
to Mr. Davidson no type was given by Prof. McCoy, and his 
figure is unrecognizable. Dr. Gray gives T. pectiniformis as 



116 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

McCoy's type ; it is- also one of the types of Dalman's trouble- 
some genus RhyncJiora and is placed by Gray in the subgenus 
Lyra (Cumb. 1816). 

Dalman's first species of Delthyris was D. elevatus, a true 
Spirifer of the Silurian age. Menke quotes the name Delthyris 
with its proper synonyms and gives Terehratula dorsata and T. 
caput serpentis as examples. But, since neither of these species 
was included in Dalman's list of Delthyrides, the reference of 
Menke could not be construed so as to allow of the application 
of Delthyris as a generic name to either of the two species he 
cites. Hence Delthyj'is, Menke, must stand as a synonym of 
Terehratellciy while Delthyris^ Dalman, bears the same relation 
to Spirifer. 




Fig. 13. Terebratella dorsa/a, lm?mal valve, showing apophyses. 

Type Terebratella dorsata, Lam. 

Anomia striata viageUanica, Chemn. Conch. Cab. v. viii, p. 

101, pi. 78, fig. 710, 711. 
Terehratula 3Iagellanioa, Rve., Conch. Ic, pi. v, fig. 21, a, b, 

c, d. J. de Conchyl. 1861, p. 127. 
Terehratula dorsata, Lara., An. Sans. Vert. v. vii, 1819, p. 

331. 
Anomia dorsata, Gmel. 1788, S. N. 3348. 
Terehratula Chilensis, Brod., P. Z. S. 1836, 134. 
Terehratella Soiverhyi, King, Zool. Journ. v, p. 338. 
Terehratula hilohata et pecdnata, Blainv., Teste Rev. Journ. 

de Conchy. 1861, p. 127. 
Delthyris dorsata, Mke., Syn. Ed. 2, 1830, p. 96. 

Ifah. Coasts of Chili southward to the Straits of Magellan. 
Smithsonian Cab. 17822, 17815. As Chemnitz was not a 
binomial writer, his name cannot be retained. 

From the specimens and descriptions at hand I can only 
agree with Reeve in uniting the above synonyms under the name 
of dorsata. Of six specimens received from Mus. Cuming, 
under this name, two were Terehratellas ; the remainder beloncred 
to the genus Magas. T. transversa, Sby., probably belongs to 
this species. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 117 

Terebratella cruenta, Dillwyn. 

Anomia cruenta, Dillw., Syn. p. 295, 1817. 

Terebratida rubra, Sby., Thes. Conch, pi. Ixviii, fig. 9 — 11. 

Terehratula zelandica, Desh., 1830, Mag. Zool. pi. 42, 1841. 

Sby., Thes. vii, p. 361, p. Ixxii, fig. Ill, 113. 
Terehratula zelandica, Dav., An. N. H., p. 367, 1852. 
Terehratula sanguhiea. Leach, Zool. Miscell., pi. 76. Lam. 

An. Sans. Vert, vi, p. 243. Donovan. Nat. Repos., pi. 

34. 

Hah. New Zealand. (Mus. Cuming). Smithsonian Cabinet, 

17,823. 

Some odd valves, named by Mr. Cuming, of this species (?) 
have absolutely nothing to distinguish them from varieties of the 
next species. 

Terebratella rubicunda, Sol. 

Anomia ruhicunda, Sol. MSS. J\[us. Banks. 

Terehratula ruhicunda, Donovan, Nat. Rep. pi. b^, fig. 2 — 4. 

Sby^, Thes. Conch, vii, p. 351, pi. 70, fig. 45—47. Dav. 

An. Nat. Hist. p. 367, 1852. 
Terebratella rubicunda, Rve., Conch. Icon. pi. vii, fig. 27 a, b. 

Journ. de Conchyl. 1861, p. 129. 
Terehratula inconspicua, Sby. (testa juvenis fide Rve.), Thes. 

Conch, vii, p. 359, pi. 71, fig. 102—104. 

Hah. New Zealand. U. S. Exploring Exp. Smithsonian 
Cabinet, 17,824. 

Among a large number of specimens of this species, obtained 
by the naturalists of the Exploring Expedition, great variations 
may be observed. Some of them are smooth and polished; others 
rude, coarsely striated with the lines of growth or radiating 
striae. The foramen is small and complete, with a wide and 
soli<l deltidium ; while in others, of the same size, the foramen is 
large, incomplete, and the deltidia widely separated. Some are 
nearly twice as long as wide, others wider than long. Some are 
distinctly trilobed, others are ovate and smooth. The mesial 
ridge in the neural valve is usually present. Some of the spe- 
cimens appeared absolutely identical with valves sent, as of the 
last species, from Mus. Cuming. 

Terebratella pulvinata, Gld. 

Terehratula pulvinata, Gld., Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 

Dec. 1850. Exp. Sh. p. 468, pi. 44, fig. 581. 
Waldheiniia pulvinata, Gld., Otia Conch, (emend) p. 97, 1862. 

9 



118 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

Cpr., Sup. Rep. Br. Assoc. 1864, p. 636. Suess, Wohns. 

i, p. 20, 1859. 
Terehratella jjulvinata, Cpr., Check List West Coast Shells, 

June, 1860. 
WaldJieimia pulvinata, Cooper, Geog. Cat. p. 3, No. 4, 1867. 

Hah. Orange Harbor Tierra del Fuego. " Oregon" U. S. Ex- 
ploring Exp. Smithsonian Cabinet (type) 5963, 17,813 (part). 

On examining the apophyses of the type, which opened widely 
enough for this to be readily done, it was at once evident that 
this species is a typical Terehratella. 

With regard to the habitat an error has been perpetuated. 

Among the specimens of W. venosa, Sol., known to be from 
Orange Harbor, Patagonia, were two evidently belonging to the 
genus Terehratella. 

One of them tvas attached hy its ijeduncle to a specimen of the 
WaldJieimia. The other was free. At first, as no other recent 
species was found to agree with it, it was supposed to be unde- 
scribed ; but, on comparing it with the (heretofore) unique type 
of T. jjiilvinata, their identity was at once evident. 

The Orange Harbor specimens agreed in every particular, 
except that the type w^as a little more dusky in color. The 
foramen, general form, apophyses, and punctate structure Avere 
precisely similar. One was a little larger and the other a little 
smaller than the type. 

Dr. Carpenter, in his Report (1863) to the British Association, 
tabulates it from Paget Sound on the authority of Expl. Ex. and 
Kennerly. The remark in the text below — " 80 fms. living. 
Cooper, Catalina Ids." — on the authority of Dr. Cooper refers 
to the T. californica, the next following species in the text, and 
not to T. pulvinata. Dr. Kennerly's specimens are not to be 
found, and I am inclined to believe that they might have been 
the smooth variety of caurina, or worn valves of some other 
species, perhaps coreanica. 

At any rate, the only definite locality which we have for this 
species is Orange Harbor, and it is improbable that the same 
species occurs in both Patagonia and Oregon. The habitat as- 
signed by Dr. Cooper in his Geog. Cat. of " Puget Sound to 
Arctic Sea" is gratuitous, as no specimens have been obtained 
from north of Puget Sound, and, as the foregoing remarks indi- 
cate, probably none north of Patagonia. 

This species is only distinguishable from young W. venosa by the 
apophyses. I have been unable to detect any constant external 
differences. 

There are no specimens of this species in the collections known 



OF CONCHOLOGY, lU' 

to me, in San Francisco ; indeed I am only aware of the type 
and the two other specimens just mentioned. 

Terebratella caurina, Gld. — Plate 6, fig. 1, 2, 3. 

Terehratula caurina, Gld., Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. vol. 

iii, Dec. 1850. Exped. Shells, p. 468, pi. 44, fig. 582. 
Terebratella caurina, Gld. (emend), Otia Conch, p. 97, April, 

1862. Cpr., Check List W. C. Shells, p. 1. Cpr. 

Suppl. Rep. Brit. Assoc, p. 636, 1864. Cooper, Geog. 

Cat. p. 3, No. 8, 1867. Suess, Wohns. i, p. 25, 1859. 

JIab. Puget Sound to Sitka. Swan. Dall. Smithsonian Cab- 
inet, 5964 (type), 13,610, 3368, 4177, 4338, 11,785, 11,787. 

This species was abundantly obtained at low water mark, ad- 
hering to the under surface of large stones and to each other, at 
Sitka, Alaska Territory. Some young shells, perhaps of this 
species, were dredged off the peninsula of Aliaska. Puget 
Sound and Neeah Bay have also furnished specimens. 

The very large number of specimens thus obtained afforded an 
unusually good opportunity for forming a correct idea of the 
amount of variation possible in a single species. It is a typical 
Terebratella, as the apophyses, which are well preserved in the 
type, show. 

The latter is a small and quite regular specimen, with an ill- 
defined broad mesial ridge in the neural, and depression in the 
hremal, valve. 

It has about fourteen subequal radiating ridges, the area 
broad, hinge line nearly straight, deltidia widely separated, 
foramen incomplete, large, overshadowed by the sharply pointed 
apex of the neural valve, which is not truncate and resembles the 
neural apex of Rliynclionella. It is of a grayish ash color, '6 of 
an inch wide and -5 long. 

The examination of sixty specimens from Sitka gave the fol- 
lowino; ran^e of variation : 

Greatest width, 1-8 inch. Greatest height, 1*7 inch. Diam- 
eter of most inflated specimen, 1-2 inch. The most transverse 
specimen measured 1*8 inch wide by 1*2 inch long. The most 
produced specimen measured '7 inch long by '4 inch wide. The 
most compressed specimen was '35 inch diameter by 1*25 wide 
and '75 long. 

The colors were usually of a deep crimson mixed with yellow, 
quite diflerent from tlie bright color of T. coreanica, and W. 
G-rayi ; but they varied from light ashy yellow to a very dark 
livid pur[)le, and the epidermis from clay color to blackish 
brown. The color was sometimes stronger on the lines of growth 



120 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

externally, while the interior was nearly white ; while in others 
the whole substance of the shell was evenly suffused with color, 
inside and out. 

The incomplete foramen appears to be a constant character, 
though the degree of approximation of the deltidia varies a good 
deal. The area is almost always strongly marked and nearly 
smooth. The lines of growth are usually strong and often im- 
bricated, especially when the radiating ribs are strong. 

The hinge line is normally nearly straight, and recalls jSpirifer, 
but in some adult and many immature specimens is very much 
arched. The sinuosity of the margin caused by the broad neu- 
ral mesial ridge is generally present, but varies very much in 
degree, and is sometimes almost evanescent. When the ribs 
are strong the margins are crenulated, and vice versa. The 
number of ribs in an adult specimen is from thirty to forty. 
They vary very much in prominence. Some specimens have 
none at all ; others have half the shell smooth and half ribbed. 
Some are ribbed only on the umbones ■, others only near the 
margin. One specimen, which taken alone would certainly have 
been considered distinct, is smooth, pink, with a prominent 
apex, and short, bifurcating, varicose, impressed lines scattered 
over the surface, a sharp carina on the neural and a correspond- 
ing groove on the htemal valve. 

The shell is always thick, solid and strong, e\o.n in the smallest 
specimens. The form presents every possible variation from 
longitudinally oval to quadrispherically transverse. Many are 
unsymmetrical, and most of them are overgrown with polyzoa^ 
serpulae, and corallines. The peduncle is very short and stout. 

The apophyses are extremely delicate and fragile, and un- 
usually small in proportion to the shell. The reflected portion 
of the loop is very short, and the whole of the skeleton is broader 
in proportion than in any other species known to me. The sep- 
tum is very small and triangular, it diminishes on each side from 
the point of attachment of the loop processes and is evanescent 
in the umbo of the hjBmal valve. The most elevated point is 
midway between the cardinal process and the anterior margin. 
The cardinal process is inconspicuous. An indication of an ob- 
scure mesial ridge may sometimes be seen in the neural valve. 
The interior of the shell is sometimes a little perlaceous, but it is 
usually without lustre. The punctures are smaller, more circular 
and fewer in number than in T. pulvinata. An examination of 
the young shells, only about -2 in. in extreme width, showed some 
interesting points.* The septum is calcified very early and is 

*From the study of these immature forms I have come to the conclu- 
sion that the genus founded by Prof. King on Tcrehratula capsida, Jetf., 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 121 

thick, prominent, bifurcate at its extremity, and serrated on its 
anterior edge. The bifurcation is the first indication of the 
septal processes which are the hist to be calcified, and when the 
extremely thin haemal processes are j'^et incomplete the young 
shell closely resembles a dlagas. In the beak of the neural 
valve just inside the foramen is a very prominent thin lamina or 
septum which half closes the foranlen. In the adult the mus- 
cular system is not largely developed. The pedicel muscles are 
the strongest. The cardinals are slender and their bases are 
spread over a wide extent of the neural valve, but the muscular 
impressions are imperceptible. The adductors are small and 
slender. The brachia follow the lateral loops of the apophyses 
and cross below the mouth on the reflected portion and the septal 
processes. There is no central spiral lobe. The fringes are in 
a single row, flattened and extremely thin ; in an adult they 
are about -IS in. long. They are much more slender than in 
Terebratulina or Megerlia. When fully extended they are far 
from the margin of the valves. The mouth is circular, situated 
between the adductors. The visceral part of the system is pro- 
tected by a thin tough membrane. Tlie color of the animal is 
reddish or brownish, the ovaria vary in the same way. The peri- 
visceral fluid is of a reddish-yellow color. 

The umbones of both valves are generally eroded by contact 
with stones. The animal seemed to have the power of turning 
half around on its peduncle at will. 

Terebratella coreanica, Ad. and Rve. 

Terehratula coreanica, Adams and Reeve, Voy. Lam. 1850, 
p. 71, pi. xxi, fig. 3. Rve., Conch. Ic. vii, fig. 28, a, b. 

Terebratula miniata, Gld., Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Ilist. 1861, 
p. 323. Suess., Vienna Acad. 1859, p. 206. 

Terebratella coreanica, Dav., Ann. Nat. Hist, 1852, p. 367. 
Schrenck, R. v. Amurl. 1867, p. 468. Rve., Journ. de 

cannot be accepted until further information is obtained. The same may 
be said with regard to Waltonia ( Valeaciennesii) Dav. The latter genus 
has been withdrawn by the author, and the specific name rather hastily 
applied to the mature form described by the same gentleman (in the P. 
Z. Soc. 1852, p. 77, pi. xiv, fig. 7-9,) as Terebratella Evansii. While it 
is not impossible that the two are identical, still it would seem unneces- 
Bary to reject a name applied to a mature and unmistakable species for 
one given to a young shell which could hardly be identified without the 
aid of a very large series of individuals of various ages. The references 
afe as follows : 

Gwynia {capsida Jeffreys) King, Proc. Dub. Univ. Zool. and Bot. 
Assoc. Vol. i, 1859, p. 258, fig. 1 to 5. Rve., Conch. Icon. pi. x, fig. 39. 

Waltonia [Valenciennesii) Dav., An. Nat. Hist. 1850, p. 475. lb. 1852, 
p. 372. Gray, B. M. Cat. p. 101. Dav., An. Nat. Hist. 1861, p. 38. 



122 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

Conchyl. 1861, p. 129. Cpr., Sup. Rep. p. 636, 1864. 

Coop. Geogr. Cat. 1867, p. 3, No. 7. 

Hah. Corea, Belcher, N. Japan Seas, Sclirenck. ? Neeali 
Bay, Swan. Smithsonian Cabinet, ? 15,598. 

Dr. Carpenter has marked on the tablet of a worn and broken 
neural valve " T. corsanica war. frontalis, Midd.," Neeah Bay, 
Swan. On comparison with figures, I am disposed to refer the 
valve, which though worn smooth, still retains some slight traces 
of striae ; to W. Grayi^ Dav., which has a very large foramen, 
while both Reeve and Sclirenck figure coreanica as with a small 
complete foramen. 

Middendorf's T. frontalis h undoubtedly a Terebratella, but, 
assuming the correctness of his figures and descriptions, I can 
see no reason for uniting /?-c»ii(a/is with coreanica, or indeed with 
any other species with which I am acquainted. It seems to be 
remarkably distinct and belongs to a different fauna from core- 
anica. The young state of the latter, according to Schrenck, is 
of a uniform reddish color (var. concolor) while the adult is ra- 
diated with red (var. radiata) ; the former is miniata, Gld., the 
latter the typical coreanica. 

Terebratella, ? — Plate 6, fig. 4. 

? Terebratella suffusa, Rve., Conch. Ic. pi. v, fig 18. Journ. 

de Conchyf. 1861, p. 128. 
Hab. " .- Cape of Good Hope, Ex. Ex." Smithsonian 
Cabinet 5110. 

A single specimen, wdiich resembles Reeve's suffiisa as figured 
in the Conch. Icon., exists in the Smithsonian Cabinet, and is 
doubtfully marked as from the Cape. It diflFers from suffusUy 
as described by Reeve, in wanting the suffusion, being of a light 
yet rather warm brown ; in the deltidia being more widely di- 
vided, perliaps because it is an older shell than Reeve's type ; 
and finally in having a flexuous margin and faint depression 
near the middle of the margin of the hsemal valve. This, how- 
ever, is not noticeable in the younger portion of the shell. 

I am inclined to regard them as identical, and in order that 
some one, who may be able to examine Reeve's type, can settle 
the point I add a description and figure of the loop, which Reeve 
has not described. 

The crura are small, slender, short and acute. The loop prq- 
cesses are exceedingly slender, mere threads in fact, and roundly 
deflected outward at first ; bending inward just before the neural 
bend, they give ofl' two moderately broad septal processes which 
meet each other at the end of the septum Avith an angle of 60° 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 123 

(not at right angles to the septum and behind its end, as in T. 
dorsata or chilensis). The main processes are then deflected 
neurally, and the extreme "bight" of the loop is straight and 
somewhat angulated at each side. The perforations externally 
are moderate, arranged in quincunx order, smaller and more 
regular than in 2\ dorsata, which is its nearest analogue. 

The species appear to me to be perfectly distinct from any 
other described Terehratella. 

The other recent species are : 

Terehratella frontalis, Midd. Malac. Rossica, iii, p. 2. Sib., 
Reise. Bd. ii, p. 241, pi. xviii, fig. 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and U. 
Sab. South coast of the Ochotsk. 

Terehratella rubella, Sby., Thes. Con. v, i, p. 350, pi. 69, f. 
40, 41, 42. ffah. Japan. 

Some little confusion attaches to this species on account of its 
outward similarity to Waldheimia picta, Chemn. sp. from Java 
and Ismenia sanguinea, Chemn. sp. (+ sanguinolenta, Gm., + 
erytkroleuca, Quoy, + pulchella, Sby.,) from the Philippines and 
the Sandwich Islands. 

Terehratella Bouchardii, Dav,, P. Z. S. 1852, p. 77, pi. xiv, 
fig. 4 to 6. Hah. ? This species somewhat resembles T. fron- 
talis, which in Middendorfs figures seems to have lost the delti- 
dia. 

Terehratella Labradorensis, Sby., Tlies. Conch, vii, p. 362, pi. 
71, fig. 89, 90. Hah. Coast of Labrador. 

Terehratella diarice, A. Ad., An. Nat. Hist. 1860, p. 412. 
Hab. Japan. 

Subgenus Laqueus, Dall. 

Shell with the reflected portion of the loop attached by slen- 
der processes, on each side, to the haemal processes, at or near 
the points where the two septal processes branch off" to the 
septum. Foramen complete. 

It will be observed that the reflected part of the loop is 
attached by the two (lateral) processes, not to the septum nor 
to the septal processes, but to the hiemal portions of the loop, 
(which I have termed haemal processess) ; thus the two septal 
processes, the two lateral processes, and the "bight" of the 
neural loop, form a somewhat sinuous ring, intersected by the 
point of the septum, the hiemal processes and the two sides 
of the neural loop. 

Tgpe. Laqueus californicus, Koch sp. Plate 7, fig. f, pi. 8, 

fig. 9, 10. 
Terebratula californica, Koch, Kuster, Nov. Ed. Martini, viii, 



124 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

pi. 26, fig. 21, 22, 23 (?). Sby., Thes. Conch, vii, 352, 

pi. lii, fig. 50, 51, 52. 
Waldheimia californica, Gray, Brit. Mus. Cat. p. 60, No. 

8. Cpr. Sup. Rep. Br. Assoc, p. 568 & 636. Cooper, 

Geogr. Cat. p. 3, No. 5. 
Not Terehratula californica^ Auct., = W. venosa. Sol. 

Jlab. California. Catalina Island, 80 fms. Cooper. Smith- 
sonian Cabinet, 19,395, Cp. 1093. 

Shell oval, thin, inflated, pale at the umbones, elsewhere of 
a light reddish brown, darker toward the margin ; perforations 
large,, oval, crowded, arranged in quincunx order externally ; 
minute circular, very close together, internally. 

Margin straight, without perceptible curve or sinuation, 
slightly angular at the anterior edge, giving a very slight appear- 
ance of truncation. Valves nearly equally inflated. Beak of 
the neural valve small, recurved, obliquely truncated. Foramen 
small, entire, apical ; the carination of the edge of the false 
area encroaches on the perforation in a triangular point on each 
side. False area small, narrow, smooth, roundly carinated at 
the edge. Deltidia very short and wide, united. Lon., 1*9 in.; 
lat., 1*6 in.; diameter, 1-2 in.; height of neural apex above the 
opposite umbo, '15 in.; diameter of foramen, "1 in. Peduncle 
very short and stout. Teeth of the neural valve short and stout. 
Hinge line very slightly emarginate (for the cardinal process) 
beneath the umbo, otherwise gently rounded. Teeth supported 
by shelly plates beneath the hinge line. Cavity of the apex 
infundibulate. Out of this cavity proceed two strong, but not 
prominent, ridges, which radiate toward the angles of the ante- 
rior edge of the margin, but become evanescent before passing 
the central third of the shell. Between these ridges are two 
others, one on each side, close to the median line, shorter and 
less prominent than the first. There are faint indications of 
others outside the two first mentioned, and these ridges, except 
the first two, are variable in diff"erent individuals. Cardinal pro- 
cess very inconspicuous. Cardinal plate broadly pentagonal, 
centrally depressed. Septum not prominent, diminishing in height 
from the edge of the plate forwards, and not extending more 
than half the length of the shell ; point of attachment of the apo- 
physes quite close to the plate. Apophyses start from the ante- 
rior angles of the plate and give ofi" two curved slender crura ; 
the hsemal processes are very slender ; septal processes still more 
so; reflected portion quite broad, somewhat angulated behind, 
giving ofi" two broad, thin lateral processes, which are attached to 
the inner edge of the haemal processes at the point from which 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 125 

the septal processes are extended to the septum. There is no flat 
top to the hitter, such as is seen in Ter. dorsata, effusa and cau- 
rina. 

This magnificent species was long confounded with W. venosa. 
The septum and characteristic portion of the apophyses were so 
far back that it was only by separating the valves that the peculiar 
character of the loop could be certainly determined. It is readily 
distinguished from W. venosa by the want of the prominent car- 
dinal process so evident in that species, different color, the small 
foramen, and sharply cut cardinal area. 

Laqueus suffusus, n. sp. ? Plate 7, fig. g, h, s. . 
? ? Terehratella rubella, Sby., Thes. v, i, p. 350, pi. Ol>. 

Hah. Wharf at Yokohama, Japan. R. Pumpelly. Smithso- 
nian Cabinet, 11,784. 

Shell small, ashy white, with occasionally a tinge of salmon 
color on the strongest lines of growth, smooth, almost polished ; 
solid and moderately thick ; lines of growth moderately conspicu- 
ous at intervals, but rounded and hardly interrupting the smooth- 
ness of the shell. Punctures smaller, less widely separated, and 
more circular, on the exterior, than in the last species ; internally 
extremely minute. Lon., -72 in.; lat., -52 in.; diam., -34 in. 

The specific characters are best indicated by comparing it with 
the last species, from the young of which it differs in many par- 
ticulars, more especially in being very much less transverse, more 
solid, with a much narrower and longer deltidium, more arched 
hinge line, and very much stronger and heavier hinge teeth. 

Leaving out the question of size, it differs from the adult cali- 
fornica in the following particulars : The hinge teeth are more 
solid, and the plates which support them are usually solid masses 
of callus, occasionally showing a projecting knob below the teeth, 
and continuous with the remainder of the shell, instead of having 
an indentation behind each plate. There are no excavations 
under the hinge plate as in the last species ; the plate is narrower, 
more excavated above and more solid. The septum falls away 
behind the point where the septal processes are attached before 
rising to the hinge plate. 

The point of attachment of the septum is much nearer the 
middle of the shell than in the californica. Finally, the apo- 
physes in this species are, proportionately, twice as solid a3 in 
the last, which is ten times its size. 

Of a dozen or fifteen specimens collected by Prof. Pumpelly, 
most had the apophyses destroyed by insects, which had eaten 
the animal matter ; but four or five remained perfect, displaying 



126 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

the peculiar loop. But little variation was noticed among them, 
which consisted principally in the greater or less inflation of the 
valves, and the a])sence or presence of the dental laniinse. 
Some were slightly more transverse than others, but as 
a whole they were remarkably uniform. The most transverse 
individual measured -62 in by -72 long, and '225 diameter. The 
most compressed measured '50 in. wide by '70 long, and '36 
diam. A young californica, about the same size, measured -72 
long by '78 wide, and -55 in. diameter, 

Mr, Davidson suggests that this species may be conspecific 
with Terehratella ruhpAla, Sby. I have not been able to make a 
comparison of specimens, but the form of the two species is very 
similar. The coloration of T. rubella, as figured by Heeve, is 
very diff'erent, however, as is evident from his comparing it to 
Wald. 2)icta and from the figures. None of the specimens of 
suffusus show more than the faintest tinge of salmon color on the 
stronger lines of growth. 

A comparison of types alone can determine the question. 
They may or may not belong to the same subsection. 

It is not improbable that after more careful examination of 
recent species now referred to Terehratella or Waldheimia, others 
may be referred to this subgenus. 

Subgenus Kingena, Dav. 

Kincjena, Dav., Mon. Cret. Brach. p. 42, 1852. 
Ismenia, (part). Gray, B. M. Cat. p. 104 (^Megerlia). 
3Iegerlea, Dav., Mem. Lin. Soc. de Normandie, 1856, p. 263. 
Terebratula, Auct. 

Shell as in Terehratella, Avith the posterior part of the reflected 
portion of the loop broad, angulated, with the two angles bent 
down on each side and joined to the septum directly (not to tho 
hsemal or septal precesses), forming a broad ring, only inter- 
sected by the septum. Exterior granulated, foramen entire. 

Tt/jjc. Kingena lima, Defr. sp., Chenu Man. de Concbyl. ii, 
p. 205, fig. 1052 (as 31. truncata'). PL 8, f. 14. 

Terehratula lima, Defr., Diet. Sci. Nat. 1828, vol. 53, p. 156. 
Kingena lima, Dav. Mon. Cret. Brach. p. 42, pi. 4, fig. 15 

to 28, pi. 5, fig. 1 to 4. Woodw. Man. p. 219, fig. 103. 
= Terehratula pentangulata, Woodw., + ventro-plana, Roem., 

+ Hehertiana, D'Orb., + Spinulosa, Morris, -{-sex-radi- 

ata, J. Sby. 
Fossil in the cretaceous strata of England and France. 
This subgenus is sufliciently distinct, ancj forms a natural link 
between Laqueus and Ismenia. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 127 

Subgenus IsMENiA (King), Gray. 

Ismenia, Kii^gi Permian Foss. p. 81, 142 (not Isnienia, King, 

Perm. Foss. p. 245, = TerehrateUa). 
Ismenia, Gray, B. M. Cat. p. 104. A. Ad. An. Nat. Hist. 

1863, p. 99. 

Shell externally resembling TerehrateUa. Apophyses broad 
and short, attached first by the septal processes to a short, stout 
septum, then recurved, the broad posterior edges of the reflected 
portion touching and blending with the septal processes and the 
adjacent part of the haemal processes, forming a funnel-shaped 
ring, into which the septum does not project. The lateral loops 
of the apophyses remain open in the adult. 

Brachia without a median spiral lobe. 

The name Ismenia was originally founded by an error, (see 
Perm. Foss. p. 245), upon Terehratulites pectunculus, Schloth. 
This error Prof. King corrects, as above, stating that his intended 
type was T. pectunculoides, Schloth. The latter species is only 
distinguished from the typical TerehrateUce by a few calcareous 
denticles on the anterior terminations of the lateral loops. Now 
T. pectunculus has the loop above described as characteristic of 
Ismenia, as Quenstedt's figure (erroneously referred to by Dr. 
Gray, in B. M. Cat. p. 95, where the figures of T. jyectimculoi- 
des are referred to, by the numbers which really refer to T. pec- 
timoidus, which is on the same plate) shows. 

Dr. Gray, either intentionally or by mistake, thus retains 
pectunculus as the type in spite of Prof. King's erratum, and the 
subgenus thus limited will stand properly as of Gray. There 
can be no doubt as to Prof. King's intentions, as he refers to 
Davidson's figure of T. pectunculoides in the An. Nat. 1850, pi. 
XV, fig. 5 a, b. 

Type Ismenia pectunculus (King in err. Per. Fos. p. 81, 142), 
Gray, B. M. Cat. p. 104 = Terehratulites pectunculus, 
Schlotheim, Quenst. Handb. p. 466, pi. 37, fig. 23, 25. 

Fossil, Oxford clay, France ; Coral Rag. Germany. 

Ismenia sanguinea, Chemn. sp. PI. 8, fig. 13. 

Anomia sanguinea, Chemn., Conch. Cab. viii, p. 96, pi. 78, 
fig. 706. DiUwyn, Rec. Shells, p. 293, 1817 (not Sol.) 

Anotnia sayiguinolenta, Gmel., S. N. p. 3347. 

Anomia criienta, Sol. MS. in Mus. Banks (not Dillwyn). 

Terehratula cruenta, Donovan, Nat. Repos. pi. 56, fig. 1. 

Terehratula erythroleuca, Quoy and Gaim, Voy. Astrol. iii, p. 
557, pi. 85, fig. 8, 9. Desh. in Lam. ed. ii, vii, p. 350. 



128 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

Terehratula sanguinea, Sby., Thes. Conch, vii, p. 357, pi. 71, 

figs. 71-73 (not of Leach, Lam. nor Donovan). 
Terehratella sanguinea, Dav., An. Nat. Hist. 1852, p. 368. 

Gray, B. M'. Cat. p. 90. Rve., Con. Ic. pi. vii, fig. 25 a, 

b, c. Journ. de Conchyl. 1861, p. 128. 
Terehratula pulchella, Sby., Thes. Conch, vii, p. 360, pi. 71, 

fig. 105—107. 
3fegerlea pulchella, Dav. An. Nat. Hist. 1852, p. 369. 
Ismenia pidehella, Gray, B. M. Cat. p. 104. 
Ismenia sanguinea, A. Adams, An. Nat. Hist, ii, 1863, p. 99. 

Hah. Philippines, Sandwich Islands, Japan. Smithsonian 
Cabinet, 17,820, 17,821. 

This beautiful little species, after having been passed from 
Terehratella to Megerlia and back again by various authors, has 
finally found a resting place in the genus Ismenia as restricted 
by Dr. Gray and Mr. A. Adams. 

There is some variation in the obliquity and breadth of the 
apophyses in different individuals, but the essential characters 
remain the same. 

The punctures in the shell are larger and more conspicuous 
than in any species of the group with which I am acquainted. 
The imbricating prisms of which the shelly structure is composed 
are beautifully conspicuous with a very low power, inside ; and 
even the apophyses seem to exhibit the same or a similar struc- 
ture, though impunctate. 

The colors vary from almost pure white to a livid red marked 
with brownish streaks. The normal color is white, with a me- 
dian line of bright red blotches, bounded on each side by a white 
streak, outside of which the dashes of red radiate toward the 
margin. 

The form is usually somewhat transversely oval, and quite 
regular. The exterior is usually smooth, almost polished, and 
very slightly marked with lines of growth. Occasionally, how- 
ever, they are rough, distorted, and of a rude exterior, resem- 
bling T. ruhicunda junior. 

In general, the foramen is moderate and the deltidia are 
united, but in many cases the foramen is large, the deltidia are 
more or less widely separated, and the apex is produced. 

I cannot doubt the identity of T. pulchella, Sby., with T. san- 
gidnea of Davidson and Chemnitz. 

In the absence of the apophyses this specimen might be con- 
founded with W. picta and T. rubella. 

The only other recent species is Ismenia Iteevei, A. Ad., An. 
Nat. Hist. 1863, p. 99. "A large pure white species." Ad. 
loc. cit. Hab. Gotto, Japan, 48 fathoms. 



OP CONCHOLOGY. 



129 



Genus MEGERLIA, King * 

MegerUa, King, Perm. Foss. 81, 145, 1850. Dav., An. Nat. 
Hist. 1852, p. 369. Ibid., 1861, p. 38. Woodw., Rec. 
and Foss. Shells, p. 219. Rve., Conch. Icon. pi. xi. 
Journ. de Conchyl. 1861, p. 133. Dav., Int. Clas. Brit. 
Brach. 1851-4, p. 68. H. and A. Adams, Gen. Rec. 
Moll, ii, p. 578. Jeffreys, Brit. Conch, vol ii, p. 22. 
Megej'lea, Dav., Intr. a I'Hist. nat. des. Brach. vivent et fos- 
siles Mem. Lin. Soc. de Normandie, 1856, p. 129. Chenu, 
Man. de Conchyliol. vol. ii, p. 205. 
Megathyris, D'Orb. (part), M. ohlita. 
Orthis, Philippi, Moll. Sic. ii, p. 67. Michelotti, Faun. Mio. 

pi. ii, fig. 21. 
Terehratella. D'Orb. An. Sci. Nat. 1848, p. QQ (part). 
Anomia, Linn., Pallas, (fee. 
Terehratula, Auctorum. 

Shell transversely oblong with a straight wide hinge line, dis- 
tinct area and large incomplete foramen. Externally striate, 
internally pustulose, somewhat pearly. 

Loop resembling that of Ismenia, but with the lateral loops 
filled up with calcareous matter in the adult, forming two spatu- 
late processes. 

Brachia behind the mouth, furnished with two lateral lobes 
and a conspicuous median spiral lobe. 

This genus approaches Ismenia in the form of the loop, but 
otherwise is totally unlike that group, which is more properly 
placed among the Terehratellce. 

Fig. 14. 





Megerlia truncata, ^ nat. size, a, haemal valve with the animal ; b, same 
with animal removed, showing the apophyses. 

* This is very close to MegerJea, Robineau-Desvoidy, Essai sur les 
Myodaires, 1830, a genus of Diptera. In fact, when properly spelled, 
they are identical and were named for the same individual. I do not 
know whether Desvoidy's genus still stands, but in case it does, Megerlia, 
King, will have to be dropped, as the dipterous genus has twenty years' 
priority. 

Not«. — A letter from the eminent dipterologist. Baron Osten Sacken, 
informs me that Desvoidy's genus has not been adopted by entiimolo- 
gists, and therefore we are at liberty to retain the old, familiar and 
well established name of Megerlia for the present genus. 



130 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

Megerlia truncata, Lin. sp. Fig. 14. 

Anoniia truncata, Lin., Syst. Nat. 1152. Born., Mus. 118, 
pi. vi, fig. 14. Chemnitz, Conchyl. Cab. viii, 90, pi. 77, 
fig. 701. Gmel., S. N. 3343. Dillwyn, Rec. Shells, i, 
p. 292. Poli, Test. Sicil. p. 191, pi. xxx, fig. 16, 17. 
Terehratula truncata, Retz., Nov. Gen. p. 14. Lam., Hist. 
An. sans Vert, vi, p. 247. Ed. 2, vii, p. 333. Sby., 
Thes. Conch, vii, p. 354, pi. 71, fig. 64-67. Blainv., 
Diet, des Sci. Nat. liii, p. 139. Phil., Moll. Sicil. i, p. 
95, fig. 12, pi. vi. Quenstedt, Handb. p. 462, p. 37, fig. 
10. 
Terebratella truncata, D'Orb., Ann. Sci. Nat. 1848, viii, p. 

66, pi. vii, fig. 11, 12, 16, 37. 
Terehratula monsirofsa, Scacchi, Oss. Zool. ii, p. 1. 
Anomia disculus, Pallas, Misc. Zool. p. 184, pi. xiv, fig. 1, 

1766. 
Terehratula disculus, Blainv., Diet. Sci. Nat. liii, p. 138. 
Orthis truncata, Phil., Sicil. ii, p. 69. 
Terehratula ohlita, Mich., Brach. p. 4. 
Orthis ohlita, Mich., Faun. Mioc. pi. ii, fig. 21. 
Megathyris ohlita, D'Orb., Prod, iii, p. 134. 
Terehratula scohinata, Gmelin, + T. decuesata de Blainv. + 

T. irregularis de Blainv. fide Rve. 
3Iegerlia truncata, King, Permian Foss. p. 145. Dav., Ann. 
Nat. Hist. 1852, p. 369. Gray, Brit. Mus. Cat. p. 103, 
fig. 15, 16. Rve,, Conch. Icon, pi. xi, fig. 47 a, b, c. 
Journ. de Conchyl. 1861, p. 133. Woodw., Man. Rec. 
and Foss. Shells, p. 219, fig. 122, pi. xv. fig. 9. Chenu, 
Man. de Conchyl. ii, p. 205, fig. 1053-55 (not 1052 =: 
Kingena lima, Dav.) Angas, Austr. Sh. H. and A. 
Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, p. 578, pi. cxxxi, fig. 3, 3 a, 
3 b, 3 c. Jeffreys, Brit. Conch, p. 22, ii. 
Hah. Mediterranean and adjacent shores of the Atlantic. 
Australia (Angas). Smithsonian Cabinet, 14,560, 14,561, 11,- 
781. 

Woodward's figure (122) of this well known species is not 
very good. In none of the specimens which I have seen does 
the septum appear so prominently or extend so far beyond the 
apophyses. 

The collection includes a specimen from New South Wales 
(Coll. Angas), sent under the above name. The shell and apo- 
physes presented no constant difference from Mediterranean 
specimens. The animal was in a perfect state of preservation 
in both, and I noticed the following differences, of which only a 
much larger series would be sufficient to establish the constancy. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 



131 



The central spiral lobe of the brachia, prominent in tlie Euro- 
pean species, seemed to be nearly M^anting in the Australian 
shell. The fringes in the former were nearly twice as long, the 
individual filaments much more slender, and five or six times as 
numerous as in the latter. 

The range thus indicated is extraordinary, and much more 
remarkable than the discovery of Indo-Pacific species in Japan 
by Arthur Adams ; still the recent deep sea dredgings by Eng- 
lish and American naturalists overturn many of our former no- 
tions in regard to the distribution of marine animals, and we 
may expect to find the range of low forms, such as the Brachio- 
poda, greatly increased by further researches. 

Genus MAGAS, Sby. 

3Iagas, Sby., Min. Con. vol. ii, p. 39, 1818. Day., Int. Br. 
' Brach. p. 70, 1851. Mon. ^Cret. Brach. p. 19. Ann. 

Nat. Hist. 1852, p. 371. D'Orb., Bal. Fran. Ter. Cret. 

1847, iv, p. 54. Gray, B. M. Cat. 1853, p. 98. Woodw., 

Rec. and Foss. shells, p. 217. H. and A. Adams, Gen. 

Rec. Moll, ii, p. 577. Chenu, Man. de Conchyl. ii, p. 

207. Rve., Conch. Icon. pi. 8. Journ. de Conchyl. 

1861, p. 130, King, Perm. Foss. p. 81. 
Orthis sp. De Koninck (not Dalman). 
Rhyncliora, Dalman, 1827 {Ii. spathidata) part. 

Shell with a prominent septum in the haemal valve, to which 
the haemal processes of the loop are attached by their sides be- 
fore being reflected. 

(In Terehratella the hasmal processes are attached to the sep- 
tum by septal processes; in the present genus no septal pro- 
cesses intervene, but the attachment is of the haemal processes 
themselves directly to the septum by their inner edges.) 

Type Magas jmniila, Sby. 

Subgenus Magas. 
Reflected portion of the loop incomplete in the adult. 



■I 

h 





Fig 15. 

Fig. 15 a, b. Mar/as Pumila, j nat. size, o, crura : ^, incomplete loop 
septum. 



132 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

Type. Magas pumila, Sby., fig. 15 a, b. 

Magas pumila, Sby., Min. Conch, ii, p. 40, pi. 119, fig. 1 to 5, 
1818. Bouchard and Pav., Bull. See. Geol. de France 
2nd. ser. v, p. 139, pi. ii, fig. 1 to 11. Dav., An. Nat. 
Hist. V, pi. XV, fig. 2. Quenst., Handb. p. 476, pi. 
xxxviii, fig. 15. 

3Iagas truncata, Rose, in Woodw. Geol. Norfolk, pi. 6, fig. 9. 

S:;S1, |woo.w.,Synopt. Tab. p. 22, fide Gray. 

Terehratula concava, Lara. An. s. Vert, vi, p. 251, No. 26, 
(1819). Dav., An. Nat. Hist, v, 1850, June. Deshayes, 
Lam. Ed. 2d, vii, No. 26. 
Terehratula magas, Blainv., Man. Mai. p. 512, pi. 54, fig. 1 

(1825). 
Terehratula pumila, v. Buch., Mem. Soc. Gdol. de France, 

iii, 1st series, p. 216, pi. 19, fig. 5. 
Magas pumila, Gray, B. M. Cat. p. 99, fig. 9, 10. Woodw., 
Rec. and Foss. sh. p. 217, fig. 117. Chenu, Man. de 
Conchyl. ii, p. 207, fig. 1059, 1060. King, Permian 
Foss. p. 81. 
Hah. Fossil in the cretaceous beds of Europe. 
In this, the type of the genus, the hsemal valve is almost flat 
and the neural valve inflated and nearly touched by the apex of 
the septum. The beak of the neural valve is strongly recurved, 
with a minute foramen and rudimentary deltidium. The car- 
dinal process is prominent and the area of the neural valve is 
well defined. Although only found in a fossil state, many of 
the specimens retain radiating colored bands. 

Magas Davidsoni, De Kon. 

Rhyncliora Davidsoni, De Koninck, fide Dav. An. Nat. Hist. 
1855, p. 434, pi. X, fig. 4, 4a. 

Hah. Fossil in the cretaceous beds of Mrestricht. 

This species is said by ]Mr. Davidson to be similar to one of 
Dalman's types (i?. spathulata) and the examination of the in- 
ternal structure by M. Bosquet, during his work on the creta- 
ceous Brachiopoda of Maestricht, shows that it is a typical 
Magas. The apophyses exactly resemble those of M. pumila, 
while the hinge margin is much broader than in that species, 
and nearly straight. The other type of Rhyncliora was Wald- 
heiinia? pectinata, Linn., according to Woodward and Dr. Gray. 
Tliis disposes of a genus badly cliaracterized and i'ounded on an 
error, Avhich has been the cause of much difiiculty and confusion. 
(See Woodw. Man. Rec. and Foss. Shells, p. 217, note). 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 13 '5 

? Magas patagonica, Gould, PI. 6, fig. 11, 12. 

Terehratula patagonica, Gld., Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 

Dec. 1850. Otia Conch, p. 97. Ex. Exp. shells pi. 44, 

fig. 583, 583e. 
Waldheimia patagonica, Gld., Otia Conch. Rect. p. 246, 

Index p. 256. 
Terehratulina ? patagonica, Suess, Wohns. der Brach. ii, p. 16. 

Hah. Patagonia, Orange Harbor, U. S. Ex. Exp. Smith- 
sonian Cabinet, 5965 (type). Mus. Comp. Zool. 

This species (which must not be confounded with the fossil 
Waldheimia patagonica, Sby., Darwin's S. Am. p. 252, pi. ii, 
fig. 26, 27, 1846, and Gray, B. M. Cat. p. 60), was originally 
referred by Dr. Gould to Terehratula, and, in his rectification, 
to Waldheimia ; it seems to be a true 3Iagas, and among a lot 
of small specimens referred by Mr. Reeve to Terehratella dorsata 
(juv), I found a number of specimens, although the type was 
supposed to be unique. In the type specimen the apophyses 
are broken off, but the septum remains intact. 

The shell is of a waxen white color, fan-shaped, moderately 
oval or transverse, ornamented with rounded divaricating ribs 
or plications which are evanescent at the apices of the valves 
and strongest at the margin. It is generally compressed, though 
a moderate degree of inflation exists in a few individuals. The 
neural valve is most inflated and has a prominent beak slightly 
recurved and pointed at the apex, beneath which is a large 
horse-shoe-shaped foramen, with parallel sides and widely sepa- 
rated deltidia. The latter are narrow and long, divided by an 
impressed line from the false area, which is short and very wide. 
The hasmal valve is provided with an inconspicuous but acute 
apex, and small, moderately wide cardinal process. The teeth 
and sockets are moderately strong and the former are not sup- 
ported by laminae. The punctures are very prominent, both 
inside and outside, and almost visible to the naked eye. They 
are quite circular. The hinge plate is wide and excavated in 
the middle, or rather there is no transverse lamina before the 
cardinal process and between the sockets. Instead, two thin 
laminae are placed between the under sides of the sockets, ex- 
tending obliquely inward for a short distance, and attached 
to the cavity of the apex, forming a triangular ridge in the 
median line, from which the septum takes its rise. The latter 
is broad and biangulate at its neural extremity. Two liajmal 
processes, provided with short pointed crura, proceed from the 
sockets and are attached, about midway between the valve and 
tiie apex of the septum, to the latter. From the posterior apical 

10 



134 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

angle of the latter two broad, roundly-recurved processes are 
extended posteriorly. The anterior apical angle of the septum 
is extended a short distance in front of them and is somewhat 
before the anterior point of its base. The muscles are stout and 
well developed ; the neural insertion of the cardinals is about 
the middle of the valve. The margin is sometimes slightly 
flexuous. The measurements of three specimens are '44, '48 
and -24 in. long ; -5, -52 and -32 wide ; by '16, '21 and '09 in. 
in diameter. The apex of the neural valve is '09 in. above the 
apex of the haemal valve in the largest specimen, and the width 
of the foramen is '05 inches. 

This is the first described recent species, belonging to the true 
type of Magas, with the reflected processes disunited, and does 
not appear to have been noticed by European authors* under any 
name. Since the opinion might be advanced that the reflected 
processes had been broken apart, I would state that I have ex- 
amined specimens still containing the brachia, and the complete 
disunited ends of the processes might be readily seen with a 
glass through the translucent animal matter. The brachia ap- 
peared to be a simple loop without lateral lobes or central spiral 
lobe. It is still possible, however, that in older specimens the 
loop may be completed, bringing the species into the next sec- 
tion. 

Subgenus Magasella, Dall. 

Shell with the reflected portions of the apophyses united, 
forming a loop. 

This comprises most of the recent species of Magas. 

Fig. 16. 




Fig. 16 a, b. Magasella Evansii, Dav., haemal valve and profile; *, septum. 

Type. Magasella Evansii, Dav., fig. 16 a, b. 

Terehratella Evansii, Dav., Proc. Zool. Soc. 1852, p. 77, pi. 

xiv, fig. 7—9. An. Nat. Hist. 1852, p. 368, n. 26. 

Woodw., Rec. and Foss. sh. p. 217, fig. 116. 
Magas Uvansii, Gray, B. M. Cat. p. 99, fig. 11 and 12. 
Magas Valenciennesii, Rve., Conch. Icon. pi. viii, fig. 31, a, 

b, c. Journ. de Conchyl. 1861, p. 130. 

* Except Suess, 1. c. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 135 

Hah. New Zealand, Coll. Cuming. 

This species has been referred to recently by Messrs. David- 
son and Reeve, as the adult of Waltonia Valenciennesii, Dav., 
an immature ? brachiopod previously described. For reasons 
elsewhere stated I have thought it best to retain the original 
name until more is known. 

Magasella flexuosa. 

" T. magellaniea, var.," Reeve, MSS. label. 

? Terehratida flexuosa^ King, Zool. Journ. vol. v, p. 337. Sby., 

Thes. Conch, vii, p. 347, pi. 69, fig. 23, 24. 
? TerehrateUa flexuosa, Gray, B. M. Cat. p. 87. Dav., An. 

Nat. Hist. 1861, p. 38. H. and A. Ad., Gen. Rec. Moll. 

ii, p. 576. 
TerehrateUa 3IageUanica, Reeve, Conch. Icon. pi. ? fig. ? 

Journ. de Conchyl. 1861, p. 127. 

JIah. Straits of Magellan, Orange Harbor, Ex. Exp. Smith- 
sonian Cabinet, 11783. 

I am not sure this is King's species as I have not had access 
to the Thesaurus, but it is certainly not a TerehrateUa, though 
it resembles T. dorsata externally. 

Shell dull reddish brown, solid, transversely ovate ; neural 
valve strongly bicarinate, emarginate, provided with about 28 
strong, sharp, divaricate, radiating ribs or plications somewhat 
imbricated by the lines of growth. Margin of the valves strongly 
flexuose. Neural valve somewhat arched by the carinas, other- 
wise the shell is moderately compressed. The beak is short and 
wide, false area smooth, except for lines of growth, and cari- 
nated at the edges ; wide and narrow ; deltidia long, narrow and 
slightly separated. Apex slightly recurved, foramen circular, 
incomplete. Apex of haemal valve flattened, nucleus acute but 
inconspicuous. Cardinal process prominent, bifid, excavated at 
its extremity ; hinge plate moderate, excavated, centrally 
grooved and laterally bicarinate ; from the carinations spring 
the apophyses. Beneath the hinge plate there are two cavities, 
one on each side of the septum, extending into the beak. The 
mesial ridge, deeply grooved above, extends from the septum 
under the hinge plate to the middle of the shell, when the true 
septum rises abruptly. It is slender, angulated and extending 
obliquely forward meets the haemal processes, which give off a 
triangular web of shelly matter to its upper edge. Leaving the 
hinge plate at the terminations of the lateral carinations, two 
short, slender, pointed crura are curved inward, and the haemal 
processes curve roundly, to meet the septum as before described. 



3.36 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

They are of the most extreme tenuity. The apex of the septum 
is a small, triangular knob, from which a large thin loop is di- 
rected posteriorly. In the specimen this is not quite perfect, 
but the loop when perfect is evidently entire. 

The interior of the neural valve is broadly sulcate on each 
side of a faint mesial ridge, the sulcations corresponding to the 
carinae. The muscular impressions are close in near the cavity 
of the beak. There is a sharp ridge or septum just inside of the 
foramen from one side of it to the other. 

The punctures are very large, circular, and under the glass re- 
call the cells of Polyzoa. The margin of the valves is sharply 
crenulated from the extremities of the external plications. 

The nearest ally of this species is Magasella Evansii, from 
which it is readily distinguished by its form, color, foramen, 
sharp plicae, form of the septum and other minor details. It 
best agrees with the description of King's species. 

Length 1-04 in., breadth 1*03 in., diameter -52 in. 

Magasella (?var.) l^evis, Dall. PI. vi, fig. 9, 10, 13. 

f Terehratula Malvince, D'Orb., Voy. Am. Merid. v, p. 674, 
No. 779, ix, pi. 85, f. 27, 29. 

Hob. Orange Harb., Patagonia. Smithsonian Cabinet, 
11,782. 

Shell perfectly smooth except for the light, but beautifully 
regular, rounded, concentric lines of growth. Outline nearly 
circular, beak somewhat produced, slightly recurved, with a 
large incomplete horse-shoe-shaped foramen. The false area 
sharply carinate and separated from the deltidia by a deep 
groove. The deltidia are short, moderately wide and widely 
separated. Shell not inflated, of a horn color, and conspicuous- 
ly punctate. Margin of the valves straight, without any inden- 
tation or flexure. Teeth and sockets slender and weak, the 
whole texture of the shell being exceedingly delicate and papy- 
raceous. 

The cardinal process is hardly perceptible. The hinge plate is 
very thin, excavated, and covers the posterior end of the mesial 
ridge which divides the cavity of the beak below the hinge plate 
into two parts. The crura are very short and delicate, the 
haemal processes at first slender, rapidly widen, throwing off" a 
triangular lamina of shelly matter from the inner sides which 
reaches the septum and become consolidated with it between 
the anterior and posterior edges, so that the posterior edge of 
the septum forms a wall between the two triangular laminjB. In 
the last species the edge does not project above the lozenge- 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 137 

shaped plate formed by the two laminae, and in ? Magas patagon- 
ica there is only a rounded ridge between them. The septum is 
broad, arising close to the hinge plate, obliquely forward, and is 
truncate at its extremity, which touches the opposite valve. The 
reflected loop is broad and quite circular. The cardinal muscles 
are attached in the apical cavity of the neural valve. The pe- 
duncle is short and stout, the other muscles are very slender. 

Length -34 in., breadth '32 in., diameter "16 in. 

A single specimen was found adhering by its peduncle to a 
large specimen of Waldheimia venosa from Orange Harbor, 
Patagonia. ?"Les isles Malouines," D'Orb., 1. c. 

It is not unlike, in general appearance, a very minute specimen 
of W. venosa, except that the foramen is much larger, incomplete 
and of a different shape. It may be identical with D'Orbigny's 
species, of which the apophyses are not figured, but differs in 
its small size and rounded form. 

The other species of the genus are as follows : 

3IagaseUa Spitzbergensis, Davidson, P. Z. S. 1852, p. 78. 
Rve. Conch. Ic. pi. vii, fig. 24. 

Some specimens marked " T. Labradorensis," in the Museum 
of the Philadelphia Academy, but agreeing with Reeve's figure 
and descriptions, have the typical loop of 3IagaseUa. 

Hah. North Atlantic and Arctic seas, Murray Bay ; Gulf of 
St. Lawrence, P. P. Cpr. 

Magasella Cianingii, Davidson, P. Z. S. 1852, p. 78, pi. xiv, 
fig. 10—16. Reeve, Conch. Ic. pi. viii, f. 29. 

Habitat. New Zealand. 

Magasella crenulata, Sby., Thes. Conch, i, p. 358, 1846, pi. 
71, fig. 96—98. 

This species resembles P Magas jjatagoniea, Gld., and they 
may prove identical upon comparison. 

Habitat. " Santa Cruz, Canaries, Cuming," teste Rve., appa- 
rently with doubt. 

Section KRAUSSININiE. 

Loop entirely absent, apophysary system consisting of two 
lamellae attached to the prominent mesial septum of the hgemal 
valve, and laterally extended. 

The external characters of the two genera which compose this 
section, diff'er widely ; but we have seen that these external at- 
tributes are of little value, even in the same genus, in many cases, 



138 AMERICAN JOURNAT. 

and hence the evident relations of the apophyses will outweigh 
the former in determining the arrangement of the genera. Even 
in this manner far less violence is done than if we regarded 
them both as sub-genera of a single heterogeneous group. 

Genus KRAUSSINA, Dav. 

Kraussina, Dav., An. Nat. Hist., 1861, p. 39. Bronn. Mala- 
cozoa, iii, part i, pp. 304, 306, 309. Martens Zool. Rec, 
1864, et seq. 

Krmissia, Dav., An. Nat. Hist, ix, p. 369, 1852. Woodw. 
R. and Fos. Shells, p. 219. Dav. Int. Brit. Brach. p. 
69. H. and A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, 578. Gray, 
B. M. Cat. p. 109. Rve., Conch. Icon. pi. ix. Journ. 
de Conchyl. 1861, p. 131. Dav., An. Nat. Hist. vol. 16, 
p. 430, 1855. Chenu. Man. de Conchyl. vol. ii, p. 206. 
Nom. preoc. teste Davidson. 

Terehratula, {eapensis), Krauss., Sud-Afr. Moll. 1848. 

Shell with a straight hinge line, truncated beak and large in- 
complete foramen. Both valves possessing a more or less marked 
false area. The umbo of the neural valve is separated from the 
foramen by a more or less prominent septum. Shell structure 
conspicuously punctate. In the haemal valve a mesial ridge ex- 
tends from the apex to the centre of the shell : at its anterior 
extremity it is projected upwards, forming a stout process bear- 
ing two lateral processes, which are somewhat angulated, some- 
times bifid, and are extended toward the margin of the valve 
anteriorly. The brachia are very small, the central spiral lobe 
minute, and the mouth is situated behind the brachia. Pedicel 
muscles leaving a strong impression on the hinge line of the 
haemal valve. 

Fig. 17. 




Fig. 17. Kravssuin rulmt, hoPiiial valve, f. 

Type. Krau8si7ia rubra, Pallas, fig. 17. 

Kraussina rubra, Dav., An. N. H. 1861, p. 39. 
Anomia rubra, Pall., 1766, Misc. Zool. pi. xiv, fig. 2, 11. 
A7iomia striata, Chemn. viii, p. 94, pi. 77, fig. 703. 
Anomia eapensis, Gmel., S. N. p. 3347. Dillw., Rec. Sh. i, 
p. 292, 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 139 

Terehratula rubra, Blainv., Diet. Sci. Nat. liii, p. 138. Sby., 
Thes. Conch, vii, pi. 68, fig. 10. 

Terehratula capensis, Krauss, Sub. Afr. Moll. p. 32, pi. ii, 
fig. 10. (Not of Ad. and Rve.,) Voy. Sam. p. 71, pi. xxi, 
fig. 4. 

Kraussia rubra, Dav., An. Nat. Hist. 1852, p. 370. Gray, 
B. M. Cat. p. 109, (fig. 1\\ not 20). H. and A. Adams, 
Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, p. 579. Rve., Conch. Icon. pi. ix, 
fig. 37, a, b, c. Journ. de Conchyl. 1861, p. 131. Chenu, 
Man. de Conchyl. vol. ii, p. 206. fig. 1056, 1058. 

Terebratula rotundata, Blainv., fide Reeve. 

ITab. Cape of Good Hope, " Orange Harb.," U. S. Ex. Ex. 
Smithsonian cabinet, 17817. 

The attachments of the pedical muscles in this species are 
very large and strongly impressed. The septum or mesial ridge 
is rather faint. The cardinal process is moderate. The termin- 
ations of the apophysary arms are somewhat spatulate. The 
form is frequently distorted and very variable. The neural valve 
is usually the most inflated. The apical septum is most evident 
in small specimens, becoming eroded in very large or old speci- 
mens. The foramen extends behind the carination of the area. 
The teeth are not supported by laminge. The mantle adheres 
closely to the shell at the margin, and the muscles are very 
stout and strong. The ovaria are widely ramified. Setae were 
not observed in the mantle-edge of dried specimens. 

Fig. 18. 




Fig. 18. Kraussina Lamarckiana, hcemal valve with animal. 

Kraussina Lamarckiana, Dav., fig. 18. 

Kraussia Lamar ckiayia, Dav., An. Nat. Hist. 1852, p. 370. 

Proc. Zool. Soc. 1852, p. 80, pi. xiv, fig. 22, 23. Gray, 

B. M. Cat. p. Ill, fig. 20 ? H. and A. Adams, Gen. 

Rec. Moll, ii, p. 579. Chenu, Man. de Conchyl. ii, p. 

206, fig. 1057. 
Kraussina Lamarckiana, Dav., An. N. Hist. 1861, p. 39. 

Hab. Sidney, Australia. Newcomb. 

This pretty little species is very poorly represented by Gray's 



140 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

figure, which gives a very erroneous idea of the hinge line. 
Chenu's figure is better, but the cardinal process is too prominent, 
and the area below the hinge line quite incorrect. The cardinal 
process is hardly perceptible at all, the septum is prominent and 
grooved on the upper edge. The apophysary processes are broad 
and folded together, having a sulcate or bifid appearance ; the 
interior edges are approximated and the exterior edges are some- 
what produced into a rounded point. On opening a dried speci- 
men I could detect no central spiral lobe ; this may have been 
owing to the condition of the individual. The interior of the 
shell is prettily marked with eight or ten radiating rows of tu- 
bercles on each side, and is very conspicuously punctate. The 
transverse ridge or septum, in the apex of the neural valve, is 
well marked in my specimens. The neural valve is emarginate 
anteriorly, and the margin of both valves is consequently some- 
what flexuous. The pedicel muscular scars are minute, but 
perceptible. The other species of this genus are : 

Kraussina cognata, Chemn., Dav. An. Nat. Hist. 1852, p. 

370. 
Hah, South Africa. 

Kraussina*pisum, Lam., (Val.) Hist. Nat. An. s. Vert. 2d ed. 

vii, p. 330, = Terehratula natalensis, Krauss. 
ffab. South Africa. 

Kraussina capensis. Ad. and Rve., Zool. Samarang, p. 71, pi. 

21, fig. 4. = Kraussia Deshayesii, Dav. 
Hah. Cape of Good Hope. 

This species was named capensis by Ad. and Rve. The name 
was admissible, as Gmelin's capeyisis is a synonym of ruhray 
Pallas. It was afterward described by Mr. Davidson as K. 
Deshai/esii, which name, for the above reasons, must stand as 
a synonym. The species is, very probably, identical with Kraus- 
sina rubra, and I doubt if Kraussina pisum and K. cognata are 
not also different ages of one species. The denticulated margin 
mentioned by Reeve as peculiar to cognata is probably an indi- 
vidual peculiarity, and similar to the marginal tubercles in old 
and thickened specimens of Megerlia truncata. 

? Kraussina pieta, Val., Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 1865, 

p. 894. 
Hah. St. Paul Island, Indian Ocean. 

Geuus BOUCHARDIA, Dav. 
Terehratula^ Blainv., Diet. Sci. Nat. liii, p. 145, 1828. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 



141 



Bouchardia, Dav., Bull. Soc. Geol. de France, vol. vii, 1849, 
p. 62, pi. i. ; An. Nat. Hist. 1852, p. 372. King, Perm. 
Foss. p. 81, 1850. Gray, B. M. Cat. p. 100. H. and 
A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, p. 557. Chenu, Man. de 
Conchyl. ii, p. 207. Woodw., Rec. and Foss. Shells, p. 
218. Rve., Conch. Icon. pi. viii ; Journ. de Conchyl. 
1861, p. 130. Dav., Int. Brit. Brach. p. 70; An. Nat. 
Hist. 1861, p. 38. 

Shell with a nearly straight beak, apically foraminated with a 
small circular perforation. No true area or deltidium. Hinge- 
plate large, solid, provided with ^-shaped diverging ridges, pro- 
bably for the attachment of the cardinal muscles. Socket 
ridges of the h?emal valve largely developed, and fitting into 
corresponding furrows in the neural valve. There is no cavity 
beneath the hinge-plate ; from its base a not prominent median 
septum arises, reaching beyond the middle of the shell, and 
bearing two pointed, lateral, posteriorly recurved processes. 
Muscular scars in the neural valve, subcentral and divided by a 
mesial ridge. 

Fig. 19. 




Fig. 19. Bouchardia tulipa, interior of both valves. /, foramen ; rf, delti- 
dium ; t, dental sockets; r, cardinal scars; a, adductor scars; ;;, peduncular 
muscle scars ; s, septum ; I, lateral processes of septum. 

Type. Bouchardia tulipa^ Blainv., fig. 19. 

Terehratula tulipa, Blainv., Diet. Sci. Nat. liii, p. 144, 1828. 

Terehratida rosea, Mawe, Int. to Conch. 1823 ? Sby., Gen. 

fig. 4 ; Thes. Conch, vii, p. 367, pi. Ixxi, figs. 74, 75, 76, 

77. Deshayes, in Lam. 2nd. Ed. Hist, des An. s. Vert. 

vii, p. 350. King, An. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1846, pp. 

34, 38. 
T. unguis, Kuster, Conchyl. Cab. vii, p. 35, fig. 8—10, 1842. 
Pachyrhynchus roseus. King, Perm. Foss. p. 70. 
Bouchardia rosea, Dav., Bull. Soc. Geol. de France, vol. vii, 

p. 62, pi. i, figs. 1 to 6. King, Perm. Foss. p. 81. 
Bouchardia tulipa, Dav., 1851, Int. Brit. Brach. p. 70, figs. 

17, 18, pi. vi, figs. 22—25. Woodw., Rec. and Foss. Sh. 

p. 218, fig. 118. Gray, B. M. Cat. p. 101, figs. 13, 14. 



142 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

Rve., Conch. Icon. pi. viii, fig. 33 ; Journ. de Conchyl. 
1861, p. 130. H. and A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll. p. 
577, pi. 131, figs. 2, 2a. Chenu, Man. de Conchyl. ii, p. 
208, figs. 1061—1063. 

? Bouchardia fibula, Rve., Conch. Icon, vii, fig. 30 a, b. 

JIab. Rio Janeiro, 13 fathoms, McGillivray. 

This very remarkable shell is well distinguished from the last 
genus in the form of the neural umbo, the cardinal process and 
hinge-plate, and the apophyses, which principally differ from 
Kraussina in being posteriorly instead of anteriorly directed. 
The figure given by Woodward and Gray gives a poor idea of it. 
A much better one may be found in Davidson's introduction to 
the classification of the Brachiopoda, plate vi. The area where 
the deltidium should be is flat or excavated. 

The other species, referred by Reeve to this genus, does 
not belong to it. 

The genus is only known in a recent state. 

Section PLATIDIIN^. 

Shell with the loop attached, not reflected ; animal with sig- 
moid brachia meeting behind the mouth, without any spiral me- 
dian lobe or lateral loops. Cardinal process absent. 

Genus PLATIDIA, Costa. 

Platidia, 0. G. Costa, Fauno del Reg. Napoli, Jan. 1852, p. 

47. 
Morrisia, Dav., An. Nat. Hist. May, 1852, p. 371. Woodw., 

Rec. and Foss. Shells, p. 218. Rve., Conch. Icon, pi. 

X ; Journ. de Conchyl, 1861, p. 134. Dav., An. Nat. 

1861, p. 39. Bronn, Malac. iii, pt. i, pp. 304, 806, 309. 

Chenu, Man, de Conchyl. p. 208. H. and A. Adams, 

Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, p. 579. 

Shell with a large foramen encroaching upon both valves, 
ventral valve with a small straight area, deltidia absent or rudi- 
mentary, valves articulated by teeth and sockets, structure 
coarsely punctate. Apophysary system reduced to two short 
arms provided with crura, proceeding from the hinge margin and 
attached to a small central septum. 

In the last section the haemal processes were absent and the 
neural portion of the loop, in a modified form, present. In this 
section the reverse is the case. 



OF CONCHOLOOY. 



14^^ 




Fig. 20. 




,Fig. 20. Platidia anomioides, haemal valve with animal, 'y". 
Fig. 21. Same, /, pedicel notch; c, apophyses; o, ovaries. 

Type. Platidia anomioides, Scacchi, sp., fig. 20, 21. 

Terehratula anomioides, Scacchi, Phil. Moll. Sicil. ii, p. 69, 
pi. xviii, fig. 9 (1844). 

This species is equal to appressa, Forbes, + seminulum, Dav. 
(not T. seminulum, Phil.), and possibly -(- eusticta, Phil. (?) 

Ilab. Mediterranean, living, 95 fathoms, and fossil (ensticta) 
in the pliocene of Palermo. 

If the last mentioned species is really synonymous with P. 
anomioides, as some authors have suggested, the former name 
will have to take precedence, as it was published in 1886. 

The other recent species of Platidia are : 

Platidia lunifera, Phil., 1836, Moll. Sicil. i, p. 97, pU vi, fig. 

16. 
Platidia Davidsoni, Deslongchamps, An. Nat. Hist. 1855, 

xvi, p. 443, pi. X, fig. 20, a, b, c, d. 
Both of the above species are found in the Mediterranean. 
? Platidia gigantea, Desh., Maillard, Moll. Isl. Bourbon, 1864. 
Hah. Isle de Bourbon, S. Ocean. 



Section MEGATHYRIN^. 
Ar^iopidce, King, Perm. Foss. p. 142. 

Shell with a straight, wide hinge-line ; apophyses consisting 
of a submarginal loop, attached at the hinge margin and provided 
with crura, intersected by one or more submarginal elevations or 
septa. 

Brachia submarginal, surrounding a smooth disk or membrane, 
in the middle of which the mouth is situated. Pedunculated. 



144 



AMERICAN JOURNAL 

Fig. 22. 




Fig. 22. Mcgathi/ris decollaia, \^, haemal valve and animal. 

Genus MEGATHYRIS, D'Orb. 
Mantle adherent to the shell. Foramen and area large. 

Subgenus Megathyris, D'Orb. 

Megathyris, D'Orb., Pal. Fran. Ter. Cret. 1847, p. 147. 
Prod, ii, p. 259. An. Sci. Nat. 1848. 

Argiope, Desl., 1842 (not Savigny), Mdm. Linn. Soc. Norman- 
die vol. vii, p. 9 ; Bull. Soc. Geol. Fran, vii, 2nd Series, 
p. 65. Dav., Int. Class. Brit. Brach, p. 72 ; Mem. Lin. 
Soc. Normand. vol. x, 185G, p. 137; P. Z. S. 1852, p. 
81; An. Nat. Hist. 1852, p. 372, 1861, p. 39. Rve., 
Conch. Icon. pi. x; Journ.de Conchyl. 1861, p. 135. 
Woodw., Rec. and Foss. Shells, p. 220. Chenu, Man. 
de Conchyl. ii, p. 209. H. and A. Adams, Gen. Rec. 
Moll, ii, p. 580. Bronn, Malac. iii, pt. i, pp. 304, 306, 
309. 

Orthis, sp. Phil., Hagen. Mich., not Dalman. 

Terebratula, Lam., Blainville, &c. (sp.) 

Ariomia, Chemn., Gmel., Muhlf., &c. (sp.) 

Shell transversely oblong, or semicircular ; smooth or ribbed 
with more or less prominent radiations ; strongly punctate ; 
hinge-line wide ; area flat ; foramen large, triangular or rounded ; 
deltidium absent or rudimentary ; interior of hsemal valve fur- 
nished with from three to five, or more, rounded submarginal 
septa, over which the broad loop is bent and attached. The 
brachia are continuous and follow the course of the loop, and 
hence appear four-lobed. The cardinal process is large and 
strong, centrally excavated. The interior of the shell is pustu- 
lose. 

The name Argiope was proposed in 1827 by Savigny and 
Audouin (Descr. de 1' Egypt, ed, ii, xxii, p. 334, pi. ii, fig. 6), 
for a genus of Egyptian spiders, typified by Aranca lobata, Pall. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 145 

{A. sericea, S. and A.) This genua was properly characterized, 
and is still in use. It hns fifteen years' precedence over Argiope, 
Desl., which necessarily becomes a synonym of the next regu- 
larly proposed generic name applied to this group. This is 
Megathyris of D'Orbigny, 1847, which must therefore be 
adopted. For information in regard to Savigny's genus, see 
Thorell, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1868, p. 190. 

Fig. 23. 




Fig. 23. Megathyris dfcollata, i, showing the apophyses. 

Type. Megathyris decoUata, Cheran., sp. fig. 22, 23. 
Anomia decollata, Cheran., Con. Cab. viii, p. 96, pi. 78, fig. 
705. 

This is Anomia detruncata, Gmel., +• Terehratnla deeoUata, 
Desh., + T. aperta, Blainv., + T. dimidiata, Scacchi, + T. car- 
dita, Risso, -f T. wna-antiqua, Risso, + Argiope decollata of 
Dav., Rve., and most modern authors. 

As Chemnitz was not a binomial writer, it is probable that 
his specific name ought to give place to that of Gmelin. 

Hah. Mediterranean, living ; fossil in the miocene of Gib- 
raltar and pliocene of Calabria. 

Subgenus Cistella, Gray. 

Cistella, Gray, B. M. Cat. Jan. 1853, p. 114. 11. and A. 

Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, p. 581 (not Cistelia, Geoifr. 

and Fabr. Coleop.) 
Zellania, Moore, Proc. Somerset Archfeol. and Nat. Hist. Soc. 

1854. Dav., Mem. Lin. Soc. Normandie 1856, p. 141, 

pi. vii (type, Z. Baridsoni, Moore, fig.-*. 43, 44). Chenu, 

Man. de Conchyl. ii, p. 210. 

Shell with a single median submarginal septum and bilobed 
loop. Surface smooth, or radiately ribbed. Brachia inter- 
rupted by the septum. 



146 AMERICAN JOURNAL 




fig. 24. 
Fig. 24. CisteUa neapolitana, f , hwmal valve and apophyses. 

Ti/pe. CisteUa euneata, Risso, sp. 

Terahratiila cuneata, Risso, Eur. Merid. 1826, fig. 179. 

ffab. Mediterranean, living. 

This is the Terebratula detrwicata, Scacchi (not Gmelin), + 
T. soldaniana, Risso, Blainv., + Ano7nia pera, Muhlf., + Orthis 
pera,, Phil., -j- Argiope cuneata of most modern authors. 

The remaining recent species of CisteUa are : 

CisteUa NeapoUtana, Scacchi, sp., Oss. Zool. 1833, ii, p. 18. 
Dav., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1861, p. 40. 

Hah. Mediterranean, living and fossil in the pliocene of 
Tarentum. 

This is the T, seminulujn , Phil, (not Dav.), T. hinifera, Sbj. 
(not Phil.), and the Argiope Forhesii, Dav. 

CisteUa cisteUula, S. Wood, sp., An. Nat. Hist. 1840, 5. Dav., 

Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1861, p. 40. 
Hah. Zetland, and the north-west coast of Europe. 

CisteUa Barrettiana, Dav., P. Z. S. 1866 (Feb.), p. 103, pi. 

xii, figs. 3, 3a, b, c. 
Hah. North-east coast of Jamaica, 140 fms. 

f CisteUa antiUarum, Crosse and Fischer, Journ. de Conchyl. 

(March) 1866, p. 270, pi. viii, fig. 7, two views. 
Hah. Guadeloupe, W. I., 125 fms. 
This is perhaps identical with the preceding species. 

CisteUa Woodwardiana, Dav., P. Z. S. (Feb.) 1866, p. 103, 

pi. xii, figs. 4, 4a, b, c. 
Hah, North-east coast of Jamaica, 60 fms. 

CisteUa Sehramini, Crosse and Fischer, Journ. de Conchyl. 

(March) 1866, p. 269, pi. viii, figs. 6, 6. 
Hah. Guadeloupe, W. I., 125 fms. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 147 

This species would seem, from the figures of Messrs. Davidson 
and Crosse, to be quite distinct from (7. Woodwardiana^ yet it 
is possible that one of them may inadequately represent the 
shell, and the two prove identical. In this case, Mr. Davidson's 
name has a few weeks' priority. 

It is singular that the descriptions of these last mentioned 
species should have been first published, almost at the same 
moment, by different authors, especially as new species of Mega- 
thyris are by no means common. 

? Family THECIDIID^. 
Theeidce, Desh., En. M. iii, 1836. 

Shell (perforate when young ?) attached by the neural valve 
when adult. 

Brachia lobed, not spiral, shell articulated by teeth, sockets, 
and a cardinal process. 

Disk grooved or excavated for the reception of the brachial 
lobes. Mantle adherent, extending to the margin of the valves ; 
the brachia folded upon themselves and supported by a compli- 
cated calcareous network secreted by the mantle. Loop absent, 
except the crura, which usually are united behind the mouth, 
forming an arch over the viscera ; but are occasionally blended 
with the surrounding calcareous matter. 

Soft parts with the mantle united behind. Sexes separated. 
Female provided with a nidamental sac, in which the embryos 
are incubated, after passing out of the perivisceral cavity through 
the oviduct, and becoming attached to two specially modified 
brachial filaments, the ends df which are inserted in the marsu- 
pium. Intestine csecal. Mantle margin without set?e. Em- 
bryos transversely segmented, covered with vibratile cilia, pro- 
vided with two or four ocular spots on the anterior segment, and 
strongly resembling the embryonic Pneumodermon. Adults sen- 
sible to the light. Perivisceral fluid colorless. 

Genus THECIDIUM (Defr.), Sby. 

Theeidea, Defr., 1828, in Fer. Tab. Syst. p. 38. 

Thecideum, Lacaze-Duthiers, Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool., T. xv, 

1861, p. 262. 
Thecidium, Sby. (emend.), Gen. Shells 1844, xx. 
Thecidium, Dav., Int. Brit. Brach. p. 77 ; Mem. Lin. Soc. de 

Normandie 1856, p. 145. Suess, Ibid. p. 45. Deslongch., 

Ibid. p. 61, and most modern authors. 

Shell thick, punctate, rounded or oval, more or less regular. 
Neural valve somewhat produced and perforated by a minute 



148 



AMERICAN JOURNAL 



apical foramen, usually closed at an early age. Hinge area flat, 
triangular ; deltidium triangular, hardly distinguishable from 
the area ; interior deeply concave, furnished with two prominent 
cardinal teeth. Brachia often irregular, separated by a median 
ridge from which other ridges branch out, often unsymmetrically. 
In the excavations between these ridges the brachia are placed 
like a fringe upon the mantle. 

Haemal valve furnished with a prominent cardinal process be- 
tween the sockets, and this process is frequently broadly chan- 
nelled. Just before it is the cavity for the viscera, which is often 
overshadowed by the calcareous network which supports the 
mantle. i 





Fig. 25. 



Fi?. 26. 



Fig. 25. Thecidium radians, neural valve : /, rudimentary foramen ; d. delti- 
dium ; A, hinge area; a, cavity for adductor; p, dental sockets, y nat. size. 
Fig. 26. Haemal valve of the same, y nat size. 

Type. Thecidium pumilum, VaL, apud Lam. sp. 1819 ; Hist. 

Nat. p. 58. Dav., An. Nat. Hist. 1850, pi. xiv, fig. 58. 
= Thecidea radiata, Defr., Fer. Tab. Syst. 38, 1821, + T. 

papillata, Bronn. 
Fossil, cretaceous beds of Europe. 

After a careful study of the admirable plates of M. Deslong- 
champs, with the paper of M. Suess which accompanies them, as 
well as of the observations on the genus by Messrs. Davidson, 
Deslongchamps and others, I am compelled to dissent entirely 
from the views of those naturalists in regard to the homologies 
of the internal calcareous network which is so remarkable in 
Thecidium. 

I can see no grounds for considering this network as equiva- 
lent to the loop of Megathyris or any other genus of the Terebra- 



OP CONCHOLOGY. 141) 

tulidce. The only portion of the internal structure of Thecidium 
which seems clearly homologous with any part of the loop of 
3Iegathyris, is the "bridge," so called, which, it may be sup- 
posed, is equivalent to the crura of the last-named genus, 
united and thickened. The loop of the Terehratididce appears 
to me to be entirely absent, while the brachia are supported in a 
totally different manner in the present group. 

Instead of the brachia being supported by a calcareous loop 
of constant shape and (relative) size, as in all the genera of 
the Terebratulid(B, they appear in Thecidium to be more or 
less intimately attached to the mantle itself. This part of the 
mollusk is well known to be extremely variable in its form and 
extent. In some genera, such as Terehratella^ we find the edge 
of the mantle varying in form during different stages of the same 
individual, as is evident by the smooth surface, radiating ribs or 
concentric striae which mark different parts of the surface of the 
same shell. In some, we find that the mantle has been unsym- 
metricai, one side being more developed than the other, while in 
other specimens again we find more or less development of some 
portion of the margin, while other portions are abnormally re- 
tarded in their growth. These cases are marked by excessive 
lateral or mesial extension of the shell, with corresponding com- 
pression of the mesial or lateral margins. 

The mantle consists in the Brachiopoda of two laminae, the 
one adhering to the shell and apophyses, and the other forming 
a coat for the arms and adhering to the former. The two lobes 
corresponding to the two valves are united only at the base of 
the peduncle, where they form the visceral cavity. 

M. Eudes-Deslongchamps, in an extremely interesting paper 
(Mem. Lin. Soc. de Normandie, 1864), has described the calca- 
reous spiculae which exist in the mantle of all the genera of 
Terebratulidce, and shown to what an extent they are produced 
ill old individuals. Now, I believe that the mantle of Thecidium, 
in the absence of apophyses such as serve for its support in 
other genera, is upheld by an extraordinary deposition of such 
spiculae, in the form of a network more or less consolidated, 
which varies in form with the variations of the mantle, often 
unsymmetrical on the two sides of the same individual. 

That this calcareous deposit is not homologous with the loops 
of other genera, is shown by the fact that in those genera 
the spiculee exist, in greater or less amount, independently of 
the loop, which is constant in its form, while in Thecidium, 
which has no loop, although the general form of the soft parts 
much resembles the same parts in ^legathyris, they are deposited 
by the variable lobes of the mantle, and serve as its only sup- 

11 



150 AMERICAN JOUKNAL 

port. Both the neural and hremal lobes secrete those deposits, 
which in old specimens, as shown bj M. Deslongchamps^ often 
obliterate the mesial ridge and form a solid bed of calcareous 
matter. Now the loop of other genera is only found upon the 
hsemal valve, it does not increase in (relative) size with age, nor 
become abnormally calcified or thickened. 

Again, we find no submarginal loop in the neural valve of 
other genera, with which the submarginal calcareous deposits 
which exist in the neural valve of some species of Thecidimn 
can be homologized. (See Davidson, Mem. Lin. Soc. de Norm. 
p. 153, pi. viii, fig. 15, T. vermiculare). 

These facts show that no true homology exists between the 
two formations. Mr. Davidson (in Mem. Lin. Soc. de Norm.) 
in his classification of the Brachiopoda, hints at this view of the 
matter, which has been made clear by the further researches of 
M. Deslongchamps. The resemblance between the lobed struc- 
ture of T. digitata and the loops of Megathyris decollata, is 
due to a similar form of the soft mantle edgt in both, and by no 
means justifies the deductions of M. Suess in his paper on the 
internal structure of the Thecidice. 

The spiculse are frequently deposited upon the hinge margin 
and crura, which has led to further misconception, and induced 
the belief of the identity of the two dissimilar structures. 

I would add that I consider the gap between this section and 
the others as far wider than between any two other sections of 
the group, and that no sufiicient reasons have yet been adduced 
for uniting the family Thecidiidce with the Terehratulidcv. Nev- 
ertheless, for the present, I would defer to the opinions of the 
learned naturalists previously mentioned. I think sufficient in- 
formation has hardly been brought forward to justify the opinion 
of Lacaze-Duthiers that Thecidimn in its young state is not 
pedunculate. Judging b_y analogy, it certainly should be ; and 
if it is not, it would almost be a sufficient reason of itself for 
separating the group as a separate family. 

M. Suess divides the group into five lesser groups, typified 
respectively by T. hippocrepis^ Goldf., T. papiilata, Scliloth., 
T. digitata, Sby., in the cretaceous beds ; T. triangularis, D'Orb., 
and T. sinuata, Desl., from the Great Oolite and Liassic strata. 

M. Deslongchamps proposes an arrangement of six groups, 
typified by T. Ferieri, E. Desl., T. 7nagalis, E. Desl., T. sinit- 
ata, E. Desl., T triangularis^ D'Orb., T. papillata, Schloth., and 
T. digitata, Sby. 

In the present state of our knowledge of the subject I am not 
convinced that any of these groups are sufficiently well marked 
to constitute subgenera. The only recent species of Thecidium 
are: 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 



151 




Fig. 27. 
Fig. 27. Thecidlum medilerrdneum, hirmal valve with the animal, four times 
the natural size. From a specimen in the collection of Thos. Davidson, Esq. 

Thecidium 3Iediterraneum, Sby., Thes. Conch, vii, p. 371, pi. 
73, fig. 30-32. Lacaze-Duth., loc. cit., p. 262, pi. i — iv. 

This species is found attached to corals in the Mediterranean. 
It is the T. testudinaria, Michel., and the T. spondylea, Scacchi. 
It has also been found in Jamaica. 

Thecidium Barretti, Woodw,, Geol. Mag. 1864, i, pi. ii, fig. 1 
—3. Dav., P. Z. S. 1866, p. 104. 

This species, first described from fossils, has been found living 
on the coast of Jamaica, at 60 fathoms. 



Family RHYNCHONELLID^E. 
Genus RHYNCHONELLA, Fischer. 




Fig. 28. Fig. 29. 

Fig. 28. Neural aspect of Rhynchonella acuminata^ fossil, from a cast, show- 
ing vascular impressions. 

Fig. 29. Umbonal aspect of the same, a, adductor scar; R, cardinal ; p, 
pedicel ; v, vascular ; o, ovarian impressions. 

RhyncTionella, Fischer, Not. des Fos. du Gouv. de Mosc. 1809. 



152 



AMEEICAN JOURNAL 



Type. Rhynchonella loxia, Fischer, Dav. Int. Brit. Brach. 
pi. vii, fig. 99—107. 

It is very desirable that the structure of the crura in this spe- 
cies should be examined, as it is very probable that it may prove 
quite different from that of the recent species now generally 
known by the name of Rliijn'clionella. 

The recent species of this genus are : 




Fig. 30. 

Fig. 30. Interior of valves of Rhynchonella psittacea ; s, septum ; /, foramen ; 
d, deltidium ; t, teeth ; t^, sockets ; c, oral lamelUe; ff, adductor scars ; r, car- 
dinal do. ; /', pedicel do. ; o, ovarian spaces. 






Fig. 31. 



Fis. 32. 



Fig. 33. 



Figs. 31 — 33. li/iynchoneUa psit/acea, living, after BavreU, The arms appear 
never to be exerted any further beyond the shell. 

Rhynchmella j^sittacea, Gmelin, Rve. Conch. Icon. pi. i, fig. 
2 a, b, c. 

Bab. Boreal and Arctic Seas. 




Fig. 34. 

Fig. 34. Rhi/nchonella niyricans, Sby. ; a, adductors ; /, caecal end of intestine 

Rhynchonella nujricans, Sby., Thes. Conch, i, p. 342, pi. 71, 

fig. 81, 82. ' 

Hab. New Zealand and adjacent seas. 



OF CONCIIOLOGY. 153 

Rhynchotiella Grayi, Woodw., An. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1855, 
p. 444, pi. X, fig. 16 a, b, c. 

Hah. Feejee Islands. 

Rhynclionella Woodwardii, A. Adams, An. and Mag. Nat. 

Hist. 1863, p. 100, No. 2. 
Hah. Rifunsiri, 35 fms. ; Gutto, 48 fms. ; Japan. 

Rhynclionella lucida, Gld., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 1860, 

p. 323. Otia Conch, p. 121. 
Hab. Japan coast, 110 fathoms. 
The above list is given for the convenience of students. 

Family LlNaULIB^J^. 

Synopsis of Characters. 

LINCf ULID^^. — Shell pedunculate, peduncle passing between 
the valves ; inarticulate, subequivalve containing 
phosphate of lime. Brachia lateral, subspiral, 
symmetrical without apophyses. 
LINGULINjFj. — Posterior-adductor scar, median, single. 
Shell more or less elongate. 

LiNGULA. — Elongate ; anteriorly expanded, posteriorly 
tapering ; smooth or striated ; thin ; with a thin 
epidermis. Substance of the valves [impunctate, 
traversed by excessively minute tubuli. Beaks 
simple ; neural beak more produced. No internal 
laminaa or apophyses, except a more or less pro- 
nounced mesial ridge. 

Glottidia. — Shell with two diverging internal laminae 
in the neural valve proceeding from the beak, 
and a mesial septum in the hremal valve. Other- 
wise essentially as in Lingula ? 

LiNGULELLA. — Shell With the neural beak produced and 
grooved for the passage of the pedicel ; rounded 
triangular. 

"^ TrIxAIERELLA. — Shell with a longitudinal septum support- 
ing a flat lozenge-shaped plate, serving as a mus- 
cular fulcrum, and attached to the valve by its 
lateral edges. 

* ? GOTLANDIA. — Valves distinctly articulated by grooves in 

* These two forms somewhat resemble Oholus in shape; their mus- 
cular impressions are not known, but perhaps they may eventually be 
placed in the second division of the family. 



154 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

the hinge plate, and a prominent cardinal process 
fitting into a semilunar pit below the neural 
area. Each valve bearing a tubular process on 
each side of the septum. 

LlNGHJLEPis. — Visceral area neurally tripartite, hsemally 
flabelliform ; post. occl. scars within the visceral 
area ; ant. add. in its anterior sinuses, ant. occl. 
median. 
OBOLIN^. — Post adductor scars double, more or less 
separated from the median line. Shell more or 
less orbicular. 

Obolus. — Shell orbicular ; neural beak short ; hinge 
margin flat ; cardinal border grooved for the ped- 
icels. Haemal beak inconspicuous, valve more or 
less flattened. Ant. add. scars ovate, converging 
anteriorly. 

Obolella. — Shell with minute area usually grooved. 
Ant. add. scars diverging anteriorly. 
Kutorgina. — Hinge line straight, meeting tlie lateral mar- 
gins at an angle. Neural valve with an area and 
foramen. Shell Orthisiniform. 
Monoholina. — Shell like Obolus, muscular impressions 
united along the median line. 

?Spondylobus. — Shell suborbicular. Haemal apex excen- 
tric. Valve with a thickened base interiorly. Neural 
valve with a marginal apex, channelled, and with 
a thickened hinge line on each side of the groove. 
Shell structure testaceous, not glossy, fibrous. 

Family LINGULID.E, King. 

Lingulidce, Dav., Int. Br. Brach. p. 133. 

Shell furnished with a peduncle passing between the apices of 
the valves; inarticulated, subequivalve, composed of horny laminae 
alternating with cretaceous layers ; containing phosphate of 
lime ; impunctate. Brachia unsupported by calcified processes. 

Section LINGULIN^E. 

Genus LTNGULA, Brug. 

Lingula, Brug., Ency. Meth. tab. 250, 1789. 
Fharetra, Mus. Bolt. Ed. ii, p. Ill, 1819. 

Shell thin, subequivalve, equilateral, tapering at the beaks, 
expanded at the pallial region. Valves held together by the 
adductor and pedicel muscles. Beak of the neural valve slightly 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 



155 



more produced and pointed than the other. Surface smooth or 
concentrically striated, covered with a thin epidermis. Brachia 
elongated, suhspiral, situated on each side of the mouth, exter- 
nally ciliated. The muscular impressions are light ; close to the 
beak is one formed by the post adductor, two others [adductores 
anteriores) are seen near the middle of the shell ; they are di- 
vided in the neural valve by a blunt projection, and in the hajmal 
valve by a mesial ridge. In the neural valve another triangular 
depression just before the last mentioned, indicates the seat of 
the insertion of the anterior retractors. 

Horny laminae of the shell permeated by excessively minute 
tubuli. 




Fig. 35. Hccmal view of animal of Lingula a?iatina, after Woodward. 

Figs. 30, 37. Neural views of same, an, anterior adductors ; a^, post ad- 
ductor; pp, external protractors; p'p^, central protractors; c, capsule of ped- 
icel; /m, visceral sheath; o, oesophagus; s, stomach; Z, liver; ;', intestine ; 
V, vent; m, niantle-margin ; s, setse ; h, pallial sinuses and their branches. 

Ti/pe. Lingula anatina, Lam., Anim. sans Vert. vol. vii, 
p. 390. 

ITab. Moluccas and Philippines. 

The peduncle of Lingula is not a simple meat ^ of attachment 
alone as in the cirrhipedes, but is mobile and muscular ; the 
animal when detached from its position is able to move it rapidly 
about, like an arm or fin, and, when attached, by using its sup- 
port as a fulcrum it can move the shell in various directions with 
great facility. They prefer sandy or muddy bottoms, into which 
they would appear to be able to burrow with their peduncle, and 
remain with only the anterior edge of the valves at the surface 
of the sand. They are frequently entirely unattached. 



156 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

The Paleozoic LinguJce may have belonged to the same genus 
as the recent forms, but it is very probable that many, if not all 
of them, did not ; as we find granulated, radiately striated and 
otherwise ornamented forms, which differ entirely in this respect 
from the living Lingidoe^ the outline of many of the older species 
also being rounded triangular, and some of them were provided 
in the neural valve with a sharp elevated mesial septum ; these 
features do not characterize the recent species. The other re- 
cent species of Lingula are as follows : 

Lingula ovalis, Rve., P. Z. S. 1841, p. 100. 

Ilab. Sandwich Islands. 

Lingula tumidula, Rve., P. Z. S. 1841, p. 100. 

ITab. Moreton Bay, Australia. Japan. 

This species, judging from the figure in the Conch. Iconica, 
differs materially from the other species there figured, in the 
broad form, emargination of the beaks and the size and position 
of the muscular impressions. A variety (?) compressa is found 
in the Philippines. 

? Lingula Murpliiana, King, Rve., Conch. Icon. pi. i, fig. 3, 

1861. 
Hab. ]Moreton Bay, Australia. 
This species (?) much resembles L. anatina. 
Lingula liirundo, Rve., Conch. Icon. pi. ii, fig. 7, 1861. 
Hab. Port Curtis, North-east Australia. 
Lingula exusta, Rve., Conch. Icon. pi. ii, fig. 9, 1861. 
Ifab. Moreton Bay, Australia. 
Lingula Mans, Swains, Zool. 111. vol. ii, pi. ii. 
Hab. China Seas. 

Lingula smaragdina, A. Ad., An. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1863, 

p. 101. 
Hab. Yobuko, Japan. 

Lingula j asp idea, A. Ad., An. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1863, p. 

101. 
Hab. Mososeki, Japan. 

Lingula lepidula, A. Ad., An. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1863. p. 

101. 
Hab. Seto Uchi, Japan. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 157 

Genus GLOTTIDIA, Dall. 

Shell linguiform, elongate, pedunculated ; general ch;n-acters 
as, in Lingula. Neural valve provided internally with two sharp 
narrow incurved laininaa, diverging from the beak and extending 
about one third the length of the shell ; anterior extremities of 
the laminae about midway between the mesial line and the mar- 
gin. Haemal valve with a mesial septum of about the same 
length extending forward from the beak. Anterior adductor 
impressions rounded, separated by a faint mesial ridge, faintly 
impressed. Scar of the post adductor close in the cavity of the 
beak, rounded. No other evident scars. Shell smooth, perfo- 
rate or imperforate. 

Type. G-lottidia albida, Dall. PI. 8, fig. 1 — 6. 

? Lingula albida, Hinds, Voy. Sulphur, p. 71, pi. 19, fig. 4. 
Rve., Conch. Icon. pi. i, fig. 4. 

Ilab. San Diego, Cooper. Santa Barbara, 28 fms., New- 
comb. Smithsonian Cabinet, No. 19,416. 

Shell creamy white. Smooth and polished except for faint 
lines of growth, outside. Inside whitish toward the centre, yel- 
lowish toward the edge ; extreme margin brownish horn color. 
Interior with faint wrinkles, caused, perhaps, by drying ; longi- 
tudinally faintly striate at the anterior margin. Mesial ridge 
very faint, prolonged in a white line upon the yellowish part of 
the shell near the anterior margin. Lamin?e sharp, elevated, 
with their upper edges inclined inward, not blended in the beak 
cavity, but continued, closely parallel, to the apex. They proba- 
bly serve as fulcra for the post parietal muscles. They termi- 
nate abruptly, not fading off gradually. Externally, toward the 
anterior mairgin, there is a faint mesial ridge which terminates 
in a small point on the anterior edge of the shell. Peduncle 
stout, transversely wrinkled, exhibiting two, longitudinal ridges 
with a deep groove between them. Length in the dried speci- 
men about an inch. Neural valve -94 in. long by -48 in. wide 
at the broadest part. Distance between the extremities of the 
laminae -26 in. Height of the latter above the shell '02 in. 

A single neural valve with the peduncle attached and a frag- 
ment of the haemal valve was recovered from some alcoholic mis- 
cellanea received from Dr. Cooper, as dredged by him in San 
Diego Bay, California. The fragments were returned by Mr. 
Cuming as Lingula albida, Hds., and it is not improbably that 
species. 

The specimen differs from the figure in the Conchologia 
Iconica, in being more compressed at the sides, and in wanting 
the oblique transverse striations of the figure. 



158 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

I am informed that Dr, W. Newcomb dredged a living speci- 
men of this species off Santa Barbara Island, California, and 
that it is now, with the remainder of his fine collection, in the 
cabinet of Cornell University, New York. 

This species differs from the typical species of LinguUdce, 
in the diverging lamellae which support the post-parietals, in the 
form of the anterior adductor scars, and in its color. 

A microscopical examination of the shell gave the following 
results : 

There were no punctures visible with a good light and a power 
of 900 diameters. The substance of the shell was shown by a 
cross section to be composed of translucent horny laminas, nearly 
parallel with one another and separated by layers of white 
amorphous calcareous matter which looked much like powdered 
sugar. There were no tubuli visible after the most careful 
search; the horny layers presented faint indications of a par- 
tially fibrous structure, but nothing of the kind extended to the 
calcareous layers. A section of the lamina much resembled the 
end of a T-rail, with one flange taken off and obliquely inclined. 
The anterior part of the shell contained less calcareous matter 
than that nearer the beaks, and the margin seemed entirely 
horny. The number of horny layers amounted to eight or ten, 
in the thickest part of the shell. They were not uniform in 
thickness, but were thinner than the amorphous calcareous 
layers. 

The paucity of material prevented a fuller examination, but 
it is to be hoped that some one will examine typical specime-ns 
of Hinds' species and report on their structure. The present 
species may be distinct and the albida a true Lingula, but this 
can only be decided by reference to the type. 

If the two are identical, it seems strange that the remarkable 
internal structure should have remained so long unnoticed. 

This genus appears to take the place in America of the genus 
Lingula, which has its home in the Australian and Indo-Pacific 
Seas. 

Glottidia pyramidata, Stm. 

Lingula pyramidata, Stm., Am. Journ. Sci. and Art, 1860, 
xxxix, p. 444. 

This second species of Glottidia is generally of small size and 
horny texture. There is a very slight deposit of lime in the 
thickest part of the shell, but the greater portion is nearly or 
quite destitute of it, and contracts irregularly in drying. The 
laminae and septum are entirely horny. The shell structure ap- 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 159 

peared finely perforate under a power of 100 diameters. The 
septum and laminae are about one-third as long as the shell. 

This species has so far been found unattached. It is ex- 
tremely active in its motions when disturbed, and has the power, 
as described by Mr. Morse, of burrowing in and travelling over 
the sand by contortions of the peduncle and movements of the 
setas. Furthermore, the soft parts secrete a mucus to which 
grains of sand adhere, forming a " sandtube " of an extremely 
ephemeral nature, which sometimes extends over part of the 
valves ; resembling in appearance, but not in texture or solidity, 
the tubes of some Sabelhirian worms. For further details the 
reader is referred to the forthcoming memoir of Mr. Morse. 

It is found on the south-eastern coasts of the United States, 
from Newberne to Port Royal. 

? ? Glottidia semen, Brod. 

Lingula semen, Broderip, P. Z. S. 1833, p. 125. 

Habitat. — Isle of La Plata, West Columbia. 

It is possible that this and the following species also, from 
their outward resemblance to the two preceding, may belong to 
the present genus. 

? ? Glottidia antillarum, Rve., Conch. Icon. pi. ii, fig. 8, 1861.' 
JIab. — Martinique, Cuming. 

? ? Glottidia Audebarti, Brod., P. Z. S. 1838, p. 135. Rve., 
Conch. Icon. pi. i, fig. 5. 

ffab. — Isle de Puna, Bay of Guayaquil ; Cuming. 

Genus LINGULELLA, Salt. 

Lingulella, Salt, Mem. Geol. Surv. of Great Britain, vol. iii, 
p. 333, 1866. 

Shell resembling Lingula, with a produced neural beak, 
grooved for the passage of a very narrow pedicel. General form 
rounded triangular. Visceral area of the interior of the shell 
more or less strongly pitted. 

Tgpe. Lingulella Davisii, McCoy, An. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 
viii, p. 405. Dav., Sil. Brach. p. 55, pi. iv, fig. 1 to 16. 

This is the oldest form of Lingulidce known, according to Mr. 
Davidson. It is from the lower Silurian formation. 



160 amekicax journal 



Genus TRIMERELLA. Bill. 



Trinierella, Bill., June, 1862, Pal. Fos. Geol. Sur. of Canada, 
vol. i, p. 166. 

Shell ovate, moderately convex, solid, and transversely stri- 
ated. The inner surface of each valve furnished with a longitu- 
dinal septum, supporting a flat, horizontal, lozenge-shaped plate, 
attached by its posterior edges to the inner surface of the valves 
upon which ihe muscular apparatus was attached. On each side 
small ovate muscular scars, as in Oholus. Haemal hinge line with 
faint longitudinal ridges. 

Type. Trimerella grandis, Bill., Pal. Foss. Geol. Surv. Can. 
p. 166, fig. 15i a, b, 1862. 

Fossil in the Silurian beds of Canada. 

GOTLANDIA, Nom. gen. prov. 

Trimerella, Lindstrbm, Ofv. K. Vetenskaps Ak. For. 1867, 
p. 253, pi. xxi. Not Trimerella, Billings. 

Shell subelongate, rounded before ; neural valve with an acute, 
produced apex ; haemal shorter and more rounded, provided with 
a projecting, semi-oval, cardinal process, which is articulated 
into a half-moon-shaped pit just before the area in the neural 
valve ; hinge line of the latter very long and deeply grooved, 
the two grooves meeting at an acute angle on the posterior end 
of the valve. The hinge line of the haemal valve is simple, fit- 
ting into the grooves just described, forming with the cardinal 
process an articulation of the two valves. Neural septum rounded 
at its anterior end, extending nearly to the margin ; on each 
side of the septum and closely attached to it is a tubular process 
extending as far back as the hinge margin, where the base forms 
the concave anterior wall of the cardinal pit. The top of the 
septum is lower than the concave surfaces of the tubes and forms 
the bottom of a gutter between them. The anterior ends of the 
tubes are nearly in the middle of the valves. Similar tubes exist 
in the haemal valve, and the perforations are shown by a section 
to extend nearly to the apices. They are represented in casts 
by conical slender processes. The area behind the cardinal pit 
is covered with callus in the form of arched lamellae. The mus- 
cular impressions have not been clearly made out, but appear to 
have been situated on the upper, posterior ends of the tubes. 

Loc. — Silurian beds of the island of Gotland. 

This genus, as will be seen by the diagnoses, is quite distinct 
from Trimerella, Billings, though the latter has faint ridges on 



OP CONCHOLOGY. 161 

the cardinal border, recalling to some extent the teeth of this 
form ; though from the examination of the casts of Trunerella 
in the cabinet of Prof. James Hall, and gutta percha moulds 
prepared from them by Mr. Whitfield, it is evident that they 
have few characters in common with the one now under coji- 
sideration. As Dr. Lindstriim did not give his species any name, 
and I am unable to find any other reference to it, I would pro- 
pose the provisional name of Gotlandia LindstrUmi. 

This genus was unknown before the publication of Lindstrom's 
paper, and it proves to be extremely interesting. Here is a 
shell whose nearest affinities are vi'iih. Lingula and Obolus, which, 
nevertheless, is as distinctly articulated as Terchratula itself I 
This raises the query as to the comparative value of the char- 
acters used by Gray, i. e., the spiral or non spiral brachia, with 
those used by most naturalists in separating the Brachiopoda 
into orders. The muscular impressions would seem to have been 
remarkably posterior and the tubes may have been the seat of 
the ovaria. 

• Genus LINGULEPIS, Hall. 
Lingulejjis, Hall, 16th Regents Rep. 1863, p. 129. 

Shell linguloid, inequivalve, equilateral, oval-ovate or spatu- 
late ; in the neural valve the visceral area is tripartite, the late- 
ral extensions the larger ; in the haemal valve the area is flabel- 
liform. Shell corneous, phosphatic. 

The scars of the anterior adductors appear to be in the sinuses 
on each side of the median prolongation of the visceral area in 
the neural valve. The posterior occlusers are very small, and 
placed within the visceral area much as in Lingula, except that 
they are close together, and located further back. The anterior 
occlusors median ; before the mesial point of the area ? 

Type. L. pinnceformis, Hall, 16th Regent's Rep. pi. vi, fig. 
15, 16. Owen, Geol. Minn, and Wise. p. 582, pi. I. B. 
fig. 3, 4, 8. 

Fossil in the Silurian formation. 

This form is closely related to Lingula ; the visceral area is 
slightly thickened, so that it leaves an indentation on internal 
casts. These have been referred to as muscular impressions. 

Section OBOLIN/E. 

Post adductor scars more or less separated from the median 
line. 



162 



AMERICAN JOURNAL 




Fig. 38. 
Fig .38. Obolus Dnvidsoni, Salter; after Davidson. 4, neural valve; the 
central scar is that of the pedicel muscles. 5, h«mal valve. A, post-adduc- 
tors. B, sliding muscles. C, anterior adductors. 

Genus OBOLUS, Kichw. 

Obolus, Eichwald, Zool. Spic. vol. i, p. 274, 1829 ? 

Ungula, Pander, Beitrage zur Geog. Russ. Reich. 1830. 

Ungidites, Pander, Herman, ii, p. 132. 

Aulonotreta, Kutorga, Ueb. die Siph. Verb. K. min. Ges. fiir 
1847. 

Shell subequivalve, orbicular, non-articulated valves united 
to each other by the muscles. 

Neural valve most convex, with a short beak, flat hinge mar- 
gin and false area, over which the lines of growth pass without 
interruption. The cardinal border is longitudinally grooved for 
the passage of a peduncle. Haemal valve shorter than the other, 
sliglitly convex or quite flat, without a prominent apex. The 
hinge line passes, in a rounded arch, insensibly into the lateral 
margin ; the cardinal border is flat, thickened and transversely 
striated, but not sulcated. Structure calcareo-corneous. Exter- 
nal surface smooth or concentrically wrinkled. The neural valve 
is marked by a mesial ridge extending half its length ; four 
small oval muscular scars are situated, one on each side, near the 
cardinal angles [retractores posterm^es), the other two near the 
apex, on each side of the mesial ridge {adductores posteriores)^ 
and the scars of the anterior adductors are somewhat elongate, 
with their pointed terminations converging anteriorly in the mid- 
dle of the valve. 

Ti/pe. Obolus apollinis, Sch., Dav. Int. Br. Brach. p. 136^ 

pi. ix, fig. 280—84. 
Fossil in the Silurian beds of Russia. 



Genus OBOLELLA, Billings. PI. 6, fig. 7. 
Obolella, Bill, Pal. Fos. Can. Geol. Surv. vol. i, 18G1, p. 7. 
Shell ovate or subquadrate, convex or compressed. Neural 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 163 

valve with a more or less minute false area, usually grooved for 
the passage of the peduncle. Htemal valve with or without an 
area. Lateral scars near the margin of the cardinal border ; 
scars of anterior adductors differing from those of Obolus in 
diverging instead of converging anteriorly. 

Ti/pe. OhoJella chromatica, Bill., Pal. Fos. Can. Geol. Sur- 
vey, vol. i, 1861, p. 7, fig. 7 a, b, c, d. 

Subgenus Kutorgina, Bill. 
Kuforgina, Bill., Pal. Foss. Can. Geol. Survey, 1861, p. 69. 

Hinge line straight, nearly as wide as the shell, sides nearly 
straight, meeting the cardinal border at an obtuse angle. 

Neural valve with an area and foramen. A pair of subcentral, 
oval muscular impressions, but no vestiges of lateral scars. 
Externally radiately striate. 

Ti/pe. Oholella [Kutorgina) cingulata, Bill., Pal. Foss. Can. 
Geol. Sur. p. 9, fig. 8, 9, 10. 

This subgenus differs from the typical form by its straight 
hinge line and striations, as well as the absence of the lateral 
scars ; it resembles an Ortliisina externally. 

Subgenus Monobolina, Salt. 

Monobolina, Salter, Mem. Geol. Surv. Great Britain, vol. iii, 
p. 334, 1865. 

Shell resembling Obolus; broad; external surface radiately 
striated ; muscular scars united closely along the central line. 

Ti/pe. 3Ionobolina plumbea. Salt., Siluria 2nd Ed. p. 50, 
Fos. 8, fig. 1, 1859. Dav., Sil. Brach. p. 61, pi. iv, fig. 
20, 27. 

Fossil in the Silurian formation of Gt. Brit. 

The Obolus f Salteri, Dav., Sil. Brach. pi. iv, fig. 28, 29, ap- 
pears to be more nearly related to the Lingulas with an internal 
mesial ridge than to any of the OboUnce. 

Genus SPONDYLOBUS, McCoy. 

Spondylobus, McCoy, An. Nat. Hist, viii, 2, p. 407. 

Suborbicular, slightly narrowed toward the short indistinct 
hinge-line ; nearly equivalve, flattened. Haemal valve with a 
slightly excentric apex, beneath which, on the interior, the sub- 
stance of the valve is thickened into a wide undefined boss. Op- 
posite valve slightly longer, from the apex being perfectly mar- 



164 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

ginecl and somewhat produced ; channelled by a narrow trian- 
gular groove, the anterior end of which is flanked within by two 
very prominent, thick, conical, shelly bosses ; representing hinge 
teeth. Substance of the valve thick, testaceous, not glossy ; 
minutely fibrous but not distinctly punctured under a lens of 
moderate power except by the end of the fibres (McCoy). 

Type. Spondylohus craniolaris, McCoy, An. Nat. Hist. 1851, 
p. 408. 

Hab. Cambro-Silurian, McCoy. 

Note. In the 16th Regents Report (1863), Prof. Hall figures, 
under the name of Oholella ? poUta, a shell which he described as 
Lingula f polita, in the Ann. Rep. Geol. Wisconsin, p. 24, 1850. 
He compares it with Spondylohus and Obolella, and doubtfully 
refers it to the last named genus. Owen gives an unrecogniz- 
able figure of the same shell under the name of Obolus (Appo- 
linus ?) in his Geol. Rep. of Wiscon., Iowa and Minn., pi. i, B, 
fig. 9, 11, 15, 20. Prof. Hall describes the muscular impressions 
as follows : " The interior of the ventral ? (neural) valve has a 
broad, somewhat cordiform, subcentral duplicate muscular im- 
pression, with a raised margin. From the centre beneath the 
beak extends a low flatly rounded ridge, which reaches into and 
partially divides the muscular impression. On each side of this 
low ridge is a nearly flat, slightly elevated plate or thickening 
of the shell, which, extending forward, is continued in its outer 
limbs in a raised border nearly around the muscular impression ; 
giving to the wdiole a broad spatulate form, leaving a space in 
front where the shell is marked by a few radiating or vascular 
impressions. On each side of the central elevated plate and at 
the anterior extremities of the cardinal line, are two smaller 
muscular impressions. There is a narrow groove beneath the 
apex of the valve and on each side an elongate thickened boss 
or pad." (That is to say the hinge line is broad, arched and 
thickened, with a mesial groove for the peduncle). " The dor- 
sal ? (haemal) valve has a narrow central muscular impression, 
the limits of which extend in an acute point below the middle of 
the shell ; on each side is a broader limited area, reaching two- 
thirds the length of the shell, and extending into the cavity 
beneath the beak. The whole presents an ovate, somewhat 
cordiform area. No marginal muscular impressions have been 
observed in this valve. Apex emarginate, with a prominent pad 
(i. e. the thickened hinge line) or tooth-like process on either 
side." Hab. Lowest fossiliferous beds of the Potzdam sand- 
stone (Hall). 

The above description is not as clear as might be desired and 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 166 

needs revision. Assuming the relative identity of the valves, as 
Prof. Hall has indicated, the impressions are as follows : 

In the neural valve the scars of the adjuster muscles are situ- 
ated on each side between the outer edge of the visceral area 
and the extreme edge of the hinge line near its outer end. The 
visceral area is traversed by a broad mesial ridge projecting a 
little beyond the edge of the area and abruptly truncate. At 
the outer angles of this end of the ridge are the ovate (and some- 
what anteriorly divaricate) scars of the anterior adjusters, before 
which is a broad space, probably the seat of the anterior re- 
tractors. The visceral area is anteriorly prolonged into two 
narrow arms which pass between the lateral and median scars 
and nearly encircle the latter. (See pi. 6, fig. 5, 6.) 

In the other valve the lateral scars are not visible ; the an- 
terior adductors ;jeem from the figure to divarcate posteriorly, 
being very narrow and divided in the middle by a pointed lobe 
of the visceral area, and bounded on the outer sides by two broad 
pointed lobes of the same. 

The position of the apex removes the shell from Spondylohus, 
The groove or emarg?nation of the hinge line of both valves, as 
well as the form and position of the muscular scars, would also 
seem to prevent it from being placed in Oholella. It would 
seem to belong to an undescribed genus, but, in the absence of 
specimens, I do not feel warranted in characterizing it from 
figures alone, especially as the figures of Obolella, given by Mr. 
Billings, are very poor. 

Since the first part of this paper was in type I have been in- 
debted for facilities for study and other favors to Prof. Agassiz, 
of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, at Cambridge ; Mr. 
Hyatt, of the Boston Society of Natural History ; Prof. James 
Hall, State Geologist, of New York, Mr. J. G. Anthony ; Mr. 
R. P. AVhitfield, of Albany; Mr. Geo. W. Tryon, Jr., of 
the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, and especially 
to Mr. E. S. Morse, of Salem. To the last named gentleman I 
am indebted for the privilege of examining his beautiful ana- 
tomical drawings of various brachiopods, some of them taken 
from life, and for specimens of Grlottidia ■py7'amidata. Among 
Mr. Morse's drawings were some of a singular Sipunculoid worm, 
which would appear, from them, to have an anterior termination 
to the intestine, thus forming a notable exception to the general 
rule among worms. While dissenting entirely from the conclu- 
sions at which he has arrived, from his study of the brachiopods, 
I must express my full appreciation of his kindness in thus open- 
ing his portfolio for my examination, and of the value of his re- 
searches into the embryology and anatomy of this interesting 

12 



166 



AMERICAN JOURNAL, 



group. It is to be hoped that in his forthcojiing memoir upon 
the subject he will give us Ms definition of a mollusk and of a 
worm, in order that we may more clearly comprehend the mo- 
tives which have led him to unite two-thirds of the 3IoUuscoidea 
with the Annelids. 

I would add that, after an examination of s^ime three hundred 
specimens of Terebratida cuhensis, Pourtales, 'and a critical com- 
parison of them with a large series of T. vitred,, that I have been 
forced to the conclusion that the two species ai;e distinct, though 
closely allied; while among the specimens dre^lged by the Coast 
Survey Expedition I found some which seemec? to be unmistak- 
ably T. vitrea. The characters appeared to be- about as follows: 



T. e-uhensis. 
Lateral margins flexuous. 

Hcemal valve quadrangulate. 

Loop indented behind, with a 
rather broad, squarish pro- 
longation in front. 

Hinge teeth more widely sepa- 
rated, stout and thick. 

Deltidium wider, longer. 

Shell inflated. Foramen gen- 
erally larger in proportion. 

I have been thus explicit, as several excellent foreign natural- 
ists have expressed the opinion that the species are identical. I 
have not had an opportunity of making a comparison of T. cu- 
hensis and T. nva, Brod. 

The remarks in this paper upon the species described by Dr. 
A. A. Gould may possess some additional significance from the 
fact that they are made from an examination of his original type 
specimens. 



T. vitrea. 

Lateral margins horizontally 

rectilinear. 
Hcemal valve rounded ovate. 
Loop with its sinuosity indented 

before, with a sharp point 

behind. 
Hinge teeth close together, 

slender. 
Deltidium narrow, small. 
Shell somewhat compressed. 



Fig. 



Reference to Plates. — Plate 6. 
1. Terehratella caurina, Gld., normal; nat. size. 
^- I " " " varieties ; " " 

4. " suffusa, Rve. ; loop. nat. size. 

5. " Obolella" p)olita, Hall. Interior of neural valve, some- 
what reduced from Hall's figure. 

6. Same ; interior of haemal valve. 



OF C0NCH0L0C4Y. 167 

7. Obolella chromatica, Bill., from Billings. 

8. Centronella, Bill. ; showing the loop. 

9. Loop of Magasella (? var.) Icevis, Dall. ; twice nat. size. 

10. Side view of same, enlarged. 

11. Profile of apoph^'ses of ? Magas ijatagonica, Gld. ; en- 
larged twice nat. size. 

12. Interior of haemal valve of the same enlarged one-half. 

13. Magasella (? var.) laivis, Dall. ; twice nat. size. 

Plate 7. 

Fig. a. Interior of neural valve of Waldheimia Maphaelis, Dall., 
showing muscular impressions. 

b. Interior of hgemal valve of do., nat. size. 

c. Side view of Waldheimia Raphaelis, Dall. ; nat. size. 

d. Anterior view of do. 

e. Profile of loop of do,, with one of the crura and part of 

the left hnemal process removed, to show outline of 
septum. 

f. Haemal valve o^ Laqueus calif ornicus, showing the loop; 

reduced to one-half nat. size. 

g. Profile of loop of Laqueiis suffusus, Dall ; magnified 

three times, linear. 

h. Laqueus suffusus, Dall., nat. size. 

s. Interior of haemal valve of do., magnified. 

Plate 8. 

Fig. 1. G-lottidia albida, Dall. ; nat. size. 

2. " " " interior of neural valve, nat. 
size. 

3. a, section of do. near beak, magnified, b, c, section of 

lamellje. 

4. Section of lamella magnified 500 diameters, showing 
the dark horny layers and white calcareous layers. 

5. Section of thickest part of valve, same power, showing 

the layers. 

6. Section of external horny layer, magnified 900 diame- 

ters, showing fibrous structure. 



168 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

7. Epithyris elongatus, Schl., after Davidson ; from a 

broken specimen. 

8. Cardinal process of Wald. venosa. 

9. " " " Laqueus californicus. 

10. Posterior view of cardinal process of L. californicus. 

11. Ditto of W. venosa. 

12. Side view of apophyses of Meganteris archiaci, after 

Suess. 

12a. View of the cardinal border of the same. 

13. Apophyses oi Ismenia sanguinea, enlarged. 

14. Apophyses of JCingena lima, after Davidson. 



OF OONCHOLOGY. 169 



REVIE'W. 



Notes on Lingual Dentition of 3folIusca. By W. G. Binkey and Thomas 
Bland, An. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y. Vol. IX, pp. 281—294. February, 
1870. 

BY WM. H. DALL, 

It is now twenty-four years since the appearance of a paper 
by Dr. Lov^n, on the classification of the mollusca by their lin- 
gual dentition, marked an era in malacological science. Long 
before, in the days of Adanson, and even before that time, the 
teeth with which some of the commoner species are furnished, 
had been noticed by observing students, but no investigations of 
practical importance preceded those of Loven and Troschell. 
Since that time the progress of this branch of the science has 
been slow but sure ; and the great advances made are only ap- 
parent by comparison. While the claims of some of the more 
enthusiastic of its early advocates have hardly been realized, yet 
the character of the dentition, to-day, is accepted by the best au- 
thorities as one of the most important and reliable aids to the 
proper classification of species and genera. 

In the present paper, figures are given of Succinea Nuttal- 
liana, Lea, Bulimulus pallidior, Sby., " Helix " tiimida, Pfr., 
Zonites Icevigata^ Pfr., Veronicella fioridana. Bin., Lvnax jiavus, 
Lin., Melampus bidentatus, Say, Helicina occulta, Say, Pom- 
pholyx effusa, Lea, Planorhis trivolvis, Say, and Tulotoma mag- 
nifica, Conrad. 

The method of obtaining these figures, as stated by Mr. Bin- 
ney before the Boston Society of Natural History a few months 
ago (Oct. 1869) was as follows : A microphotograph was taken, 
from the ribbon itself, upon a glass slide. This negative was 
then placed in a magic lantern and the magnified image thrown 
upon a sheet of white paper suspended on the wall, and the out- 
lines then traced with pencil upon this paper. These outlines 
were then photographed upon the block, to be engraved. The 
sun, as Mr. Binney remarked, thus doing all the work, it was 
reasonable to suppose that the results would defy criticism. 

The photography was done by Mr. Powel, and the tracing by 
Mr. Binney, in person ; Mr. Bland, as we believe, not being re- 
sponsible for any of this work, and consequently not responsible 
for the character of the figures. We believe that Mr. Binney 
has been conscientious in his work, and that the errors which we 



170 AMERICAN JOUKNAL 

are obliged to draw attention to are the result of a faulty method 
of working and inexperience in handling the delicate and com- 
plex structures which he has attempted to figure, rather than any 
want of care on his part. 

Fig. 1, S. NuttalUi, and fig. 2, B. pallidior, are probably cor- 
rect, though " d," in the first named figure, is exceedingly ob- 
scure, and we cannot believe that it is a satisfactory view of the 
8th lateral, which it claims to represent. Fig. 3 is supposed to 
represent some of the teeth of Cysticopsis tumida. It is some- 
what obscure, so that its true relations cannot be determined 
from the figure. This is a very interesting species, and it is a 
pity that a clear and comprehensible figure of its dentition was 
not given. Figs. 4, 5 and 6 Avere drawn by Dr. Leidy, and, 
though engraved in a manner which is not adapted to give a good 
idea of the teeth, especially the bases, yet they are probably 
pretty correct, while it must be remembered that they were drawn 
twenty years ago. The central tooth of fig. 6 {Li77iax flavus), 
does not agree with Morse's figure to which Mr. Binney refers. 
The latter is most probably the more correct of the two, if they 
were both obtained from the same species, which would seem 
doubtful. The figure of Melawpus hidentatus^ Say, bears in- 
trinsic evidence of general correctness, though poorly drawn and 
possibly not exact in detail. The figure (No. 8) of Helicina 
occulta, Say, is very bad and quite erroneous. We have exam- 
ined some of the specimens collected by Mr. Leland, from among 
which Mr. Binney obtained the radula here figured, and Avhich 
were labelled by the latter gentleman as Helicina occulta. The 
central tooth is quite destitute of denticles, is of a different shape 
from that given in fig. 8, and the lateral teeth diff"er in many 
particulars. The uncini have not the hoe-like form of those in 
the figure. 

On the whole, the radula strongly resembles Troschel's figure 
of the dentition of H. orbicidata, Binn., (If. trossica, Troschel,) 
but the central tooth is proportionally larger and the laterals 
differ in minute details. No true Helicina yet examined, has a 
denticulate median tooth, and this should have put Mr. Binney 
on his guard. The only conjecture we can offer as to the cause 
of the error is that it might have been a broken and worn an- 
terior tooth, or the false appearance of denticles might have been 
caused by the refraction of too strong a light used during the 
examination. The radula has been examined by several com- 
petent naturalists, and there can be no doubt as to the edentu- 
lous character of the median tooth. 

Fig. 9 {PompJiolyx effusa) is also exceedingly erroneous. 
We are indebted to the extreme courtesy of Mr. Binney for a 
fresh specimen of the typical effusa,' and for the opportunity of 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 171 

examining his original microscopic slides and the photograph 
taken from them. No such teeth as are indicated for the first 
five Literals in this figure, are to be found on the original radula. 
The central tooth is almost certainly bidentate instead of simple. 
The specimens referred to, now in the Mus. Comp. Zoology, 
were unfortunately mounted in Canada balsam, which, by ren- 
dering the teeth quite transparent, ruins them as objects of 
reference. Still, enough was made out to render the above state- 
ments positive, and they were still further confirmed by the 
radula of the fresh specimen, although the latter was somewhat 
immature. If further doubt existed as to the erroneous nature 
of the figure a careful examination of the photograph, taken from 
the original radula before it was spoiled by the balsam, would 
satisfy the most incredulous. An examination of twenty-five 
radulse of a closely allied species of the same genus, disclosed 
the fact that the outer laterals of effusa are furnished with one 
or two more denticles, while the inner laterals appear nearly 
identical. The error was almost certainly caused by mistaking 
and confusing the outlines of the bases as seen through the trans- 
lucent cusps, with the outlines of the cusps themselves. 

We have not at hand a specimen of Planorhis trivolvis to com- 
pare with fig. 10. Any of our readers who possess a first class 
microscope will be able to make the necessary comparisons dur- 
ing the coming season. The teeth of J*, lentus, as we have ex- 
amined them, difter considei'ably from those of P. trivolvis as 
here figured. The cusp of the rhachldian tooth appears to us to 
be bifid, rather than furnished with two spike-shaped denticles. 
The teeth of Tidotoma magnifica, long a desideratum, are so 
simple that it would be difficult to fall into serious error in figur- 
ing them. It may, however, well be doubted if the denticula- 
tions are so ragged and irregular as here figured, and indeed it 
would be satisfactory to have any of the figures in this paper 
confirmed by more careful drawings. 

In conclusion-, we would remark, that any practical microsco- 
pist will feel the utter inadequacy of the process previously de- 
scribed, for furnishing reliable figures of anything, unless checked 
and controlled by a trained eye, experience with the microscope 
and with the special department under consideration. That pho- 
tography can greatly assist there is no doubt, but as a sole re- 
liance it is untrustworthy. 

We feel sure that the gentlemen Avhose names head this review 
will regret as much as we do that their wide and well deserved 
reputation should give Aveight and authority to such errors, and 
that they will consider this review to be, as it is, Avholly prompted 
by the interests of Science, and totally free from any personal 
considerations. 



172 



AMERICAN JOURNAL 



RECTIFICATION OF THE SYNONYMY OF CERTAIN 
SPECIES OF MARGINELLA. 

BY JOHN H. REDFIELD. 

In Vol. V. of this Journal, p. 91, I referred to a species of 
Marginella figured by Reeve for M. maculosa^ Kiener, but which 
I regarded as distinct from Kiener's species, though I was not 
then prepared to name it, for want of an acquaintance with the 
shell itself. Among some shells recently sent me for inspection 
by Governor Rawson of Barbadoes, was a Marginella from the 
Grenadines, which I at once recognized as the shell figured by 
Reeve as M. maculosa, Kiener, and by Sowerby as M. guttata. 
Swains., but which I am convinced should not be confounded 
with either. For this species I now propose the name of 3Iar- 
gmella calculus. In the paper above quoted, I have already at- 
tempted to correct the perplexed synonymy of some allied species, 
but I am now enabled more satisfactorily to elucidate the four 
species to which the name of guttata has been by turns applied — 
a name which must be retained for only the first of those which 
follow : 

1. M. GUTTATA, Dillwyn, Descript. Catal. p. 526, 1817. 

M. longivaricosa, Lam., Kiener, Sowb. in Thesaurus. 

Ilab. Caribbean Province, Honduras to Tortola. 

This well known species was first pointed out by Sloane in 
his history of Jamaica. 

2. M. PHRYGIA, Sowb. 

31. guttata, Swains., Zool. Illust. 2d ser. i, pi. 44, f. 3, 1829- 
31. phryqia, Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 394, pi. 78, f. 218, 219, 
1-846. 

31. Swainsoniana, Petit, Cat. in Journ. de Conch, ii, 55, 1851. 
31. phrygia, Reeve, Conch. Icon. pi. 15, f. 67, 1865. 

Hah. Gulf of California, Reeve. I have received it from 
Acapulco, collected by Sloat. Swainson and Sowerby were unac- 
quainted with its habitat. Not common in collections. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 



173 



3. M. MACULOSA, Kiener, Coq. Viv. Marg. p. 26, pi. 9, f. 40, 

1834. 
M. miiralis. Hinds, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1844, p. 76. 
Sowb. Thes. Conch, i, 394, pi. 78, f. 217, 1846. Reeve, 
Conch. Icon. pi. 15, f. 69, 1865. 

Ilab. Caribbean Province ; Bahamas to Cura^oa. Frequent" 
ly found among the small shells brought from the Bahamas. I'' 
is hardly diaphanous, as Kiener calls it, but much nearer to i^ 
than is the following species. 

4. M. CALCULI'S, Redfield. 

3L guttata, Sowb., (not Swains.) Si/n. exd. Thes. Conch, i, 

394, pi. 78, f. 208, 209, 210, 1846. 
M. maculosa, Reeve, (not Kien.) Syii. exd. Conch. Icon. pi. 

15, f. 65, a, b, 1865. 

Shell oval, solid, polished, yellowish white, transversely tessel- 
ated with milk white spots and yellow guttules which deepen in 
color towards the left. Spire concealed. Lip not reflected, 
finely toothed or striated on inner margin. Columella shows 
from six to eight plaits, of which the upper ones are almost ob- 
solete, while the lowest but one, is broad and stout. 

Length, 11 millemetres. Breadth, 8 millemetres. 

ffab. St. Vincents, Sowb., Reeve ; Grenadines, Rawson. 

This species is remarbable for its solidity, and approaches in 
type the group to which belong 31. interrupte-lineata, 31. ohesa 
and 31. tessellata. It differs from 31. maculosa, in its less elon- 
gated form and greater solidity and in the oval rather than square 
form of its guttules, which are not so plainly grouped into darker 
bands as in 31. maculosa. Sowerby's figure above quoted well 
represents the species. 

From 31. phrygia it is distinguished by its greater size and 
solidity and by its markings, which in 3£. phrygia assume the 
character of dark brown rings more or less complete, as is well 
shown in Swainson's magnified figure. Swainson's shell was 
only 8 millemetres in length ; my own specimens of 31. plirygia 
measure but 7. Full grown specimens of 31. maculosa measure 
12 millemetres in length and 6 in breadth. Perfect and mature 
shells of both 31. maculosa and 31. calculus show the lip to be 
striate or denticulate within, a feature noticed by Hinds, but over- 
looked by Kiener and Reeve. 

The key to the confusion which has existed in regard to these 
species is found in the early erroneous assumption that Kiener's 
species was identical with Swainson's. This being corrected, the 
synonymy readily resolves into truth. 



174 AMERICAN JOURNAL 



NOTICES AND REVIEWS 

OF 

NEW CONCHOLOGICAL WORKS. 

BY GEO. W. TRYON, JR. 



I.— AMERICAN. 

Repott on the Invertebrata of Massachusetts. Published agreeably 
to ail order of the Legislature, Second Edition, comprising the Mollusca. 
By AuGasTOS A. Gould, M.D. Edited by W. G. Binney. 8vo., 524 pp., with 
twenty-seven chromolithographic plates and over seven hundred wood en- 
gravings. Boston, 1870. 

The first edition of this Report was published in 1841, and 
included the Crustacea, Annelida and Radiata. The work be- 
came scarce many years ago, being highly prized by all persons 
engaged in conchological pursuits as the only reliable book pub- 
lished containing descriptions of the marine mollusca of the At- 
lantic Coast of the United States. The Legislature of Massachu- 
setts, continuing the wise liberality which has always characterized 
the educational system of that very enlightened commonwealth, in 
1865, authorized Dr. Gould to prepare a new edition of his work 
for publication at the expense of the State. Unfortunately for 
Conchological Science, Dr. Gould died in 1866, leaving his work 
in an advanced but incomplete stage. In 1867 Mr. W. G. Bin- 
ney was appointed by the Governor and Council of Massachusetts 
to complete the work, " as nearly as possible in accordance with 
the views and wishes of the author." The selection of Mr. Bin- 
ney was a happy one, as perhaps no one else could have carried 
out the above instructions so faithfully. Dr. Gould was the 
literary executor of Dr. Amos Binney, and edited and published 
that distinguished Conchologist's magnificent Monograph of the 
Terrestrial Mollusca of the United States. Mr. W. G. Binney's 
relations with Dr. Gould were thus most intimate, originat- 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 175 

ing in the above valuable scientific service rendered by the latter, 
and now the son has the satisfaction of repaying the obligation 
in kind. Of course, under the restrictions imposed upon Mr. 
Binney b}' the Governor of Massachusetts, Ave are not to expect 
"all the improvements in classification, &c., which more recent 
investigations have suggested," and, accepting this necessary 
limitation, Mr. Binney may be congratulated upon having per- 
formed his work generally in a very creditable manner. In all 
that relates to the marine and terrestrial species it is, in every 
respect, the most valuable as well as the most elegant volume on 
conchology ever issued in the United States. The plate illus- 
trations in chromo are beautifully executed by Messrs. Bowen 
and Company, of Philadelphia, and carefully finished by hand, 
and the very fine wood-cuts printed in the text were drawn by 
Mr. E. S. Morse and engraved by Mr. Henry Marsh, both justly 
celebrated for their natural history illustrations. 

We do not believe that, were Dr. Gould living, he would ap- 
prove the views of Mr. Binney concerning the fluviatile mollusca. 
These views we ha"ve already criticised at length upon several 
occasions, and will not now recur to them. 

A very few copies of this elegant book, printed on tinted paper 
and finely bound, are for sale by Little and Brown, of Boston, 
at the very low price of Fifteen Dollars — and will doubtless find 
quick sale. Early application should be made for them, as they 
will surely become as scarce as the first edition in a short time. 

The following new species are described :* 

Boltenia Burkhardti, Agassiz. ^^olis pilata, Gould. 
Lyrodus, nov. gen. [Teredidce). CalHopcea fuscata, Gould. 

Lyrodus cldorotica^ Gould. Emhletonia fuscata, Gould. 

Doris tenel/a, Agassiz. Emhletonia remigata, Gould. 

Doris diadeinata, Agassiz. Eerrnceaciniciata, Alex. Agassiz. 

Doris grisea, Stimpson. Elysia clilorotica. Agassiz. 
Placohranchus catuhis, Agassiz. 



Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History. New York. IX. Ifo. 10. 
April, 1870. 

On the genius PompJioJyx and its allies, with a revision of 
the Limnceidce of authors. By Wm. H. Dall. 

A variety of P. Leana^ Adams, or possibly a new species, 
from Clear Lake, California, is described under the name of 
solida. Mr. Dall corrects an error in his description of the 

*Mr. A. E. Verrill, in the American Journal of Science and Arts, 
May, 1870, states that many of the so-called new Ascidians are not en- 
titled to specific ranli, being synonyms merely. 



176 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

animal of PomphoJyx, published in the Proc. Cal. Acad., 1866. 
He there asserted that it possessed two pairs of eyes, founded 
upon drawings and descriptions furnished to him by Mr. W. M. 
Gabb. There are no tentacular eyes, however, but the tenta- 
cular nerve is marked by a central line of pigment cells, which, 
in some specimens, is crowded near the tips, forming black spots, 
which were mistaken by Mr. Gabb for eyes. The soft parts of 
PompJioIyx, together with the dentition, are fully described in this 
paper, as well as the soft parts of other genera of Limmsidse. 

The author follows Binney in including '-'- Strebelia BerendtW 
{PJiysella) in the Limnseidse, although it is undoubtedly a land 
shell, as the description and figure will satisfy any one who will 
study them. Very likely the name " Physella'' has suggested 
placing this species among the fluviatiles. 

Qarinifex Tryoyii, Meek, is made a new subgenus — Vorticifex. 
Pt is a fossil from the Nevada tertiary. Phym eostata, New- 
comb, is made the type of a new subgenus — Costatella. " Shell 
rounded, with transverse undulations or costse.'' 

Paludina or PJiysa sealaris, Jay, is referred, very correctly 
"we think, to the subgenus Ameria, Adams. 



Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History. New York. IX. No. 9. 
March, 1870. 

Notes on the Lingual Dentition of 3Iollusca. By W. G. 
Binney and Tpiomas Bland. 

The species figured and remarked upon are Succinea Nuttal- 
liana, Bulimulus pallidior, Helix tumida, Zonites laevigata, 
Veroyiicella Floridana, Limax Jiavus, 3Ielampus bidetitatus, 
Helicina occulta. PompJdyx effusa, Planorhis trivolvis, Tulotoma 
magnifica. 

To this paper is added an important note by Mr. W. G. Bin- 
ney on Vivipara litieata, Val. The author confirms the sus- 
picions of conchologists regarding the locality of this species. 
When in Paris, in 1867, he examined the original specimen, and 
found it labelled "LakeErie," and then in Valenciennes' hand-writ- 
ing was added, " this is a mistake, the shell comes from India." 
Thus the question of locality is settled, and the specimen is the 
well known Paludina Bengalensis. Valenciennes' name becomes 
a synonym, as Bengalensis has priority, but Mr. Binney seems 
still to overlook the fact that the description and figure of KUster 
apply unmistakably to our Ai-ierican species, and he was not 
justified in giving a name ( V. contectoides) to it, as V. lineata, 
KUster, not (Valenciennes) must stand. Mr. Binney very justly 
condemns American writers for their carelessness, and distinctly 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 177 

refers to me (Proc. Acad., Phila., p. 451, 1862.) I acknowledge 
the justice of his stricture in this instance, and regret that Mr. 
Binney has not escaped giving like cause for censure in dealing 
with the same species. 

Notes on Species of the Family Corhiculadce. By Temple 
Prime. 

C. ammiralis, nov. sp. Cambodia. C. haronialis, Australia. 
C. gubernatoria, " " 0. cotisularis, Malacca. 

0. ^Delessertiana, " Smyrna. (7. episcopalis, Cambodia. 

0. imperialis, " Pondicherry. Cyrena tribimalis^ Ecuador. 

C. Amazonica, Anthony, nov. sp. Riv. Amazon. 



Proceedings Boston Society of Natural History. December, 1869. 

The 3Iollitscan Fauna of Neiv Haven. Part II. Aeephala 
and Bryozoa. By George H. Perkins. 

The author follows the very reprehensible practice of quoting 
in most cases (though not always) the name of the systematist 
who has made the latest generic change instead of the original 
describer of the species. 

Mr. Conrad did not change Cytherea convexa, Say, to C. 
Sayii, because convexa is preoccupied, as stated by Mr. Perkins, 
but because the recent species is different from the fossil form 
called convexa by Say. 

In accordance with a recent '• rule " of the British Associa- 
tion, Mercenaria violacea is changed to Crassivenus mercenaria, 
and Totteniana (should be Tottenid) gemma is substituted for 
Cremma Totteni. But the " rule " will, in this as in other cases, 
doubtless prove the exception. Neither the original specific nor 
generic name can be altered ; justice requires that Mercenaria 
mercenaria, and Cremma gemma shall stand, however inelegant, 
and we can do nothing to prevent even the recurrence of such 
inelegancies except to point them out as infelicitous names, and 
recommend that they be avoided in the future. 

Astarte lutea, Perkins, nov. sp. 

In conclusion, the author gives a list of species reported from 
Long Island Sound but not yet found in New Haven Bay. 

A continuation of Mr. Perkins' paper contains a list of 
marine and fresh water Polyzoa of New Haven, and a catalogue 
of species heretofore reported from Long Island Sound, but not 
detected in New Haven Bay. 

Remarks on Distribution of Marine Animals. By Wm. H. 
Dall. 



178 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

" Mr. Wm. H. Dall made a few remarks upon the distribution 
of marine animals, asserting that their range was influenced 
more by the temperature of the water than by the depth or other 
conditions. He showed that the floating ice line of Behring Sea 
(which passes between the Pribyloff" and St. Matthew groups of 
islands, touching the continent near Kuskoquim Bay) governed 
the distribution of the fish and mollusks of those waters. It is 
the northern limit of all the more southern forms, some of which 
range as far south as Monterey. It is the southern limit of al-, 
most all the truly arctic species. The fur seal is never found 
to the north of it, though often erroneously spoken of as coming 
from Behring Strait ; the polar bear never passes to the south 
of this line ; the cod invariablj'- keep to the south and the mullet 
to the north of it. It is also the limit of distribution of many 
fuci and seaside plants. 

"Where the water is cooled by northern currents or by glaciers, 
deep water species of mollusks, especially Brachiopods, are found 
at or even above low-water mark. Where the surface is warm, 
these mollusks, which in the north are found near the shore, are 
only obtained at a depth of many fathoms." 



American Journal of Science and Arts. Yol. 49. No. 146. March' 
1870. 

Contributions to Zoology from the Museum of Yale College. 
No. 6. — Descriptions of Shells from the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia. By A. E. Verrill. 

Semele Junonia, Loripes edentuloides, 

Tivela elegans, Xemophora robusta, 

Venus isocardia, Enoeta Pedersenii, 

Chione tumens, Lyria {Enoeta) Cumingii. 

Semele venusta, A. Ad., is supposed to be the young of aS'. 
formosa, Sowb. 



IL— FOREIGN. 



FRENCH. 



Journal de Conchyliologie. 3d Ser., X., No. 2. 128 pp. 8vo., and fire 
plates. Paris. April, 1870. 

Siir la Faune Conchyliologique marine des baies de Suez et 
de VAkahah. By P. Fischer. 

This paper contains a catalogue of species aud the description 
of the following, new to science : 

Murez Erythrceus, Mytilus Pharaonis. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 



179 



Faune malacologique terrestre et jluviatih des lies Viti, 
d'aprh les envois de 31. le Dr. Edouard Grceffe. By 
Albert Mousson. 

This is the fourth memoir on the above subject by Prof. 
Mousson. The following are the new species and varieties : 

OyclopJiorus (Ostodes) diatretus, Gould, var. intercostata, Mous- 
son. 

Diplommat'ma Pomaticeformis, 3Ielania Samoensis, Reeve. 



subregiilaris, 
"■ Grodeffj'ojjana, 

" ascendens, 

" tuber osa, 

" 3Iartensi, il. Ad. 

" var. macrostoma, 

"■ quadrata, 

" fuseifia, 

Realia ingens, 
" eostidata, 
" circumlineata, 
" subsohita, 
" long Ilia, 
" bifilaris., Mousson. 
var. angustata, 
Hydrocena brevissima, 
Truncatella furricula, 
" fimiculus, 

Helicina fulgora, Gld. 
var. expansa, 
" tectiformis, 
" interna, 
" Semper i, 
" musiva, Gld. 
var. Vitiana, 
var. subearinata, 
Melania pUcatilis, 

" plutonis, Hinds, 
var. callosa, 



var. exposita, 
" Ovalana, Mousson. 

" 31. perpinguis, Gld, 

" non Hinds. 

var. pUcato costata, 
var. Kanatldana^ 
" subexiista, 

var. persuleata, 
var. albizonata, 
" Assavaensis, Mousson. 

" var. desideata, 

" Terpsichore, Gld. 

var. 3fangoensis, 
" turritelloides, 
" teirica, Gld. 

var. tumida, Mousson. 
Neritina Pritchardi, Dohrn. 
var Vitiana, 
" cornuta, Reeve. 

var. Pacifica, 
" frondosa, 
" olivacea, Le Guillou. 

var. Vitiana, 
" Garretti, 

" deltoidea,Ga.rYctt,MS. 
Navicella Schmeltziana. 

" Freycineti, Recluz. 
var. Vitiensis, 



Diagnosis 3Iollusci novi, reipublicce 3Iexieana^ incoloi. By 
H. Crosse and P. Fischer. 

Zonites Tuxtlensis. 

Description d'un Athoracophorus inedit j^^ovenant de la 
Nouvelle Oaledonie. By H. Crosse and P. Fischer. 



180 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

Athoracophorus modestus. 

Diagnoses Molluscorum Novce Oaledonioe incolarum. By 
H. Crosse. 

Helix Vincentina, Bulimus Mageni, var. 

" multisulcata, Tornatellina Noumeensis, 

" subsidialis, Helicina 3fariei, 

" Ferrieziana, " porphyrostoma^ 

" Ostiohim, " Iceta, 

" Noumeensis, " Mouensis, 

" vmmtida, " henigna, 

" fibratus, Martyn, vars. " Uttoralis, Montr, var. 

" Soiivillei, Morelet, var. Turhinella Houmeensis, 

" Alexander, var. 

" pseudocaledonieus, Montr., var. 

Diagnoses Molluscoritm novorum. By H. Crosse. 

Helix metida, Solomon's Archip. 

" Biocheana, " " 

Bulimus Kantavuensis, Vitian Archip. 
Registoma Brazieri, New Hebrides. 

Varietes. Ne sutor ultra erepidam ! By H. Crosse. 

This paper administers a well-deserved castigation to the 
English raonographists, Reeve and Sowerby, for their carelessness 
in identifying and describing species in the Conchologia Iconica, 
etc. 

Bihliograplde. 



Revue at Magasln de Zoolo§ie. No. 1. 1870. 

Mollusques nouveaux, litigieux oil peu connus. By M. J. 

R. BOURGUIGNAT. 

Daudehardia nuhigena^ Mt. Atlas of Blidah. 

" Atlantica, Algiers. 

Zonites septentrionalis, North ofFrance. 

" Farinesianus, Oriental Pyrenees, etc. 
'* Navarricus, Spain. 
Helix ScJdcerotricha, Kabylia. 
" jSimoniana, Toulouse. 
" 3Iartorelli, Barcelona. 
" Tenietensis, Algiers. 
Planorhis Mahilli, France. 



CATALOGUE 

OF THE KNOWN" SPECIES, RECENT AND FOSSIL, 

OF THE 

FAMILY MARGINELLID^. 

BY JOHN H. REDFIELD. 



The Marginellidce form a distinct and well marked group, and may be 
regarded as a subdivision of the larger group of Volidacece, and inter- 
mediate between Volutidce and Cyprceidce. As now restricted, the family 
contains only the genera Erato, Marginella and the fossil genus Vol- 
varia, including in Marginella many subgenera proposed by authors. 
The genus Ringicula, of Deshayes, which some have placed next to Mar- 
ginella, is now better referred to the family Tortiatellidce, near Cinulia, of 
Gray. The genus Packyhathron, of Uaskoin, represented by two little 
known species, and by him placed in the family Marginellidce, is probably 
more nearly related to Oniscia, and by Cheuu has been with good judg- 
ment referred to the family Gassididce. 



Family MARGINELLID^, Redf. 

Les Coliimellaires, (in part) Lamarck, Phil. Zool. 1809. 
Marginelladce, (in part) Fleming, British Anim. p. 328, 1828. 
Marginellinoe, Swainson, Treatise on Malacology, p. 98, 1840. 
Columellafa, (in part) Reeve, Elements of Conch, p. 44, 1849. 
Marginellidce, (in part) Redf., Catalogue of Collect, of Marg., 

1851. P. P. Carpenter, Cat. of Mazatlan Mollusca, 1857. 

H. and A. Ad., Genera of Recent Moll. I, 1858. 
Volutidce, (in part) Woodward, Manual of Mollusca, p. 118, 

1851. (In part) Chenu, Man. de Conchyl. I, 184, 1859. 

34 



216 

Genus ERATO, Risso. 
Hist. Nat. de Nice iv, 240, 1826. 

A. Recent Species. 

1. E. angistoma, Sowb., Conch. Illust. f. 51, 1841. 

Reeve, Conch. Iconica, Erato, pi. 3, f. 13, 1865. 

East Indies, Reeve. 

2. E. angulifera, (Sowb. ined.) Reeve, Concli. Icon. Erato, pi. 

2, f. 6 a, b, 1865. Borneo. 

3. E. callosa, Ad. and Reeve, Voyage of Samarang, Moll. p. 

25, pi. 10, f. 32, a, b, 1850. 
Reeve, Conch. Iconica, Erato, pi. 1, f. 2, a, b, 1865. 

China Sea. 

4. E. columbella, Menke, Zeitschrift flir Malak, 1847, p. 

183, 1847. 
Erato leucoplicpa, Gould, Boston Journ. Nat. Hist, vi, 386, pi. 

14, f. 20, 1853. 
Erato cohwibella, Carpenter, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1856, p. 

206, 1856. 
Erato leucojjhcea, Gould, Otia Conchologica, p 187, 1862. 
Erato columbella, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Erato, pi. 1, f. 1 a, b, 
1865. 
W. coast of America fro7n Santa Barbara southivard to Mazatlan. 

5. E. COrrugata, Hinds, (ined.) Reeve, Conch. Icon. Erato, pi. 

3, f. 12, 1865. I. 3Iindoro, PliiUppines. 

6. E. cypraeoides, C. B. Ad., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, ii, 

1, 1845. Jamaica. 

E. CYPR^OLA, Risso, is Erato hxvis {Don.) 

E. CYPRyEOLA, (Sowb.) (Marginclhi) is Erato scabriuscula, 

Gray. 
E. DoNOVANi, (Payr.) (Marginella) is Erato Icevis, (Don.) 
E. FUSiFORMis, Turton, (Voluta) is " " " 

7. E. gaUinacea, Hinds, (ined.) Reeve, Conch. Icon. Erato, 

pi. 2, f. 7 a, b, 1865. /. Mindoro, Philippines. 

E. GRANUM, Kiener, (Marginella) is Erato scabriuscula, Gray. 
E. GuiLFORDiA, Risso, (Columbella) is Erato hvvis, (Don.) 

8. E. guttula, Sowb., Conch. Illustrations, f. 50, 1841. 

Habitat luiknown, 
E. HEMATINA, Reeve, is Marginella hematita, Kiener. 



217 

9. E. lachryma, Gray, Descriptive Catalogue, p. 17, 1832. 

Sowb., Conch. Ulust. f. 48, 1841. Reeve, Conch. Illust. 
Erato, pi. 2, f. 9 a, b, 1865. 

New Holland, Gray ; Japan, Reeve. 

10. E. laevis, (Donovan.) 

Voluta krvis, Donovan, Brit. Shells v, pi. 165, 1803. 
Cyproia voluta, Montagu, Test. Brit. 203, pi. 6, f. 7, 1803. 
Voluta logins, Mat. and Rack., Lin Trans, viii, 133, 1807. 
Voluta cifproiola, Brocchi, Conch. Foss. Subap. ii, 321, pi. 4, 

f. id a, b, 1814. 
Voluta loivis, Dillwjn, Descr. Catalogue, p. 527, 1817. Wood, 

Index Test. pi. 19, f. 61, 1818. Turton, Conch. Diet. 

Brit. Isl. p. 252, 1819. 
Voluta f us if ormis, Turton, Conch. Diet. Brit. Isl. p. 251, 1819. 
Columbella Guilfordia, Risso, Hist. Nat. de I'Europe Merid. 

p. 205, pl. 7, f. 87, 1826. 
JSrato cyfroeola, Risso, Hist. Nat. de I'Europe Merid. p. 240, 

pl. 7, f. 85, 1826. 
MargineUa voluta, Fleming, Brit. Anim. p. 335, 1828. 
Marginella muscaria, (not Lam.) Costa, Cat. Test. Sic. p. 73, 

1829. 
Erato cyprcEola, Costa, Anim. di Nap. pl. 82, f. 5, 6, 1830. 
Marginella cyprceola, Grateloup, Actes de la Soc. Lin. Bord. 

vi, p. 300. f. 33, 34, 1833. 
Marginella Donovani, Kiener, Coq. Viv. Marginella, p. 16, 

pl. 8, f. 34, 1834. 
Erato cyprmola, Philippi, Enum. Moll. Sic. i, 233, 1836. 
Erato loivis, Sowb., Conch. Illustrations, p. 15. f. 57, 1841. 

Reeve, Conch. Syst. pl. 285, f. 3, 1843. 
Erato cyproeola, Philippi, Enum. Moll. Sic. ii, 197, 1814, 
3Iarginella Donovani, Thorpe, Brit. Marine Conch, p. 220, 

1844. 
Marginella Icevis, Desh., ed. of Lamarck, x, 452, 1844. 
Marginella Donovani, Chenu, Bibliotheque Conch. 1st series, 

i, 108, pl. 45, f. 5, 6, 7, 8, 1845. 
Erato Icevis, Reeve, Elements of Conch, pl. 1, f. 3, 1846. S. 

V. Wood, Crag MoUusca, p. 18, pl. ii, f. 10 a, b, 1848. 

Deshayes, Traite Elementaire de Conch, pl. 123, f. 11, 

1850. 
Marginella Icevis, Forbes a.nd Hani., Brit. Moll, iii, 502, pl. 

114 B, f. 4, 5, and animal, pl. nn, f. 8, 9, 1853. Clark, 

Brit. Mar. Test. Moll. p. 506, 1855. 
Erato Icevis, H. and A. Ad., Gen. Rec. Moll, i, 189, pl, 20, f. 

1 (animal f. 1, b), 1858. ? Emmons, GeoL Survey N. 



218 

Car. 1858, p. 262, f. 139, 1858. Chenu, Man. de Conch. 

i, 200, f. 1068, 1859. 
Erato ci/prceola, Chenu, Man. de Conch, i, 200, f. 1069, 

1859. 
Erato kvvis, Sowb., IH'd Index Brit. Shells, pi. 19, f. 27, 

1859. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Erato, pi. 1, f. 5 a, b, 1865. 
Marginella Icevis, Jeffreys, Brit. Conch, iv, 400, pi. 7, f. 3, 

1867. 
Erato hevis, Weinkauff, Conch, des Mittelmeeres, ii, 18, 

1868. 
Coasts of England, Atlantic coasts of France and Spain and 

Mediterranean Sea. Also fossil in pliocene and miocene 

of England, France, Italy, Greece, and perhaps of North 

Carolina. 

E. LEUCOPH^A, Gould, is Erato columbella, Menke. 

11. E. marginata, Morch, Malak. Blatt. vii, 85, 1860. 

E. 3Iaugerice, var, Panamensis, P. P. Carpenter, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. 1856, p. 162, 1856. 

Central America, at Panama and Eocoro^ies. 

12. E. Maugeriae, Gray, Desc. Catalogue, p. 17, 1832. 

Sowb., Coiicli. Manual, f. 454, 1839. Sowb., Cat. Cypr. 
p. 15, No. 4, 3 841. Sowb., Conch. Illustr. f. 47, 1841. 
Reeve, Conch. Systematica, ii, 260, pi. 285, f. 4, 1842. 
S. V. Wood, Ciag Mollusca, p. 19, pi. ii, f. 11 a, b, 
1848. Reeve. Conch. Iconica, Erato, pi. 2, f. 10 a, b, 
1865. 

Caribbean Sea, Guadaloupe to Jamaica. Also fossil in pli- 
ocene and miocene tertiary of England. 

13. E. minuta, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Erato, pi. 3, f. 11, 1865. 

/. Ticao, Philippines. 



E. MUSCARIA, Costa (Marginella) not Lam. is Erato Icevis 
(Don.) ■ 

14. E. nana, Duclos (ined.), Reeve, Conch. Icon. Erato, pi. 3, 

f. 16, 1865. 

I. Bourbon, Desh.; New Caledonia, Fischer. 

15. E. pellucida, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Erato, pi. 3, f. 16, 1865. 

Bombay. 

16. E. Sandwicensis, Pease, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 146, 

186U. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Erato, pi. 3, f. 17 a, b, 1865. 

Sandivich Islands. 



219 

17. E. scabriuscula, Gray, Desc. Catal. p. 16, No. 140, 

3Iarginella cyprceoJa,^ Sowb., Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 57, 1832. 

Marginella granum, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 17, pi. 8, f. 33, 
'1835. 

Erato scabriuscula, Sowb., Conch. Illustr. f. 45, 1841. Sowb., 
Catal. Cypr. p. 15, No. 1, 1841. Reeve, Conch. Syst. 
pi. 285, f.'7, 10, 1842. C. B. Ad., Ann. N. Y. Lye. 
Nat. Hist. V, 263, 1852. C. B. Ad., Cat. Shells of Pan- 
ama, p. 39, 1852. 

Erato r/ranu7n, Chenu, Man. de Conchyl. i, p. 200, f. 1067, 
1859. 

Erato scabriuscula, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Erato, pi. 1, f. 4 a, 
b, 1865. 

W. coast of America, from St. Elena JV. to 3Iazatlan. 

18. E. Schmeltzeana, Crosse, Journ. de Conch, xv, 301. pi. 

11, f. 5, 1867. Vitian Archipelago. 

19. E. sulcifera, Gray, Desc. Catalogue p. 16, 1832. 
Sowb., Conch. Illustr. f. 46, 1841. Reeve, Conch. Icon. 

pi. 3, f. 14 a, b, 1865. 

C. of Good Hope, Gray; Pliilippine I., Reeve. 

E. TRIFASCIATA, Ilumphr., (Lachryma) is E. lachryma. Gray. 

20. E. vitellina, Hinds, Moll. Voyage Sulphur, p. 46, pi. 13, 

f. 22, 23, 1844. 
E. vitulina, H. and A. Ad., Genera Rec. Moll, i, p. 190, Cat. 

of species, 1858. 
E. vitellina, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Erato, pi. I, f. 3 a, b, 1865. 

Magdalena, California. 
E. VITULINA, H. and A. Ad., is E. vitellina, Hinds. 
E. VOLUTA, Mont. (Cyprcea), is E. Icevis (Don.) 

B. Fossil Sjjecies. 

E. CRASSILABRA, Conrad (Am. Journ. Conch, i, 25), is 3Iar- 
ginella crassilabra, Conr. 

E.? CONSTRICTA, Conrad (Am. Journ. Conch, i, 25), is Mar- 
ginella constricta, Conr. 

E. HUMEROSA, Conrad (Am. Journ. Conch, i, 25), is Mar- 
ginella humerosa, Conr. 

E. L.EVis (Don), see among recent species. 

E. MAUGERl^, Gray, see among recent species. 

* It is a little doubtful whether Gray or Sowerby has priority ; but as 
Sowerby afterwards adopted Gray's name, we may safely follow. 



220 

1. E. Semenoides, Gabb, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phil. 2d ser. iv, 

383, pi. 67, f. 49, Mch. 1860. Eocene; Texas. 

2. E. subcypraeola, Orb. 

Marginella cjiprceola, Basterot (not Brocchi), Mem. Geol. p. 

44. 1825. Michelotti, Foss. Terr. Mioc. del'It. Sept. p. 

321, 1847. 
Erato suhcyprceola, Orb., Prodromus, ii, 31, 1852. 

Miocene ; Piedmont. 

E. YENTRICOSA, Gray (Desc. Cat. p. 17, 1832), has not been 
recognized. 



Genus MARGINELLA, Lamarck. 

Cucumis (in part), Klein, Tentamen, 1753. 

Porcellana* (in part), Adanson, Voyage de Senegal, p. 55, 1757. 
Peribolus (in part), Adanson, Voyage de Senegal, p. 75, 1757. 
Voluta (in part), Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. x, 729, 1758. 
Marginella^ Lam., Prodromus, 1799. Syst. Anim., p. 75,1801. 

Ann. du Mus. ii, 60, 1802. 
Volvaria (in part). Lam., Syst. Anim. sans Vert, vii, 362, 1822. 

Including subgenera of authors, viz. : 
Persicula, Sebum., Nouv. Syst. p. 235 (type 31. pe7'sicula, L.), 

1817. 
Hyalina, Schum., Nouv. Syst. p. 234 (type 31. j^aUida, Don.), 

1817. 

* The name Porcellana was first applied to the Cowries by Rumphius 
in 1705. was set aside by Linn*us in I'avor of Cyprcea in 1740, was taken 
up by Adanson in 1757 for the present genus (which he was the first to 
well define), and was judiciously dropped by Lamarck in 1799. Its ety- 
mology is barbarous and indecorous, and its restoration for either Cypra^a 
or Marginella is hardly called for by any accepted law, and can only pro- 
mote confusion. 

As to the numerous subgenera which have been proposed for species of 
this genus, they seem to me to be neither useful nor well grounded. In 
a series of two or three hundred species it is easy to select a few salient 
forms for subgeneric types, but much less easy to allot all the intermedi- 
ate species to their proper places under such types. All the proposed 
subgenera are founded on the greater or less prominence of the spire, 
and on the degree of the thickening or reflection of the outer lip. A very 
slight difference of the plane of development is all that is involved in the 
former character, and all students of the great family Helicidce under- 
stand well how little generic value attaches to either character. An evi- 
dence of the invalidity of these distinctions is furnished in the inconsis- 
tencies of the catalogues in which they have been employed. 'I'he lingual 
dentition, when fully studied in a sufficient number of species, maj' yet 
guide us to proper groups ; but even of this I am less hopeful than for- 
mer! v. 



221 

Volutella, Swainson, Zool. Illust, 2d series, vol. i, No. 44 

(type 31. huUata, Lam.), 1829. 
Glabella., Swainson, Treatise on Malacology, p. 324 (type 31. 

b/fasciata, Lam.), 1840. 
Gibberida, Swainson, Treatise on Malacology, p. 323 (type 31. 

o)yza, Lam.), 1840. 
Volvariyia, Hinds, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1844, p. 75 (type 

31. nitida, Hinds), 1844. 
?Ci/stiscu8, Stimpson, Am. Jour. Conch, i, 55 (type 31.? ci/s- 

tisciis, Redf.), 1865. 

A. Recent Species. 

1. M. abbreviata, C. B. Ad., Contrib. to Conchology, No. 4, 

p. 56, 1850. Jamaica. 

2. M. Adansoni, Kiener. 

Narel, Adanson, Hist. Nat. Senegal, p. 59, pi. 4, f. 2, 1757. 
31. bifasciata (not Lam.), Sowb., Tankerville Catal. pi. 1, f. 4 

(not 3), 1825. 
31. Adajisoni, Kiener, Coq. Viv. Marginella, p. 5, pi, 7, f. 27, 

1835. Desh., ed. Lam. Anim. sans Vert, x, 446, 1844. 

Sowb., Thesaurus Conchyl. i, 375, pi. 74, f. 3, 4, 5, 1846. 

Orb., Diet. Univ. d'Hist. Nat. Moll. pi. 24, f. 4, 1849. 

Desh., Traitd Elem. pi. 123, f. 11, ? 1850. Chenu, 

Manuel de Conchyl. i, 199, f. 1048, 1859. Reeve, Conch. 

Icon. Marginella, pi. 7, f. 27, a, b, 1864. 
31. bifasciata (in part), Klister, Syst. Conch. Cab. v, part 4, 

pi. 1*, f. 11 (not 10), 1865. 

Senegal and Gambia, West Africa. 

M. AFFiNis, Beck, is 31. oryza, Lam. 

3. M. affinis, Reeve, Conch. Iconica, Marginella, pi. 24, f. 

136, 1865. /. St. Thomas, West Indies. 

M. ALABASTER, Recve, is probably 31. fauna, Sowb. 

M. ALBA, C. B. Ad., is probably 31. catenata (Mont.), bleached. 

4. M. Albanyana,* Gaskoin, Ann. Nat. Hist., 2d ser. xi, 358, 

1853. Albajiy, South Africa. 

M. ALBiLABRis, Conrad, Proc. Acad. N. S. iii, 26, is probably 

a species of 3Ielampus. 
M. ALBINA, Gaskoin, is 31. turbinata, Sowb., on authority of 

Reeve. 

* Compare with 31. Capensis, Dunker. 



222 

5. M. albocincta, Sowb., Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1846, p. 96, 

1846. 
Sowb., Thesaurus Conch, i, 382, pi. 75, f. 48, 1846. Reeve, 
Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 19, f. 95, 1865. 

Habitat unknown. 

6. M. albolineata, Orb., Moll, de Cuba, ii, 99, pi. 20, f. 27 

—29, date? 
M. varia (in part), Sowb., Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1846, p. 97, 

1846. Thesaurus Conch, i, 390, pi. 76, f. 141, 1846. 

Cuba — Jamaica — Guaclaloupe. 
M. AMABiLis, Redf., is perhaps a variety of 31. oblonga, Sw. 

7. M. amygdala, Kiener. 

Egoucn, Adanson, Hist. Nat. Senegal, p. 59, pi. 4, f. 3, 

1757. 
Valuta prunum (in part), Gmelin, Syst. Nat. p. 3446, 1788. 
31. amijgdala, Kiener, Coq. Yiv. Marginella, p. 36, pi. 11, f. 1, 

1840? Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 384, pi. 77, f. 160, 161, 

162, 1846. Petit, Cat. in Jour, de Conch, ii, 53, 1851. 
31. Gambiensis, Redf., Cat. Coll. of Marginellidoe, 1851. 
31. amygdala, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 11, f. 43, 

a, b, 1864. Senegal and Gambia, West Africa. 

8. M. angustata, Sowb., Encjc. Meth. pi. 376, f. 5, a, b, 

1798. 

31. bidhtta (not Born.), in part. Lam., Anim. sans Yert., 1st 
ed. vii, 360, 1822. Defrance, Diet, des Sci. Nat. xxix, 
143, 1823. Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 29, pi. 4, f. 15, 1834. 
Griffith's Cuvier, pi. 6, f. 16, 1834. Guerin, Iconogr. 
du Regne Anim. i, 33, pi. 16, f. 16, ? 1844. Chenu, 
Leoons Element., p. 217, f. 718. 1847. Berge, Con- 
chylienbuch, p. 240, pi. 42, f. 2, 1855. 

31. bulhea, Cuv., Regne Anim. lUust. Moll. p. 144, pi. 52, f. 
2, 2a, ?1840. 

3f. Bellangeri (not Kiener), Desh. ed. Lam. sans Vert, x, 443 
(foot-note), 1844. 

31. angustata, Sowb., Thesaurus Conch, i, 399, pi. 77, f. 169, 
170, 1846. Chenu, Manuel de Conch, i, 199, f. 1052, 
1859. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 13, f. 55 a, b, 
1864. Kiister, Syst. Conch. Cab. v, Part 4, pi. 4*, f. 10, 
11, 1865. East Africa, Ceylon, and Bay of Bengal. 

M. ANGYSTOMA of some Catalogues is 31. triplicata, Gaskoin. 

9. M. annulata, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 22, f. 

119 a, b, 1865. Hab. unknown. 



223 

10. M. apicina, Menke, Synopsis Meth. Moll. p. 87, 1828. 
M. conoidalis, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 37, pi. 12, f. 2, 1810? 
31. Uvida, Hinds, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1844, p. 73, 1844. 
M.Jlavida, Redf., Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist, iv, 163, pi. 10, 

f. 4, a, b, 1846. 
31. Caribcea, Orb., Moll, de Cuba, ii, 97, pi. 20, f. 24-26, date ? 
31. conoidaUs. Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 387, pi. 76, f. 93, 94, 

97 to 101, 1846. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 

18, f. 87 a, b, 1865. Kiister, Syst. Conch. Cab. v, part 

4, pi. 3*, f. 8, 9 (badly), 1865. 
Caribbean Sea from Florida S. to Cartagena, and from Cuba 

eastivard to Griiadaloupe ; specimens varying in size, color 

and solidity according to locality. 

M. ARENARIA, Morch, is var. of 31. bifasciata, Lam. 
M. ASPHARi, Theobald, Cat. Shells in Mas. As. Soc. Ben- 
gal p. 30, 1860, is undescribed and hence unknown. 

11. M. attenuata, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi, 22, f. 

116 a, b, 1865. Sidney and Port Jackson, Australia. 

12. M. aurantia, Lam., Anim. sans Vert. 1st ed. vii, 358, 

1822. 
31. aurantiaca, Defr., Diet, des Sci. Nat. xxix, 143, 1823. 
31. aurantia, Kiener, Coq. Yiv. p. 9, pi. 3, f. 11, 1834. 
Desh., Lam. Anim. sans Vert, x, 439, 1844. Sowb., 
Thes. Conch, i, 379, pi. 75, f. 49, 50, 1846. Reeve, 
Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 5, f. 16 a, b, 1864. Kiis- 
ter, Syst. Coneh. Cab. v, part 4, pi. 2*, f. 9—11, 1865. 
Gambia, W. Afr., and Cape de Verd Islands. 
M. AURICULATA, Menard, is Ringicula auriculata, Desh. 

13. M. australis, Hinds, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1844, p. 75, 

1844. 
Sowb. Thes. Conch, i, 386, pi. 75, f. 64, Qb^ 1846. 
31. oryza (not Lam.), Pease, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 

147, 1860. 
31. australis, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 16, f. 74, 
1864. N. W. Australia (Hinds), Sandwich I. (Pease). 
M. AVELLANA, Lam., is variety of 31. persicula, (Linn.) 

14. M. avena, Valenc. ined. Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 17, pi. 6, 

f. 21, 1834. 
31. avenacea, Desh., in 2d ed. Lam. Anim. sans Vert, x, 455, 

1844. 
31. varia (in part), Sowb., Thes. Coneh. i, 390, pi. 76, f. 137 

to 140, 1846. (In part) Sowb., Proc. London Zool. Soc. 

1846, p. 47, 1846. 



224 

M. avena, Orb., Moll, de Cuba, ii, 98, ? 1853. 

M. Beyerleana, Bernard!, Journ. de Conch, iv, 149, pi. 5, f. 

15, 16, 1853. 
Volvaria avena, Chenu, Manuel de Conchyl. i, 200, f. 1074, 

1859. 
31. avena, Reeve, Conch, Icon. Margineila, pi. 17, f. 83 a, b, 

1865. 
M. livida. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Margineila, pi. 20, f. 100, 

1865. 
M. vana, Kiister, Sjst. Conch. Cab. v, pt. 4, pi. 4*, f. 12 

—14, 1865. 
P 31. avenacea, Kiister, Syst. Conch. Cab. v, pt. 4, pi. 4*, f. 

7 — 9, 1865. Caribbean Province throughout."^ 

M. AVENA, Sowb., is 31. Philippinarum, Redf. 

M. AVENACEA, Desh., is 31 avena, Val. 

M. AZONA, Menke, is variety of 31. cornea, Lam. 

15. M. Belcheri, Hinds, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1844, p. 73, 

1844. 
Hinds, Moll. Voynge of Sulphur, p. 45, pi. 13, f. 1—5, 
1844. Sowb., Tiies. Conch, i, 380, pi. 74, f. 25—27, 
1846. Reeve, Conch Icon. Margineila, pi. 9, f. 33 a, b, 
1864. West Africa. 

M. Bellangeri, Kiener, is 31. bullata, (Born.) 
M. Bellangeri, Desh. (in 2d ed. of Lam. x, 443), is M. 
angustata, Sowb. 

16. M. BeHii, Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 375, pi. 74, f. 28, 29, 

1846. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Margineila, pi. 8, f. 32 a, b, 1864. 

Habitat unknoivn, but probably West Africa. 

17. M. Bensoni, Reeve. Conch. Icon. Margineila, pi. 27, f. 

158, 1865. Cape of Good Hope. 

18. M. Bernardii, Largill., Magasin de Zool. 1845, pi. 116, 

1845. 
31. onychina. Ad. and Reeve, Voy. of Samarang. Moll. p. 29, 

pi. 10, f. 25, 1850. 
31. Bernardii, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Margineila, pi. 10, f. 38 

a, b, 1864. China Sea. 

!M. Beyerleana, Bernardi, is variety of 31. avena, Val. 
M. bibalteata. Reeve, is 3T. gracilis, C. B. Ad. 

* This has also been quoted by authors as from Mauritius, from New 
Caledonia, and from Calii'ortiia ; but probably has been confounded with 
M. Delessertiana, 31. Philippinarum, and other species. 



225 

19. M. bifasciata, Lam. 

? xMiirtini, Conch, ii, pi. 42, f. 431, 1773. Enc. Mcth. A^ers. 

pi. 377, f. 8 a, b, 1798. ? Roissy, Buffon. Moll, vi, pi. 

57. f. 2, 1805. 
Vohita faba, var. Dillwyn, Descr. Cat. p. 528, 1817. 
31. bifasciata, Lam., Anim. sans Vert. 1st ed. vii, 357, 1822. 

befrance. Diet, des Sci. Nat. xxix, 142, 1823. 
Voluta marginata, Wood, Index Test. Suppl. pi. 3, f. 8, 

1828. 
31. bifasciata, Desh., Enc. Meth. Vers, ii, 411, 1830. Kiener, 

"Coq. Viv. Marginella, p. 4, pi. 2, f. 8, and pi. 10, f. 1, 

1834 and 1840. Desh., ed. of Lam. Anim. Sans. Vert. 

X, 438, 1844. Sowb., Thes. Conch, i. 374, pi. 74, f. 13 

—15, 1846. 
31. arenaria, Morch, Catal. Yoldi. p. 119, 1852. 
31. bifasciata, Chenu, Man. de Conch, i, 199, f. 1051, 1859. 

Reeve, Conch, Icon. Marginella, pi. 7, f. 25 a, b, c, d, 

1864. (In part) Klister, Syst. Conch. Cab. v, pt. 4, pi. 1*, 

f. 10 (not 11), 1865. C. Blanco to Gambia, West Africa. 
M. BIFASCIATA, Sowb., in Tankerville Catal. is 31. faba, 

(Linn.) 
]M. BiVARicosA, Lam., is 31. marginata, (Born.) 

20. M. blanda, Hinds, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1844, p. 76, 

1844. 

Hinds, Moll. Voy. of Sulphur, p. 46, pi. 13, f. 14, 15, 
1814. Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 400, pi. 77, f. 167, 168, 
1846. C. Blanco, W. Africa. 

M. BOBi, Blainv., is 31. cingulata, (Dillw.) 

21. M. bulbosa, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 25, f. 

144, Jan. 1865. Borneo. 

22. M. bullata, (Born.) 

Bonanni, Obs. circa Vivent, f. 13 (rude), 1691. Knorr, 

Vergn., iv, pi. 23, f. 1, and pi. 27, f. 9, 1768. 
Voluta bullata. Born., Mus. p. 218, 1778, Chemnitz, x, pi. 

150, f. 1409, 1410, 1788. Gmelin, Syst, Nat. p. 3452, 

1788. Dillwyn, Descr. Catal. p. 531, 1817. 
3farginella bullata (in part), Lam., Anim. sans Vert. 1st ed. 

vii, 360, 1822. Sowb., Tankerv. Cat. pi. 2, f. 1, 1825. 
Voluta bullata, Wood, Index Test. pi. 20, f. 79, 1828. 
3Iarginella Bellangeri, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 27, pi. 9, f. 41, 

1834. 
3Iarginella bullata (in part), Desh., ed. Lam. Anim. sans 

Vert. X, 442, 1844. Sowb,, Thes. Conch, i, 401, pi. 77, 

f. 158, 159, 1846. 



226 

MargineUa Bellangeri, Chenu, Manuel de Conchjl. i, 199, f. 

1053, 1859. 
MargineUa hullaia. Reeve, Conch. Icon. MargineUa, pi. i. f. 

2 a, b, c, 1865. Kuster, Sjst. Conch. Cab. v, pt. 4, pi. 

4*, f. 3, 4. Bahia, Brazil'' 

M. BULLATA, Kiener, is 31. angustata., So^Yb. 

23. M. bullula, Reeve, Conch. Icon. MargineUa, pi. 25, f. 

139, 1865. Borneo. 

24. M. Burchardi, Dunker, Zeitschrift fur Malak. 1852, p. 

61, 1852. 
Dunker, Novit. Conch, p. 33, pi. 11, f. 4, 1862. 

Hab. unknown. 
M. Burchardi, Reeve, is a colorless var. of 31. strigata, 

(Dilhv.) 
M. c^RULESCEN?, Lam., is 31. ijrunum, (Gmel.) 

25. M. calculus, Redf., Am. Journ. Conch, vol. vi, p. , 

1870. 
If. guttata (not of Dillw. or S\v.), Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 394, 

pi. 78, f. 208,' 209, 210, 1846. 
3f. maculosa (not of Kien.), Reeve, Conch. Icon. pi. 15, f. 65 

a, b, 1865. 
jSt. Vincent, W. 1. (Sowb. and Reeve), Grenadines (Rawson). 

M. CANDIDA, Sowb., is var. of 31. margarita, Kiener. 

26. M. Cantharus, Reeve, Conch. Icon. MargineUa, pi. 21, f. 

110 a, b, 1865. Hab. unknown. 

27. M. Capensis, Dunker, Krauss S. Afric. Moll. p. 125, pi. 

6, f. 21, 1848. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. MargineUa, pi. 21, f, 113, 1865. 
Kuster, Sjst. Conch. Cab. v, pt. 4, pi. 3*, f. 19 and 20, 
1865. South Africa. 

M. Capensis, (Cjstiscus) Stimpson is 31. cgstiscus, Redf. 

28. M. carnea, Storer, Boston Jour. Nat. Hist, i, 465, pi. 9, 

f. 3, 4, 1837. 
Dekay, Mollusca of N. Y. p. 152, pi. 7, f. 159, 1843. 
Sowb., Thes. Conch, (in part) i, 398, pi. 76, f. 103 (not 
102), 1846. 

Caribbean Sea, Keg West, and Venezuelan coast. 

29. M. carneola, Petit, Journ. de Conch, ii, 50, pi. 1, f. 14, 

Iboi. Hab. unknoivn. 

* All the East Indian localities cited by authors are wrong, and belong 
to M. arxjustata, Sowb., often confounded with this. 



227 

INI. CASTANEA, Dilw., [Voluta] is <a doubtful species, based 
on a bad figure in Martini ii, pi. 42, f. 430 — possibly a 
CoJumheUa. 

30. M. catenata, (Mont.) 

Voluta catenata^ Mont., Brit. Test. p. 23G, pi. 6, f. 2, and 

suppl. p. 104, 180o. Mat. & Racket, Lin. Trans, viii, 

133, 1807. Diilwjn, Descr. Cat. p. 527, 1817. Turton, 

Conch. Diet. p. 25*2, 1819. 
Marginella catinata. Brown, 111. Conch. B. G. p. 4, pi. 8, f. 

14 (badly), 1827. 
Voluta catenata, Fleming, Brit. Anim. p. 332, 1828. Wood, 

Index Test. p. 1)4, pi. 19, f. 60, 1828. 
3Iarginella catenata, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 25, pi. 9, f. 41, 

(badly), 1834. Thorpe, Brit. Marine Conch, p. 221, 

1844. Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 393, pi. 78, f. 225, 226, 

1846. 
Marginella alba, (worn) C. B, Ad., Contr. Conch, p. 56, 1850. 

" catenata, Reeve, (in part) Conch. Icon. Marginella, 

pi. 16, f. 73, a, b, (not 72), 1865. 

Caribbean iSea ;* Bahamas to Guadaloupe. 
M. Chemnitzii, Dillwyn, {Voluta) is based on a figure in 

Chemnitz x. pi. 150, f. 1422, which probably represents 

a bleached 31. fab a or 3/. bifasciata. 

31. M. chrysomelina, Redf., Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist, iv, 

4'J2, pi. 17, f. 2, Sept., 1848. 
31. pudica, Gaskoin, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1849, p. 18, 

Mch, 1849. 
31. chrysomelina, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 22, f. 

121,1865. Caribbean Sea ; Central Am. to St. Thomas. 

32. M. cincta, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 21, pi. 8, f. 32, 1824. 
Sowb. Thes. Conch, i, 384, pi. 77, f. 165, 166, 1846. 

Chenu, Manuel de Conch, i, 199, f. 1060, 1061, 1859. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 11, f. 44, a, b, 1865. 
31. Saideyana, (not Petit) Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, 

pi. 18, f. 90, a, b, 1865. 
31. cincta, Kuster, Syst. Conch. Cab. v, part 4, pi. 2* f. 7, 8, 

1665. Caribbean Sea; Yucatan to Maracaibo. 

33. M. cingulata, Dillw., Bonanni, Recr. iii, f. 238, 1684. 
Lister, Conch, t. 803, f. 9, (rude) 1688. Petiver, Gaz. pi. 

8, f. 10, 1702. Gualtieri, Test. pi. 28, f. B, 1742. 
Bobi, Adanson, Senegal, p. 60, pi. 4, f. 4, 1757. 

* The earlier references to Great Britain are now known to be erro- 
neous. 



228 

Valuta persicula var. ^9, Linn., Syst. Nat. 12th ed. p. 1189, 

17t)9. Knorr, Yergn. vi, pi. 21, f. 6, 1772. Martini, 

Conch, ii, p. , pi. 42, f. 419, 420, 1773. Var. a. Born, 

Mus. p. 220, Vign. p. 210, f. D, 1780. Schroeter, Mus. 

Gottwald, pi. 8, f. 50, a, b, c, 1782. 
Voluta persicula, var. ^, Schroeter, Einleit. i, 201, 1783. 
Murex persicalus, Meuschen, Mus. Gevers., p. 328, No. 771, 

1787. 
Voluta j^rsiculu, var. ^, Gmelin, ed. Syst. Nat. p. 3444, 1788. 

Enc. Meth. pi. 377, f. 4, a, b, 1798. Burrow, Elem. 

Conchol. pi. 15, fig. 3, 1815. 
Valuta cingulata, Dilhv., Descr. Catal. p. 525, 1817. 
Blarginella litieata, Lam. Anim. sans. Vert, vii, 361, 1822. 

" cingulata, Swains, Zool. Illustr. 1st series ii, pi. 

97, f. 1, 1822. Defrance, Diet. des. Sci. Nat. xxix, 144, 

1823. 
Voluta persicula, Mawe, Lin. Syst. Conch, pi. 23, f. 2, 1823. 
Marginella persicula, Sowb., Genera of Shells, Marginella f. 

2, 1824. 
Marginella lineata. Crouch's Lam. pi. 19, f. 14, 1827. 
bobi, Blainv., Malac. pi. 30, f. 6, 1827. 

" lineata, Blainv., plates to Diet, des Sci. Nat. pi. 

44, f. 6, ? 1828. 
Voluta cingulata, Wood, Index Testae, pi. 19, f. 56, 1828. 
Marginella lineata. Desh., Enc. Meth. Vers, ii, 414, 1830. 
Voluta persicula, \^oodi-Axc\\,\ntvoi\. Conch, pi. 2, f. 35, 1833. 
Marginella lineata, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 23, pi. 5, f. 22, 1834. 

Wyatt, Manual Conch, pi. 30, f. 3, 1838. Reichenbach, 

Conch, p. ^-2, pi. 37, f. 532, 533, (figs, reversed) 1842. 

Reeve, Conch. Systemat. ii, 250, pi. 278, f. 2, 1843. 

Desh. ed. Lam. Anim. sans Vert, x, 445, 1844. Sowb., 

Thes. Conch, i, 400, pi. 78, f. 185, 186, 1846. Orbigny, 

Moll, des Canaries, p. 87, date ? Berge, Conchylienbuch 

p. 211, pi. 42, f. 5,1855. 
Persicula fasciata, H. and A. Ad., Gen. Recent Moll, i, 193, 

pi. 20, f. 3, a, 1858. 
Marginella lineata, Chenu, Manuel Conchyl. i, 199, f. 1063, 

1859. 
Marginella cingulata. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 13, 

f. bQ, a, b, 1864. KUster, Syst. Conch. Cab. v, part 4, 

pi. 3*, f. 1, ?2, 1865. West Africa ; Canaries to Gambia, 

34. M. clandestina, Brocchi. 

Valuta clandestina, Conch. Foss. Subappeninn. ii, 642, pi. 15, 
f. 11, 1814. Savigny, Desc. de I'Egypte pi. 6, f. 26, 
? 1820. 



229 

3Iarginella clandestina, Bronn, Italiens Tertiar Geb. p. 18, 
No. 52, 1831. Phil., Moll. Sicil. i, 231, 183G. Kiener, 
Coq. Viv. p. 39, pi. 13, f. 1, ? 1840. Desh., ed. Lam. 
Anim. sans Vert, x, 452, 1844. Phil., Mull. Sicil. ii, 
197, 1844. Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 402, pi. 78, f. 216, 
1846. Chenu, Manuel de Concliyl. i, 199, f. 1066, 
(magnified) 1859. Kuster, Syst. Conch. Cab. v, part 4, 
pi. 3*, f. 21, 22, 1865. Weinkauff, Conch, des Mittel- 
meeres, ii, 22, 1868. 
Coast of Atlantic ; Portugal to Canary I. 3Iediterranean Sea ; 
Cribr alter to Egypt, and fossil in tertiary of Sicily and Italy. 

35. M. Cleryi, Petit, Guerin, Mag. de Zool. 1836, pi. 78, 1836. 
Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 31, pi. 10, f. 1, ? 1840. Sowb. 

Thes. Conch, i, 380, pi. 74, f. 9, 10, 1846. Chenu, 
Manuel de Conchyl. i, 199, f. 1050, 1859. Reeve, 
Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 9, f. 37, a, b, 1864. 

Senegal. 

36. M. COmpressa, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 24, f. 

130, 1865. Hah. unknown. 

M. CONIFORMIS, Mbrch, is 31. Morchii, Redf. 
M. CONOIDALIS, Kiener, is var. of M. apicina, Menke. 
M. CONOIDALIS, Chenu, is 31. diapJiana, Kiener. 
M. CONSTRICTA, Hinds, is 31. Rindsiana, Petit. 

37. M. contaminata,* Gaskoin, Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 20, 1849. 

Hab. unknoivn, 

38. M. cornea, Lam. 

Martini ii, 103, pi. 42, f. 416, 1773. Schroeter, Mus. Gott- 
wald. pi. 8, f. 47, 1782. Enc. Meth. Vers. pi. 376, f. 
6, a, b, 1798. 

31. cornea, Lam. Anim. sans Vert. 1st ed. vii, 360, 1822. 
Defrance, Diet, des Sci. Nat. xxix, 144, 1823. Desh., 
Enc. Meth. Vers, ii, 415, 1830. Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 
29, pi. 4, f. 17, 1834. 

31. 2'>ersicula, {not L.) Sowb. Conch. Manual f. 438, 1839. 

31. cornea, Desh., ed. Lam. sans Vert, x, 144, 1844. Sowb. 
Thes. Conch, i, 400, pi. 78, f. 183, 184, 1846. 

31. azona, Menke, Zeitsch. fiir Malak. 1849, p. 37, 1849. 

31. cornea, Reeve, Conch. Icon, Marginella pi. 12, f. 52, a, b, 

1864. Kuster, Syst. Cab. v, part 4, pi. 2*, f. 4, 1865. 

Senegambia, West Africa. 

39. M. corusca, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella pi. 25, f. 143, 

1865. Singapore. 

* Certainly very near to M, Umida Hinds. 



230 

M. CRASSILABRUM, SoTvb. is 31. Jobrosa, Redf. 

M. CRASSILABRUM, Reeve, is 31. Storeria, Coutliouj. 

40. M. Cumingiana, Petit, Revue Zool. 1841, p. 185, 1841. 
31. Cunringu, ISowb., Thes. Conch, i, 377, pi. 74, f. 33-35, 

1846. 
3f. Cumingiana, Reeve, Conch. Icon, Marginella pi. 3, f. 8, a, 

b, 1864. 
31. Cumingu, Klister, Sjst. Conch. Cab. v, part 4, pi. 1, f. 

13, 1865. Senegal. 

41. M. curta, Sowb., Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1832, p. 105, 1832. 

Kiener, Coq. Yiv. p. 12, pi. 7, f. 30, 1834. Desh., ed. 
Lara, sans Vert, x, 448, 1844. Sowb. Thes. Conch, i, 
397, pi. 77, f. 88, 89, 1846. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Mar- 
ginella pi. 6, f. 23, u, b, 1864. Klister, Sjst. Conch. 
Cab. V, part 4, pi. 2* f. 12-14, 1865. 

Coast of Peru and Ecuador. 

M. CYLINDRICA, Brown, ( Volvaria) is Bulla cylindracea, 
Pennant. 

42. M. cylindrica, Sowb. Thes. Conch, i, 390, pi. 76, f. 134, 

1846. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella pi. 20, f. 105, a, b, 1865. 

/. St. Thomas, W. I. 
M. CYLINDRICA, Pease, is 31. Peasii, Reeve. 
M. CYPR^oiDES, Anton, Verzeichness p. 99 is doubtful, and 

perhaps an Erato. 
M. CYPR^OLA, Sowb,, is Erato scabriuscula, Gray. 

43. M. cystiscus, Redf. 

Cystiscus Capensis,'^ Stimpson, Am. Journ. Conch, i, 55, pi. 
8, f. 2, a, b, c, d, 1865. C of Good Hope. 

44. M. dactylus, Lam., Anim. sans Vert. 1st ed. vii, 360, 

1822. 
31. dactyla., Defrance, Diet, des Sci. Nat. xxix, 143, 1823. 
31. dactylus, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 28, pi. 4, f. 16, 1834. 

Desh,, ed. Anim. sans Vert, x, 442, 1844. Sowb. Thes. 

Conch, i, 401, pi. 78, f. 187, J 846. Chenu, Manuel de 

Conchyl. i, 199, f. 1054, 1859. Reeve, Conch. Icon. 

Marginella pi. 10, f. 42, a, b, 1865. Hong Kong (Hinds). 

*This species has a shell so entirely that of a Marginella that I could 
hardly be justified in omitting it from a cataltogiie of this family. Yet 
Mr. Stimpson sees sufficient peculiarities in the soft parts of the animal 
to lead him to establish for it not only a new genus but a new family. 
Further investigation may confirm his view, and may also show that other 
minute species, now included in Marginella, should be placed in Cystiscus. 



231 

45. M. DeBurghiae, A. Ad., Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 18G3, p. 

509, 18G3. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella pi. 15, f. 68, a, b, 1865. 

Sivan Rivc)\ Australia. 

46. M. Delessertiana,* ? Petiver, Gazophyl. Nat. pi. 102, f. 

13, 1711. 
M. Delessertiana, Recluz, Revue Zool. 1841, p. 185, 1841. 

3Iai(ritius. 

47. M. dens, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella pi. 22, f. 120, 

1865. Borneo. 

48. M. diadochus, Ad. and Reeve, Voyage of Samarang 

Moll. p. 28, pi. 7, f. 4 (with animal), 1850. 

Roberts, Popular Hist, of Moll. pi. 4, f. 3 (with animal), 
1851. H. and A. Ad., Genera Recent Moll. pi. 20, f. 2 
(with animal), 1858. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella 
pi. 9, f. 35, a, b, 1864. Straits of Sunda. 

M. DIAPHANA, Kiener, is 31. pellucida, Pfr. 

M. DIAPHANA, Kllster, is M. fauna, Sowb., probably. 

M. DoNOVANi, Payr, is Erato loivis (Don.) 

49. M. Dunkeri, Krauss, S. African Moll. p. 126, pi. 6, f. 23, 

1848. 
M. zonata, var. bilineata,^ Krauss, S. African Moll. p. 126, 

pi. 6, f. 22, 1848. 
3f. zonata, var. Klister, Syst. Conch. Cab. v, part 4, pi. 4*, f. 

18, 20, 1865. 
f 31. Dunkeri, Kuster, Syst. Conch. Cab. v, part 4, pi. 4^-', f. 

21, 23, 1865. South^Africa. 

50. M. effulgens, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 20, f. 

104, 1865. /. St. Thomas, W. I. 

51. M. electrum, Reeve, Conch, Icon. Marginella, pi. 22, f. 

118, a, b, 1865. ITab. unknown. 

52. M. elegans (Gmel.) 

Lister, Conch, pi. 803, f. 11 (rude), 1688. Martini, Conch. 
ii, 106, pi. 42, f. 424, 425 (rude), 1773. 
Voluta, No. 98, Schroeter, Einleitung, i, 269, 1786. 
3Iurex monilis, Meusch., Mus. Gevers. p. 328, No. 773, 1787 
Voluta elegans, Gmel. ed. Syst. Nat. p. 3448, 1788. 

* The oriental analogue of the Caribbean 3f. alholineata, Orb. ; and 
hardly to be distinguished from it. Should they prove to be identical 
llecluz's name must prevail. 

fThe two forms figured by Krauss seem to me to be the same species, 
both well distinguished from M. zonata^ Kiener, 

35 



232 

Voluta cancellata^ var. Sclireihers, Concliylien-kenntnlss, i, 

118, 1793. 
Voluta elegans, Dillw., Descript. Catal. p. 531, 1817. 
Voluta eJegans, Wood, Index Testae, pi. 20, f. 69 (bad copy 
of Martini), 1828. 

Marginella elegans, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 15, pi. 8, f. 35, 
1834. 

Marginella hullata, Reichenbach, Conch, p. 62, pi. 37, f. -530, 
531 (figures reversed and rude), 1842. 

Marginella elegans, Reeve, Conch. Systemat. ii, 249, pi. 277, 
f. 5, 6, 1843. Catlow, Pop. Conchology, p. 251 (wood- 
cut), 1843. Desh. ed. Lam. Anim. sans Vert, x, 450, 
1844. (In part) Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 385, pi. 77, f. 
147 {not 148, 149), 1846. Chenu, Manuel de Conchyl. 
i, 199, f. 1056, 1859. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, 
pi. 2, f. 4, a, b, 1864. Indian Ocean. 

53. M- elliptica, Redf. Here proposed for 

Volutella eloiigata, Pease,* Am. Jour. Conch, iii, 281, pi. 23, 
f. 23, Apr., 1868. 

I. Fanning. 
M. ELONGATA, Peasc ( Volutella), is 31. elliptica, Redf. 

64. M, encaustica, Reeve. Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 26, f. 
148, a, b, 1865. ' Ceglon. 

M. epiCtRUS, Reeve, is M. exilis (Gmel.) 

55. M. evanida, Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 388, pi. 75, f. 69, 

1'846. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 25, f. 142, 1865. 

Hah. unknoivn. 

56. M, exilis (Gmel.) 

? Falier, Adanson, Senegal, p. 78, pi. 5, f. 2, 1757. Martini, 

Cor.ch. ii, pi. 42, f. 427, 1773. 
Voluta No. 100, Schroeter, Einleitung, i, 270, 1786. 
Voluta exilis, Gmelin, ed. Syst. Nat. p. 3444, 1788. Dillwyn, 

Descript. Catal. p. 525, 1817. 
Volvaria triticea (var. excl.), Lam., 1st ed. Anim. sans Vert. 

vii, 363, 1822. 
Voluta monilis (not Linn.), Wood, Index Testae, pi. 19, f. 54 

(copied from Martini), 1828. 
Marginella triticea, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 19, pi. 6, f. 25, 1834. 
Volvaria triticea, Reichenbach, Conch, p. 60, pi. 29, f. 500 

(badly copied from Martini), 1842. 

* Pease's name is preoccupied for a fossil species. 



233 

Volvaria triticea (var. excl.), Desli. cd. Lam. sans Vert, x, 

460, 1844. Chenu, Manuel de Conchyl. i, 200, f. 1070, 

1859. 
Marginella epigrns, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginclla, pi. 26, f. 

151, 1865. 
? 3Iarginella triticea, Kuster, Syst. Conch. Cab. v, part 4, 

pi. 4*, f. 1, 2, 1865. West Africa, 3Iogadore to Senegal. 

M. EXiLis, Chiaje ( Voluta) is M. secalina, Phil. 

57. M. faba (Linn.) 

Lister, Conch, t. 812, f. 22 (rude), 1688. Petiver, Gazo- 

phyl. pi. 10, f. 5 (immature, and figure rude), 1702. 

Gualt. Test. pi. 28, f. Q(good), 1742. 
Narel, Adanson, Senegal, p. 59, pi. 4, f. 2, 1757. 
Voluta faha, Linn., Syst. Nat. 10th ed. p. 730, No. 855, 

1758. Knorr, Vergnugen, iv, pi. 17, f. 6, 1768. Linn., 

Syst. Nat. 12th ed. p. 1189, 1769. Martini, Conch, ii, 

42, f. 432, 433, 1773. 
Voluta f aha, Born, Mus. p. 221, 1780, Mus. Gottwald, pi. 

25, f. 170, a, b, c, d, e, 1782. ? Favanne, pi. 24, f. h, 

1780. 
Voluta f aha, Schroeter, Einleitung, i, 212, 1783. 
Murexfaha, Meusch., Mus. Gevers. p. 328, No. 780, 1787. 
Voluta f aha, Gmelin, ed. Syst. Nat. p. 3445, 1788. 
Voluta faha, Schveibers, Conch, i, 115, 1793. Erie. Meth. pi. 

377, f. 1, a, b, 1798. Roissy, Buffon, Moll, vi, 9, 1805. 
Voluta faha (var. excl.), Dillw., Descr. Catal. p. 528, 1817. 
Marginella faba. Lam., Anim. sans Vert, vii, 357,1822. De- 

france. Diet, des Sci. Nat. xxix, 142, 1823. 
Marginella hifasciata, Sowb. (not Lam.), Tankerville Catal. 

pi. 2, f. 3 (not 4), 1825. 
3Iarginella faha, Blainv., Malac. pi. 30, f. 5, 1827. Blainv., 

Plates to Diet, des Sci. Nat. Moll. pi. 44, f. 5, 1828. ? 
Voluta faha, Wood, Index Testae, pi. 20, f. 63, 1828. 
Marginella faha, Desh., Enc. Meth. Vers, ii, 412, 1830. Kie- 

ner, Coq. Viv. p. 3, pi. 2, f. 7, 1834. Reichenbach, 

Conch, p. 62, pi. 37, f. 528, 529 (figures reversed), 1842. 

Desh. ed. Lam. Anim. sans Vert, x, 439, 1844. Sowb., 

Thes. Conch, i, 373, pi. 74, f. 1, 2, 1846. Reeve, Conch. 

Icon. Marginella, pi. 7, f. 24, a, b, 1864. Kuster, Syst. 

Conch. Cab. v, part 4, pi. 1*, f. 12, 1865. 

iSenegamhia. 
M. FABA, Chenu, is 31. jjseudofaha, Sowb. 
M. FASCIATA, Schum. [Persicula), is 31. persicula, (Linn.) 



234 

58. M. fasciata, Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 389, pi. 76, f. 142, 

1840. 
Chenu, Manuel de Concliyl. i, 197, f. 1041, 1859. 

Hab. unknown. 

59. M. fauna, Sowb., Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1846, p. 96, 1846. 
Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 391, pi. 76. f. 126, 127, 1846. 

? M. alabaster, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 21, f. 107, 

1865. 
f M. diaphana, Kiister (not Kiener), Sjst. Conch. Cab. v, 

part 4, pi. 4*, f. 5, 6, 1865. 

Caribbean ; Cuba and Curacoa. 

60. M. festiva, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 32, pi. 10, f. 4, ? 1840. 

Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 382, pi. 75, f. 72, 73, 1846. 
M. gemma, A. Ad., Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1855, p. 122, 

1855. 
31. festiva, Chenu, Manuel Conchyl. i, 197, 1859. Reeve, 
Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 19, f. 93, 94, a, b, 1865. 

East Africa (Reeve). 
M. FLAVIDA, Redf., is var. of 31. apicina, Menke. 
M. FLUCTUATA, C. B. Ad., is 31. sagittata, Hinds. 

61. M. formicula, Lam., Anim. sans Vert. 1st ed. vii, 859, 

1822. 
Defrance, Diet, des Sci. Nat. xxix, 143, 1823. Kiener, 
Coq. Viv. p. 6, pi. 3, f. 13, 1834. Desh. ed. Lam. sans 
Vert. X, 441, 1844. Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 376, pi. 75, 
f. 41, 42, 1846. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 8, 
f. 28, a, b, 1864. Seas of Australia and Tasmania. 

62. M. frumentum, Sowb., Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1832, p. 

57 1832. 
Sowb'., Thes. Conch, i, 393, pi. 78, f. 221, 222, 1846. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 15, f. 71, 1865. 

Coast of Ecuador. 

63. M. fulminata, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 33, pi. 12, f. 1, 

? 1840. 
Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 370, pi. 78, f. 173, 1846. Reeve, 
Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 13, f. 54, a, b, 1864. 

Baliia, Brazil. 

64. M. fusca, Sowb., Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1846, p. 95, 

1846. 
Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 392, pi. 76, f. 122, 123, 1846. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 17, f. 82, 1865. 

West Indies. 



235 

65. M. fusiformis, Hinds, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1844, p. 

75, 1844. 
Hinds, Moll. Voyage Sulphur, p. 46, pi. 13, f. 20, 21, 

1844. Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 382, pi. 75, f. 76, 77, 
1846. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 17, f. 79, 
1865. I. Bourbon (Desh.), Sts. of Malacca (Hinds). 

M. Gambiensis, Redf., is var. of M. amygdala, Kiener. 
M. GEMMA, A. Ad., is var. oi M. f estiva, Kiener. 

66. M. glabella (Linn.) 

Lister, Conch, t. 818, f. 29, 1688. Gualteri, Test. pi. 23, 

f. L (rude), 1742. Klein, Ostr. pi. 5, f. 92, 1753. 
Porcelaine, Adanson, Senegal, p. 56, pi. 4, f. 1 (showing ani- 
mal), 1757. 
Voluta glabella, L'mn., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, p. 730, No. 356, 

1758. Linn., Mus. Ulrica, p. 594, 1764. Knorr, Verg- 

nugen. iv, pi. 21, f. 3, 1768. 
Voluta glabella, Linn., Syst. Nat. 12th ed. p. 1189, 1769. 

Martini, Conch, ii, 111, pi. 42, f. 429 (good), 1773. 
Voluta glabella, Born, Mus. p. 221, 1780. Mus. Gottwald, 

pi. 25, f. 171, a, b, 172, a, b, 1782. 
Voluta Ho. 16, Schroeter, Einleitung, i, 213, 1783. 
Voluta glabella, Schroeter, Kennt. Conch, und Foss. ii, 106, 

1785. Chemnitz, Conch, ix, 55, pi. 104, f. 890, 891 

(reversed var.), 1786. 
Mui'ex pgrulus, Meusch., Mus. Gevers. p. 328, No. 779, 

1787. 
Voluta glabella, Gmelin, ed. Syst. Nat. p. 3445, 1788. Encyc. 

Meth Vers. pi. 377, f. 6, a, b, 1798. Roissy, Buffon 

Moll, vi, 8, 1805. 
Voluta glabella, Brookes, Introd. Conch, pi. 6, f. 73, 1815. 

Schum., Nouv. Syst. p. 235, 1817. 
Voluta glabella, Dillw., Descr. Catal. p. 529, 1817. 
Marginella glabella, Bors, Mem. Real Acad. Tours, xxv, 208, 

1820. 
3Iarginella glabella, L;im., Anim. sans Vert. 1st ed. vii, 355, 

1822.^ Defrance, Diet, des Sci. Nat. xxix, 140, 1823. 

Sowb., Genera of Shells, Marginella, f. 1, 1824. Bosc, 

Hist, de Coq. v, 39, pi. 38, f. 4, 5, 1824. 
Voluta glabella. Wood, Index Testae, pi. 20, f. 64, 1828. 
3Iarginella glabella, Desh., Encycl. JNIeth. Vers, ii, 409, 1830. 

Er. Hoffmann, in Karst. Arch, iii, 386, 1831. Orb., 

Moll, des lies Canaries, p. 87, 1834. Kiener, Coq. Viv. 

p. 6, pi. 1, f. 1, 2 (with animal from Adanson), 1834. 

Sowb., Conch. Manual, f. 437, 1839. Reichenbach, 



236 

Conch, p. 62, pl.37, f. 523 (reversed bj blunder), 1842. 
Reeve, Conch. System, ii, 250, pi. 278, f. 1, 1843. Desh., 
ed. Lam. Anim. sans Vert, x, 435, 1844. Sowb., Thes. 
Conch, i, 378, pi. 75, f. 52—54, 1846. Mrs. Gray, Figs. 
Moll. Anim. ii, 102, f. 12, 12a (copy from Adanson), 1850. 
H. and A. Ad., Genera Rec. Moll. pi. 20, f. 2a, 1858. 
Chenu, Manuel Conchyl. i, 197, f. 1043, 1859. Reeve, 
Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 1, f. 1, 1865. Kuster, 
Syst. Conch. Cab. v, part 4, pi. 1*, f. 2, 3, 1865. 
Canaries and C. de Yerd I. ; West African Coast, from 3Ioga- 
dore to Cfambia ; also fossil in iqyper tertiary of Italy. 

M. GLANS, Menke, is dwarf var. of 31. i^runum (L.) 

67. M. Goodallii, Sowb., Tankerv. Catal. pi. 2, f. 2, 1825. 
Voluta Gfoodallii, Wood, Index Testae, suppl. pi. 3, f. 7, 

1828. 
3Iarginella Goodallii, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 7, pi. 7, f. 29, 
1834. Reeve, Conch. System, ii, 250, pi. 277, f. 8, 9, 
1843. Desh., ed. Lam. Anim. sans Vert, x, 449, 1844. 
Sowb., Thes, Conch, i, 378, pi. 74, f. 16, 17, 1846. 
Reeve, Icon. Conch. Marginella, pi. 3, f. 9, a, b, 1864. 
Kuster, Syst. Conch. Cab. v, part 4, pi. 1*, f. 4, 5, 1865. 

Senegal (Cuming). 

68. M. gracilis, C. B. Ad., Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist, v, 46, 

1851. C. B. Ad., Contr. to Conch, p. 130, 1851. 
31. bibalteata, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 20, f, 99, 
1865. Bahamas and Jamaica. 

M. GRANUM, Kiener, is Erato scabriuseida, Gray. 

69. M. granum, Philippi, Jahrzeit fur Malakozool. 1849, p. 

27, 1850. Aden, Bed Sea. 

70. M. Guancha, Orb., Moll, des lies Canaries, p. 88, pi. 6, 

f. 32 — 34, 1834. 3Iadeira and Canary I. 

71. M. Guillaini, Petit, Journ. de Conch, ii, 50, pi. 1, f. 13, 

1851. Abd-el-Gouri, near Bed Sea. 

72. M. guttata (Dillw.) 

Sloaiie, Nat. Hist. Jamaica, ii, 230, No. 10, 1725. Martini, 

Conch, ii, 104, pi. 42, f. 417, 418, 1773. Schroet., Mus. 

Gottwald, pi. 8, f. 51, a, 1782. 
Voluta persicida, viiY. y, SGhrodter, Einleitung, i, 211, 1783. 

Gmelin, ed. Syst. Natura, p. 3444, 1788. ^ 
Voluta persicula, var. /5, Schreibers, Conch. Kennt. i, 114, 

1793. 
Voluta guttata, Dillwyn, Desc. Catal. p. 526, 1817. 



237 

Marginella lonqivaricosa, Lam., 1st ed. Anim. sans Vert, vii, 
358, 1822. Defranco, Diet, des Sci. Nat. xxix, 143, 
1823. 

Voluta guttata, Wood, Index Testae, pi. 19, f. 57 (bad), 1828. 

Marginella lonqivaricosa, Desk., Eneyc. Metli. Vers, ii, 412, 
1830. Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 21, pi. 3, f. 12. 1834. Han- 
ley, Conchol. Book Species, p. 120 (bad), 1842. Desh. 
ed. Lam. Anim. sans Vert, x, 441, 1844. Sowb., 
Thes. Conch, i, 397, pi. 76, f. 112, 113, 1846. Orb., 
Moll, de Cuba, ii, 95, 1853. 

Marginella guttata, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 12, f. 
50, a, b, 1864. Klister, Syst. Conch. Cab. v, part 4, pi. 
3* f. 3, 4, 1865. 

Caribbean ; Bahamas E. to Tortola, and S. to Honduras. 
M. GUTTATA, Sowb., is 31. calculus, Redf. 
]M. GUTTATA, Swainson, is 31. jyhrggia, Sowb. 

73. M. guttula, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 20, f. 

lOl, 1865. Hab. unknown. 

M. Hainesii, Petit, is var. of 31. quinqueplicata, Lam. 

74. M. harpaeformis, Beck (ined.), Sowb. Thes. Conch, i, 374, 

pi. 74, f. 7, 8, 1846. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 8, f. 31, a, b, 1864. 

Senegal. 

75. M. helmatina, Rang, Guerin's Mag. de Zoologie, 1832, 

pi. 5, 1832. 
Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 10, pi. 7, f. 28, 1834. Desh. ed Lam. 
sans Vert, x, 448, 1844. Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 377, pi. 
75, f. 38, 39, 1846. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 
3, f. 7, a, b, 1864. Senegal. 

76. M. hematita, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 11, pi. 7, f. 31, 1834. 

Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 380, pi. 75, f. 60, 61, 1846. 
Erato hematina, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Erato, pi. 2, f. 8, a, b, 

1865. 
3Iarginella hematita, Kiister, Syst. Conch. Cab. v, part 4, pi. 

2*, f. 18, 19, 1865. Caribbean; Porto Rico. 

77. M. Hindsiana, Petit. 

31. constricta,''^ Hinds, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soe. 1844. ■ p. 74 
1844. Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 383, pi. 77, f. 156, 157, 
1846. 

31. Hindsiana, Petit, Cat. in Journ. de Conch, ii, 54, 1851. 

31. constricta. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 19, f. 96, 
a, b, 1865. Hab. unknown. 

* Preoccupied by M. constricta, Courad, a fossil species. 



238 

78. M. Hondurasensis, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 

19, f. 97, a, b, 1865. Carihhecm ; Honduras. 

79. M. imbricata, Hinds, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1844, p. 76, 

1844. 
Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 396, pi. 78, f. 211, 212, 1846. 
31. Vautieri, Bernardi, Journ. de Conch, iv, 68, pi. 2, f. 13, 

14, 1853. 
31. imbricata, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 14, f. 59, 

a, b, 1864. Pacific coast of 3Iexico ; at Acapulco. 

80. M. immersa, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 21, f. 

109, 1865. Hah. uyihnown, probably Indian Ocean. 

81. M. inconspicua, Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 387, pi. 75, f. 80, 

1846. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 25, f. 141, 1865. 

Hah. unknown. 

82. M. infans, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 26, f. 150, 

a, b, 1865. Singapore. 

83. M. inflexa, Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 389, pi. 76, f. 182, 

1846. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 20, f. 106, 1865. 

Hah. unknown. 

84. M. intermedia (Menke). 

Volvaria intermedia, Menke, Synops. Meth. Moll. p. 88, 1828. 

Hah. unlcnoivn, 
M. INTERMEDIA, Sowb., is probably a colorless or bleached 

var, of 31. pi/rian (Gron.), or of 31. vittata, Reeve. 
M. INTERRUPTA, Lam.,is 31. interrupte-lineata, Megerle. 

85. M. interrupte-lineata,* )Megerle.) 

? Huchon, Adanson, Senegal, p. 61, pi. 4, f. 5, 1757. 

Voluta interrupte-lineata, Megerle von Muhlfeld, Berlin Mag. 
viii, 1818. 

31. interrupta. Lam., Anim. sans Vert. 1st ed. vii, 362, 1822. 
Defriince, Diet, des Sci. Nat. xxix, 144, 1823. Desh., 
Encycl. Meth. Vers, ii, 414, 1880. Kiener, Coq. Viv. 
p. 25, pi. 5, f. 21, 1834. Desh. ed. Lam. Anim. sans 
Vert. X, 446, 1844. Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 89.5, pi. 78, 
f. 201—205, 1846. Orb., Moll, de Cuba, ii, 97, 1853. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 14, f. 62, 1864. 
Kiister, Syst. Conch. Cab. v, part 4, pi. 3*, f. 16 — 18, 
1865. 

* Unwillingly do I yield Lamarck's name to this earlier bat clumsily 
constructed title. 



239 

Western coast of S. America from Cartagena to Bemarara ; 
jjerhajjs also West Africa. 

86. M. irrorata, Menke. 

? xAIartini, Conch, ii, pi. 42, f. 430, 1773. 
31. irrorata, Menke, Synops. Metli. Molk p. 88, 1828. Sowb., 
Thes. Conch, i, 378, pi. 75, f. 43, 55, 1846. Reeve, 
Conch. Icon. MarginelUi, pi. 5, f. 18, a, b, 1864. 

Senegal and Gambia, W. A. 

87. M. Jewettii, Carpenter, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1856, p. 

207, 1856. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 26, f. 146, 1865. 
California ; Monterey to Santa Barbara (Carp.); also fossil in 
2:)ost-pliocene of St. Pedro (Gabb). 

88. M. Kieneriana, Petit, Mag. de Zoologie, 1838, pi. 110, 

1838. 
Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 44, pi. 12, f. 4, ? 1840. Sowb., Thes. 
Conch, i, 396, pi. 78, f. 198—200, 1846. Reeve, Conch. 
Icon. Marginella, pi. 14, f. 63, a, b, 1865. 

Coast of Venezuela ; at La Gruayra. 

89. M. labiata, Val., ined. Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 35, pi, 11, f. 

2, ? 1840. 
, Reeve, Conch. System, ii, 249, pi. 277, f. 7, 1842. Desh., 
ed. Lam. Anim. sans Vert, x, 447, 1844. Sowb., Thes. 
Conch, i, 396, pi. 76, f. 104, 105, 1846. Reeve, Conch. 
Icon. Marginella, pi. 6, f. 21, a, b, 1864. Klister, Sjst. 
Conch. Cab. v, part 4, pi. 2* f. 2, 3, 1865. 

Coast of Campeachy and Yucatan. 

90. M. labrosa, Redf. Here proposed for 

31. crassilabrum, Sowb.,* Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1846, p. 96, 
1846. Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 392, pi. 76, f. 124, 125, 
1846. West Indies. 

91. M. lachryma, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 27, f. 

159, 1865. Borneo. 

92. M. lachrymula, Gould. 

Gibherula lachrymula, Gould, Proc. Bost. Nat. Hist. Soc. 
viii, 281, Feb., 1862. Gould, Otia Conchologica, p. 238, 
1862. Off coast of Creorgia (400 fathoms). 

93. M. lactea, Kiener, Coq. A^iv. p. 42, pi. 13, f. 3, ? 1840. 

*lt is with rehictance that I change Sowerby's name, but it is twice 
preoccupied for fossil species, Conrad and Lea having each used it about 
1833, with slight difference in termination. 



240 

Desh. ed. Lam. Anim. sans Vert, x, 454, 1844. Sowb., 
Thes. Conch, i, 390, pi. 76, f. 143, 144, 1846. 

Caribbean ; Bahamas to Guadeloupe. 

M. LACTEA, Reeve, is M. subtriplieata. Orb. 

M. L^vis, Desh., is Erato Icevis (Don.) 

94. M. Largillieri, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 43, pi. 11, f. 3, 

? 1840. 
Desh. ed. Lara. Anim. sans Vert, x, 455, 1844. Sowb., 
Thes. Conch, i, 402, pi. 78, f. 178—180, 1846. Reeve, 
Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 6, f. 22, a, b, 1864. 

Bahia, Brazil. 

95. M. Lavalleana,* Orb., Mollusques de Cuba, pi. 20, f. 36 

—38, date ? 
31. minima, Guilding, ined. Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 388, pi. 

78, f. 220, 1846. 
31. Lavalleana, Orb., Moll, de Cuba, text, ii, 101, 1853. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 27, f. 133, 1865. 

Caribbean ; Jamaica to St. Vincents. 

96. M- Lefevrei, Bernardi, Journ. de Conch, iv, 360, pi. 12, 

f. 11, 12, 1853. Hah. unhwivn. 

97. M. lepida (Gould). 

Glabella lepida, Gould, Proc. Bost. Nat. Hist. Soc. vii, 384, 
Dec, 1860. Gould, Otia Conchologica, p. 139, 1862. 

China Sea. 

98. M. lilacina, Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 402, pi. 78, f. 176, 

177, 1846. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 14, f. 60, a, b, 1864. 

J£ab. unknoivn. 

99. M. limbata, Lam. 

Mus. Gottwald. pi. 25, f. 169, a, b, d, 1782. 

Encycl. Meth. pi. 376, f. 2, a, 3, b, 1798. 

31. limhata, Lam., Anim. sans Vert. 1st ed. vii, 356, 1822. 

Defrance, Diet, des Sci. Nat. xxix, 142, 1823. Kiener, 

Coq. Viv. p. 9, pi. 2, f. 6, 1834. Desh., ed. Lam. Anim. 

sans Vert, x, 438, 1844. Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 376, 

* The plates of Ramon de la Sagra's Cuba, of which d'Orbigny's Mollus- 
ques form a part, were published iu fasciculi without date, before the ap- 
pearance of the text. In such cases authors justly forfeit right of priority 
over names published under open dates. In this instance Sowerby, in 
1846, quotes Orbigny's M. Lavalleana as a synonym. On this ground 
only do I infer that it is older than Gnilding's name, which had hitherto 
been unedited. I am not without suspicion that this species is identical 
with Pfeiffer's M. minuta, from Cuba.'' Whether the Mediterranean shell 
which passes under that name be the same, I cannot decide. 



241 

pi. 74, f. 18-20, 1846. Chenu., Manuel do Conch, i, 197, 
f. 1045, (reversed) 1859, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Murgi- 
nella pi. 3, f. 10, a, b, 1864. Gambia. 

M. LiNEATA, Lam., is JI. cingidata, (Dillw.) 

100. M. lineato-labrum, Gaskoin, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 

1849, p. 20, 1849. Hah. unknoivn. 

101. M. liturata, Menke, Moll. Nov. Holl. p. 28, 1843. 

W. coast of Australia. 
M. LiviDA, Hinds, is M. apicina, Menke. 
M. LIVIDA, Reeve, is var. of M. avena, Val. 
M. LONGiVARicosA, Lam., is M. guttata., (Dillw.) 

102. M. Loroisii,* Bernardi, Journ. de Conch, v, 291, pi. 8, 

f. 6, 7, 1857. Hah. unknoion. 

103. M. maculosa, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 2G, pi. 9, f. 40, 1884. 

31. muralis, Hinds, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1844, p. 76, 1844. 
Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 394, pi. 78, f. 217, 1846. Reeve, 
Conch. Icon. Marginella pi. 15, f. 69, 1865. 

Carihhean ; Jamaica, (Juracoa, St. Vincent and Tortola. 

M. MACULOSA, Reeve, is M. calculus, Redf. 

104. M. margarita, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 15, pi. 9, f. 42, 

1834. 
Sowb.. Thes. Conch, i, 383, pi. 75, f. Q^, 67, 1846. 
? 31. camlida,-\ Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 382, pi. 75, f. 86, 87, 

1846. 
31. margarita, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella pi. 16, f. 78, 

and pi. 23, f. 123, 1865. 
? 31. Candida, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella pi. 24, f. 134, 

1865. Carihhean ; Ouha to St. Vincents. 

105. M. margaritula, Carpenter, Cat. Mazatlan Shells in 

Brit. Mus. p. 462, 1857. 3Iazatlan, Gulf of Calif. 

^06^ M. marginata, (Born.) 

Voluta marginata, Born, Mus. p. 220, pi. 9. f. 5, 6, 1780. 

Favanne, Conch, pi. 29, f. e, 1780. 
Voluta marginata, Schroeter, Einleitung i, 300, No. 224, 1786. 
Voluta marginata, Gmelin., ed. Syst. Nat. p. 3419, 1788. 
Voluta marginata, Schreibers, Conch, i, 123, 1793. 

Encycl., Meth. pi. 376, f. 9, a, b, 1798. 

* Notwithstanding the five plaits mentioned in Bernardi's description 
but not so apparent in his plate, I suspect this is only a dwarfed and 
worn specimen of M. cincta, Kiener. 

1 1 can see uo distinctive characters between Sowerby's and Kiener's 
species. 



242 

Voluta marginata, Dillw., Descr. Cat. p. 528, 1817. 

31. bivcmcosa, Lam., 1st ed. Anim. sans Vert, vii, 358, 1822. 

Defrance, Diet, des Sci. Nat. xxix, 143, 1823. 
Voluta marginata^ Mawe, Lin. Syst. Conch, pi. 23, f. 3, 1823. 
M. bivaricosa, Sowb. Genera of Shells, Marginella, f. 3, 1824. 
Voluta marginata, Wood, Index Testae, pi. 19, f. 62, 1828. 
31. bivaricosa, Desh., Enc. Meth. Vers, ii, 412, 1830. Kiener, 

Coq. Viv. p. 20, pi. 3, f. 10, 1834. 
" marginata. Reeve, Conch. Sjst. ii, 250, pi. 278, f. 3, 1843. 
*' bivaricosa, Desh., ed. Lam. Anim. sans Vert, x, 439, 1844. 

Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 384, pi. 77, f. 171, 172, 1846. 

Desh., Traitd Elem. pi. 123, f. 12, ?1850. 
" marginata, Orb., Moll, de Cuba ii, 96, 1853. 
" bivaricosa, Chenu, Manuel de Conch, i, 199, f. 1057, 1058, 

1859. 
" marginata. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella pi. 11, f. 46, 

a, b, 1864. Senegal, (authors.) 

107. M. Mariei, Crosse, Journ. de Conch, xv, 177, pi. 5, f. 2, 

1867. JVew Caledonia. 

108. M. Martini,* Petit, Joum. de Conch, iv, 367, pi. 11, f. 

8, 1853. Mio Janeiro, 

109. M. micans, Petit, Journ. de Conch, ii, 48, pi. 1, f. 15, 

16, 1851. Abd-el-Crouri, near JRed Sea. 

M. MiLiACEA, Lam., [Volvaria) is 31. miliaria, Linn. 

110. M. miliaria, (Linn.) 

Voluta miliaria, Linn., Syst. Nat. 10th ed. p. 730, No. 354, 
1758. Linn., Syst. Nat. 12th ed. p. 1139, 1769. ? Mar- 
tini, ii, pi. 42, f. 428, 1773. Sehroeter, Einleitung i, 209, 
1783. Gmelin, ed. Syst. Nat. p. 3443, 1788. Savigny, 
Moll, de I'Egypte, pi. 6, f. 17, 18, 1820. 

Volvaria miliacea. Lam., Anim. sans Vert. 1st ed. vii, 364, 
1822. Payr., Cat. de Corse p. 168, pi. 8, f. 28, 29, 
1826. 

Voluta miliaria. Wood, Index Testae, p. 93, pi. 19, f. 52, 
(bad) 1828. 

31. miliacea, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 19, pi. 6, f. 26, (var. excl.) 
1834. Desh., Exp. en. Moree, p. 202, 1835. 

Volvaria miliacea, Phil., Moll. Sicil, i, 232, 1836. 

3Iarginella miliacea, " " " ii, 197, 1844. 

Volvaria miliacea, Desh., ed. Lam. Anim. sans Vert, x, 461, 
1844. 

* Perhaps only a variety of M. prunum, Ginel. 



243 

31arg. miliaria, (var. excl.) Sowb. Thcs. Concli. i, 399, pi. 

78, f. 230, (not 227-229) 1846. Orb, Prodroinus iii, 170, 

1852. Reeve, Conch, Icon. Mavginella pi. 27, f. 154, 

(bad) 1865. "VVeinkauflF, Conch, des Mittelmcercs ii, 20, 

1868. Eastern Atlantic, from Cadiz to Canary 1. ; 

Mediterranean, from Gribralter to Egypt. Also fossil in Post 

Pliocene, Upper and Middle Tertiary of Southern Europe. 

M. MiNixMA, Sowb., ex Guilding is M. Lavalleana, Orb. 

111. M. minor, C. B. Ad., Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist, v, 264, 

June 1852. 
C. B. Ad., Panama Shells p. 40, Aug. 1852. Carpenter, 
Cat. Mazatlan Shells, p. 461, 1857. Reeve, Conch. 
Icon. Marginella pi. 27, f. 152, 1865. 
Pacific Coast of Central America, from 31azatlan to Panama. 

112. M. minuta, Pfr.,* Wiegmann's Archiv. i, 259, 1840. 
Phil., Moll. Sicil. ii, 197, pi. 27, f. 23, 1844. Weinkauff, 

Conch, des Mittelmeere ii, 21, 1868. 
Mediterranean ; Algeria to Syria, also fossil in Post Pliocene 
of Southern Europe. 

113. M. monilis, (Linn.) 

? Simeri, Adanson, Senegal, p. 79, pi. 5, f. 3, 1757. 

Voluta monilis, Linn., Sjst. Nat. 10th ed. p. 730, No. 353, 

1758. Linn., Syst. Nat. 12th ed. p. 1189, 1769. Mar- 
tini, Conch, ii, 42, f. 426, 1773. 
Voluta monilis. Born, Mus. p, 219, 1780. Schroeter, Ein- 

leitung i, 209, 1783. (var. excl.) Gmel., Syst. Nat. p. 

3444, 1788. Schreibers, Conch, i, 114, 1793. Dillw., 

Desc, Cat. p. 524, 1817. 
Volvaria monilis, Lam., Anim. sans Vert. 1st ed. vii, 363, 

1822. 
Marg. monilis, Blainv., Malac. pi. 27, f. 3, 1827. Kiener, 

Coq. Yiv. p. 18, pi. 6, f. 23, 1834. 
Volvaria monilis, Wyatt, Man. Conch, pi. 29, f. 3, (bad) 1838. 

Desh. ed. Lam. sans Vert, x, 459, 1844. 
? Marq. monilis, Sowb.,t Thes. Conch, i, 388, pi. 76, f. 117, 

118, 1846. 

*See note under M. Lavalleana. 

t Petit sees in Sowerby's figure and description sufficient ground to 
exclude them from the synonymy of this species, and proposes to separate 
Sowerby's shell under the nam.e Soverhyana. In revising the somewhat 
perplexing figures which have been given of monilis, I find Sowerby's 
figures as near the truth as most others. As to the habitat I am in doubt. 
Linnaeus refers the species to China. JNIost authors ascribe it to Senegal, 
but Petit denies that it occurs there, though he admits that Sowerby's 



244 

? 3Iarg. Soverbianum, Petit, Journ. de Conch, ii, 53, 57, 1851. 
Volvaria jnonilis, Chenu, IManuel de Conch, i, 200, f. 1071, 

1859. 
3Iarg. monilis, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella pi. 21, f. Ill, 

(Desc. excl.) 1865. 

? China, (Lhmseus.) ? Senegal, (authors.) 

M. MONILIS, Wood, ( Voluta) is M. jndchella, Kiener. 

114. M. Morchii, Redf., here proposed, Morch's name being 

preoccupied.* 
Gibherula coniformis, Morch, Malak. Blatt, 1860, p. 86. 

Hah. unknown. 

115. M. mosaica, Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 381, pL 75, f. 58, 

59, 1846. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginelhi pi. 4, f. 12, a, b, c, 1864. 
West Africa, ? (Petit.) East Africa, (Reeve ;) the latter more 
probable. 

116. M. multilineata, Sowb.. Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1846, 

p. 96, 1846. 
Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 395, pi. 78, f. 192, 193, 1846. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella pi. 14, f. 64, 1865. 

Belize, Honduras. 
M. MURALis, Hinds, is M. maculosa, Kiener. 

117. M. muscaria, Lam., Anim. sans Vert. 1st ed. vii, 359, 

1822. 
M. musea, Defrance, Diet, des Sci. Nat. xxix, 143, 1823. 
31. muscaria, Desh., Enc. Meth. Vers, ii, 413, 1830. Kiener, 

Coq. Viv. p. 11, pi. 3, f. 14, 1834. Pot. and Mich., 

Galerie des Moll. 504, pi. 35, f. 17, 18, 1838. Desh. 

ed. Lam. sans Vert, x, 441, 1844. Sowb., Thes. Conch. 

i, 376, pi. 75, f. 45-47, 1846. Reeve, Conch. Icon. 

Marginella pi. 8, f. 29, a, b, 1864. Kuster, Sjst. Conch. 

Cab. V, part 4, pi. 2*, f. 15-17, 1865. 

Australia and Tasmania. 

118. M. miisica, Hinds, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. p. 73, 1844. 
Hinds. Moll. Voyage Sulphur p. 44, pi. 13, f. 8, 9, 1844. 

Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 379, pi. 75, f. 36, 37, 1846. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella pi. 9, f. 34, a, b, 1864. 

0. Blanco, West Africa. 
M. NAVICELLA, Recve, is M. rubella, C. B. Ad. 

type does. May it not be that this shell, like some of the cowries, is an 
East Indian species, though employed in Africa for ornament or com- 
mercial barter? Adansou says of his Simeri, that it is worn by the 
natives in necklaces. 
* By Sowerby, for a fossil species. 



245 

119. M. neglecta, Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 390, pi. IG, f. 135, 

136, IcS-it). 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella pi. 25, f. 138, 1865. 

/. Bourbon, Desh. 

120. M. Newcombi, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella pi. 5, f. 

15, a, b, 1864. Cape of Good Hope. 

121. M. nitida, (Hinds.) 

Volvaruia nitida. Hinds, Pi'oc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1844, p. 75, 
1844. 

3Iarg. nitida, Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 389, pi. 76, f. 131, 18 i6. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella pi. 17, f. 80, 1865. 

Hah. unknoivn.* 

122. M. nivea, C. B. Ad., Contr. to Conchology p. 56, 1850. 

Jainaica. 

123. M. nivosa, Hinds, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1844, p. 74, 

1844. 
Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 398, pi. 76, f. 109, 110, 1846. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella pi. 6, f. 20, a, b, 1864. 

West Indies, Reeve. 

124. M. nodata, Hinds, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1844, p. 73, 

1844. 
Hinds, Moll. Voyage Sulphur, p. 44, pi. 13, f. 6, 7, 1844. 
Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 379, pi. 74, f. 30, 1846. Chenu, 
Manuel de Conch, i, 197, f. 1042, 1859. Reeve, Conch. 
Icon. Marginella pi. 9, f. 36, a, b, 1864. 

0. Blanco, West Africa. 

M. NUBECULATA, Lam., is M. pyrum, (Gron.) 

125. M. Obesa, Redf., Ann. N. Y. Ljc. Nat. Hist, iv, 164, pi. 

10, f. 5, a, b, Apr. 1846. 
M. similis, Sowb., Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1846, p. 97, Nov. 

1846. Thes. Conch, i, 396, pi. 78, f. 206, 207, Nov. 

1846. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella pi. 14, f. 61, 

1865. Kuster, Sjst. Conch. Cab. v, part 4, pi. 3*, f. 

10-12, 1865. 
31. obesa, Kuster, Syst. Conch. Cab. v, part 4, pi. 3*, f. 13 — 

15, 1865. 

St. 3Iartha, S. A. (Redf.) Brazil, (Sowb.) 

M. OBESA, Sowb., is 31. pyrulata, Redf. 

* I have a specimen received from Cuming ticketed " 3IaUa," but 1 
doubt its authority. 



246 

126. M. Oblonga,* Swains., Zool. 111. 2tl scr. i, pi. 44, f. 1, 

{Volutella) 1829. 
Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 398, pi. 76, f. 106, 107, 1846. 
M. cajmea (not Storer) Sowb. in pai't. Thes. Conch, i, 398, pi. 

76, f. 102, 114 (not 103), 1846. 
M. amahilis, Redf., Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist, v, 225, 1852. 
M. ohlonga, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella pi. 12, f. 51, a, b, 

1864. Bahamas aiid Yucatan. 

127. M. obscura, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella pi. 24, f. 

132, 1865. Hah. miknoicn. 

128. M. Obtusa, Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 374, pi. 74, f. 11, 12, 

1846. Hah. unhioton, but of a West African type. 

129. M, Odoricyi, Bernardi, Journ. de Conch, iii, 59, pi. 2, 

f. 6, 7, 1852. Hah. unknoivn. 

Jl30. M. olivseformis, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 12, pi. 8, f. 36, 
1834. 
Desh., ed. Lam. Anim. sans Vert, x, 449, 1844. Sowb., 
Thes. Conch, i, 392, pi. 77, f. 163, 164, 1846. Reeve, 
Conch. Icon. Marginella pi. 6, f. 19, a, b, 1864. 

Senegal, 

131. M. olivella, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella pi. 25, f. 

140, a, b, 1865. Australia. 

M. ONYCHIXA, Ad. and Reeve, is 31. Bernardii, Larg. 

132. M. ornata, Redf. Here proposed for 

M. vittata,i Reeve, (not Edwards) Conch. Icon. Marginella 
pi. 5, f. 17, a, b, c, d, 1864. Hast Africa. 

133. M. oryza, (Lam.) 

f Stipon, Adanson, Senegal, p. 79, pi. 5, f. 4, 1757. 

Vohita monilis, var. j3, Gmelin, ed. Syst. Nat. p. 3444, 1788. 

Encyc, Meth. Vers. pi. 374, f. 6, a, b, 1798. 
Voluta miliaria^ (syn. excl.) Dillw., Descr. Cat. p. 524, 1817. 

* Among the varied forms usually referred to this species, three are 
prominent: 1st, one which may be regarded as the type, and which an- 
swers well to Swainson's somewhat magnified figure ; this is sometimes 
flecked a little with white, after the manner of M. guttata, Dillw. 2d, 
the shell which 1 have formerly discriminated as M. amahilis, represented 
by figs. 102 and 114 of Sowerby's Thesaurus, and mistaken by him for 
M. carnea. 3d, a form more attenuated anteriorly, figured by Sowerby 
(Thes. f. 106, 107) as the type. Reeve's figure approaches the first of these 
forms. I much incline to regard the three as distinct species. If so con- 
sidered, the third might take the name of 31. rostrata. M. carnea (Thes. 
f. 103) is certainly distinct from either of the above. 

t Preoccupied by Edwards in 1852 for a fossil species. 



247 

Volva)-iu oryza, Lam. Anim. sans Vert. 1st ed. vii, 364, 1822. 
Marg. miUaeea, var. Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 20, pi. 6, f. 26, v, 

(bad) 1834. 
Volvaria oryza, Desli., ed. Lam. Anim. sans Vert, x, 460, 

1844. 
Marg. miliaria^ [in part) Sow., Thcs. Conch, i, 399, pi. 78, f. 

227, 228, 229, (good) 1846. 
Marg. oryza^ Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 16, f. 75, 

1865. Senegal. 

M. ORYZA, Pease, is BI. austraUs, Hinds. 

134. M. ovuliformis, Orb., Moll, de Cuba, ii, 101, pi. 20, f. 

33 — 35, ? 1853. Caribbean ; St. Thomas to Martinique. 

135. M. ovulum, Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 401, pi. 78, f. 188, 

1846. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 23, f. 129, 1865. 

Eastern Australia. 

136. M. ovum, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 18, f. 89, 

a, b, 1865. Hab. unknoivn.^ 

137. M. Pacifica, Pease, Am. Jour. Conch, iii, 280, pi. 23, f. 

20, Apr., Is68. I. Paumotus. 

138. M. pallida (Donovan). 

Bulla cylindracea (not Pennant), Da Costa (Sjn. excl.), Brit. 
Conch, p. 31, pi. 2, f. 7, 1778. 

Bulla pallida (not of L.), Donovan, Brit. Shells (Syn. plur. 
, excl.), pi. m, f. 527, 1800. 

Valuta pallida, Mont., Brit. Shells, p. 232 (Syn. part, excl.), 
1808. Adams, Lin. Trans, iii, 253, 1803. Mat. & Rackett, 
Lin. Trans, viii, 132 (syn. excl.), 1807. Dillw., Desc. 
Catal. p. 527 (syn. in part excl.), 1817. 

JTgalina pellucida, Schum., Nouv. Syst. p. 234, 1817. 

Volvaria pallida, Lam., Anim. sans Vert. 1st ed. vii, 363 (syn. 
in part excl.), 1822. Crouch's Lamarck 111. pi. 19, f. 15, 
1827. Fleming, British Animals, p. 333, 1828. Desh. 
Encyc. Meth. Vers, iii, 1148 (syn. part excl.), 1830. 
Guerin, Icon, du Regno Anim. i, 33, pi. 16, f. 14, a, b, 
date ? Griffith's Cuvier, Moll. pi. 6, f. 14, 14a, 1834. 

Marg. pallida, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 40, pi. 13, f. 2, 1810. 

Volvaria pallida. Thorpe, Brit. Mar. Conch, p. 221, 1844. 
Desh. ed. Lam. Anim. sans Vert. (syn. in part excl.) 
X, 459, 1844. Orb., Diet. Univ. d'llist. Nat. Moll. pi. 
24, f. 2, 3 (good), 1849. 

* Reeve's figure has the aspect of a fossil species. 
35 



248 

Marg. pallida, Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 390, pi. 76, f. 108, 
1846. Desh., Traite Elem. pi. 123, f. 4, 5, ? 1850. Orb., 
Moll, de Cuba, ii, 100, 1853. 
Volvaria pallida, Berge, Conchylien-Buch, p. 241, pi. 42, f. 

6, 1855. 
Volvaria pellucida, H. and A. Ad., Gen. Rcc. Moll, i, 194, 

pi. 20, f. 5, a, 1858. 
Volvaria pallida, Chenu, Manuel de Conch, i, 200, f. 1073, 

1859. 
Marg. pallida, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 17, f. 86, 
1865. Caribbean ;* Bermudas, Bahamas to Guadeloupe. 
M. PALLIDA, Linn.f {Bulla), of 10th ed., an4 Voluta of 

12th ed., are doubtful species. 
M. PALLIDA, Chiaje {Voluta), in Poll. Test. Sic, is a 
doubtful species, possibly 31. monilis. (L.) 

139. M. Pamnotensis, Pease, Am. Journ. Conch, iii, 281, pi. 

23, f. 22, Apr., 1868. /. Paumotus, Pacific Ocean. 

140. M. paxillus, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 24, f. 

13o, a, b, 1865. Hab. unkyioivn. 

141. M. Peasii, Reeve. 

M. cylindrica, Pease (preoccupied), Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 

1862, p. 244, 1862. 
M. Peasii, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 21, f. 108, a, 

b, 1865. 
M. polita, Pease (preoccupied), Am. Jouin. Conch, iii, 280, 

pi. 23, f. 19, 1867. Kingsmill Group, Pacific 0. 

M. PELLUCIDA, Schum. {Hyali7ia), is M. pallida (Linn.) 

142. M. pellucida, Pfr., Wiegmann's Archiv. 1840, p. 258, 

18404 
M. diaphana, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 38, pi. 12, f. 3, ? 1840. 
M. diaphana, Sowb. Thes. Conch, i, 387, pi. 76, f. 95, 96, 

1846. 
M. conoidalis, Chenu (not Kiener), Manuel de Conchyl. i, 197, 

f. 1046, 1859. 
M. diaphana. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 16, f. 76, 

1865. Kiister, Syst. Conch. Cab. v, part 4, pi. 2*, f. 

20, 21, 1865. Caribbean ; Bahamas to St. Thomas. 

* This species, like M. cafenata, was by early English writers errone- 
ously referred to the British Seas, but its true habitat is now well known. 

f Hanley, in his Ipsa Linnaei Conchylia, has well shown that none of the 
Linnaean references can be applied to Donovan's M. pallida. 

X In cases of doubtful priority like this, the author who publishes U77/i- 
out date is justly placed after the one who dates. 



249 

143. M. persicula (Linn.) 

Bonanni, Recr. iii, f. 246, 1684. Lister, Conch, t. 803, f. 

10 (rude), 1688. Petiver, Gazoph. pi. 8, f. 2 (rude), 

1702. Gualteri, Test. pi. 28, f. c, d, e, 1742. 
Valuta persicula, Linn., Syst. Naturae, 10th ed. p. 730, No. 

352 (in part), 1758 ; 12th ed. p. 1189 (in part), 1767. 

Martini, Conch, ii, p. 105, pi. 42, f. 421 (good), 1771. 
Voluta persicula, var. /9, Born., Mus. p. 220, 1780. Schroeter, 

Mus. Gottw. pi. 8, f. 48, a, b (? young, f. 49, a, b, c, d), 

1782. 
Voluta persicula, var. a, Schroeter, Einleitung, i, 210, 1783. 
Murex persiculus, var. Meuschen, Mus. Gevers. p. 328, No. 

772, 1787. Schreibers, Conch, i, 114, 1788. 
Voluta jjcrsicula (var. excl.), Gmel. ed. Syst. Nat. p. 3444, 

1788. Enc. Meth. Vers. pi. 377, f. 3, a, b (and var.), f. 

5, a, b, 1798. Roissy, Buff. Moll, vi, 9, 1805. Dillw., 

Descr. Catal. p. 525, 1817. 
Persicula variabilis, Schum., Nouv. Syst. p. 235, 1817. 
Marg. persicula, Lam., Anim. sans Vert. 1st ed. vii, 361, 

1822. 
Marg. avellana, Lam., Anim. sans Vert. 1st ed. vii, 360, 

1822. 
3Iarg. persicula, Defrance, Diet, des Sci. Nat. xxix, 144, 

1823. 
Marg. avellana, Defrance, Diet, des Sci. Nat. xxix, 144, 1823. 
Voluta persicula, Wood, Index Testae, pi. 19, f. 55, 1828. 
Voluta porcellana, Wood (not Chemn.), Index Testae, pi. 19, 

f. 58, 1828. 
Marg. persicula, Desh., Encycl. Meth. Vers, ii, 414, 1830. 

Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 23, pi. 5, f. 19, 1834. 
Marg. avellana, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 22, pi. 4, f. 18, 1834. 

Desh. ed. Lam. Anim. sans Vert, x, 444, 1844. 
Marg. j^f^rsicula, Desh. ed. Lam. Anim. sans Vert. x. 444, 

1844. Sowb., Thes. Conch. 1, 399, pi. 78, f. 189— 

191, 1846. Chenu, Manuel de Conch, i, 199, 1859. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 13, f. 57, a, b, 1864. 

Klister, Syst. Conch. Cab. v, part 4, pi. 3*, f. 5, and 

var. f. 6, 7, 1865. Senegamhia. 

144. M. Petitii, Duval, Revue Zool. 1841, p. 279, 1841. Sowb., 

Thes. Conch, i, 377, pi. 74, f. 31, 32, 1846. Reeve, 
Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 3, f. 6, a, b, 1864. Senegal. 

145. M. Philippinarum, Redf. 

M. avena, Suwb. (not Val,), Thes. Conch, i, 391, pi. 76, f. 130, 
1846. 



250 

M. Pliilippinarum, Redf., Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist. iv. 
492, pi. 17, f. 3, 1848. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, 
pi. 17, f. 84, 1865. Fldlippine Islands. 

146. M. phrygia, Sowb. 

3J. guttata, iSvvains. (not Dillw. or Sowb.), Zool. Illust. 2d ser. 

i, pi. 44, f. 2, 1829. 
M.phrvqia, Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 394, pi. 78, f. 218, 219, 

1846. 
M. jSwainsoniana, Petit, Cat. in Jour, de Conch, ii, 55, 1851. 
M. phrygia, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 15, f. 67, 

1865. Acapulco and Gulf of California. 

M. PiCTA, Dillw., is 31. lyrum (Gron.) 

147. M. piperata, Hinds, Proc. Lond. Zool, Soc. 1844, p. 72, 

1844. 
M. piperita, Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 381, pi. 75, f. 40, 44, 

1846. 
31. piperata. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 4, f. 11, a, 

b, 1864. Natal, and East Africa. 

148. M. pisum, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 27, f. 156, 

1865. Australia. 

M. PLUMBEA (Sol.), MSS., is 31. prmium (Gmel.) 

149. M, polita, Carpenter, Cat. of Mazatlan Shells, p. 462, 

1857. 3Iazatlan. 

M. POLITA, Pease, is 31. Peasii, Reeve. 

150. M. porcellana (Gmel.) 

Voluta porcellana, Gmel. ed. Svst. Nat. p. 3449, 1788. 

Chemn., Conch, x, 164, pi. 'l50, f. 1419, 1420 (good), 

1788. Schreibers, Conch, i, 99, 1793. Encyc. Meth. 

Vers. pi. 377, f. 5, 1798. Dillw., Desc. Catal. p. 526, 

1817. 
3'Iarginella tessellata, Lam., Anim. sans Vert. 1st ed. vii, 361, 

1822. Defrance, Diet, des Sci. Nat. xxix, 144, 1823. 
Voluta tessellata. Wood, Index Testae., Suppl. pi. 3, f. 31, 

1828. 
3Iarginella tessellata, Desh., Encycl. Meth. Vers, ii, 413, 1830. 

Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 24, pi. 5, f. 20, 1834. Desh., ed. 

Lam. Anim. sans Vert, x, 446, 1844. Sowb., Thes. 

Conch, i, 395, pi. 78, f. 194—197, 1846. Chenu, Manuel 

de Condi, i, 199, f. 1064, 1859. 
3'Iarginella porcellana. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 13, 

f. 53, a, b, 1864. Venezuela"^ (Sowb.) 

* Earlier writers refer this species to the Indian Ocean, but the type is 
an Atlantic one, and I believe Sowerby to be correct. 



251 

151. M. Poucheti,* Petit, Journ. de Conch, ii, 40, pi. 1, f. 3, 

l^^r)l. West Africa. 

152. M. pruinosa, Hinds, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1844, p. 74, 

1844. 
Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 898, pi. 76, f. Ill, 1846. Reeve, 
Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 18, f. 88, 1865. 

West Indies (Hinds, Sowb. and Reeve.) 

"153. M. prunum (Gmel.) 

Martini, Conch, ii, 110, pi. 42, f. 422, 423, (good) 1773. 
Voluta No. 97, Schroeter, Einleitung i, 269, 1783. 
Voluta prunum, Gmel., ed. Sjst. Nat. p. 3446, (in part) 1788. 

Encycl. Meth. Vers. pi. 376, f. 8, a, b, 1798. 
Voluta plumbea, Solander, ined. quoted by Dillwyn. 

" prunum, Dillwyn, Descr. Cat. p. 530, 1817. 
Marginella coerulescens. Lam. Anim. sans Vert. 1st ed. vii, 

356, 1822. Defrance, Diet, des Sci. Nat. xxix, 142, 

1823. 
Voluta prunum. Wood, Index Testae, pi. 20, f. 68, 1828. 
M. coprulescetis, Desh., Encyc. Meth. Vers, ii, 411, 1830. 

Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 13, pi. 1, f. 4, 1834. 
(var.) 31. glans, Menke, Synops, Meth. Mollusc, p. 146, 1836. 
M. coerulescens, Reichenbach, Conch, p. 62, pi. 37, f. 526, 

527, (figs, reversed) 1842. Catlow, Popular Conch, p. 

250, (wood cut) 1843. Desh., ed. Lam. Anim. sans Vert. 

X, 437, 1844. Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 383, pi. 77, f. 153, 

154, 1846. Orb., Moll, de Cuba ii, 96, 1853. Berge, 

Conchylienbuch p. 240, pi. 42, f. 4, 1855. 
M. prunum, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 11, f. 45, a, 

b, 1864. Kuster, Syst. Conch. Cab. v, part 4, pi. 1*, f. 

9, 1865. 
M. subcoerulea'f of some Catalogues. 
Caribbean ; Jamaica to Gruadaloupe, and Cartagena to Curaeoa ! 

154. M. pseudo-faba, Sowb., Proc. Lond., Zool. Soc. 1846, 
p. 96. 
Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 374, pi. 74, f. 21, 22, 1846. 
31. f aba, (not Linn.) Chenu, Lecons. Element, p. 217, f. 720, 

* Nearly allied to 31. glabella, but seems distioct. 

t This species is often cataloofued as 31. subca-ridea. Martini. A refer- 
ence to Martini ii, p. 1U2, will show that the name is there employed only 
as an explanatory phrase, and in no wise deserves precedence as a scien- 
tific binomial. Another specimen of the same species is in the same 
passage called alhida, with just as good reason for acceptance ! As to the 
erroneous statements regarding its habitat, growing out of Gmeliu"s con- 
founding two species, see Am. Journ. Conch, v, 90. 



252 

1847. (not Linn.) Chenu, Manuel de Conch, i, 197, f. 
1049, 1859. 
M. pseudofaba, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 7, f. 26, 
a, b, 1864. Gambia, West Africa. 

M. PUDICA, Gaskoin, is M. chrysomelina, Redf. 

155. M. puella, (Gould.) 

Volvarina puella, Gould, Proc. Bost. Nat. Hist. Soc. vii, 385, 
1860. Gould, Otia Conchologica p. 139, 1862. 

Simon s Bay. 

156. M. pulchella, Kiener. 

Voluta monilis, (not Linn.) Wood, Index Testae, pi. 19, f. 53, 

1828. 
Marg. pulcliella, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 27, pi. 9, f. 40, 1834. 
Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 393, pi. 78, f. 213—215, 1846. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 15, f. '6^, 1865. 

Sidney, Australia, (authors.) 

157. M. pulcherrima, Gaskoin, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1849, 

p. 21, 1849. 
M. catenata, (in part) Reeve, Conch. Icon. pi. 16. f. 72, (not 
73, a, b,) 1865. 

West Indies, (Gaskoin.) Baliamas, (Redf.) 

158. M. pulchra, Gray. 

? Lister, Conch, t. 817, f. 28, 1688. 

M. pulchra. Gray, Zool. Beechey's Voy., p. 135, pi. 36, f. 20, 

1839. Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 383, pi. 77, f. 152, 1846. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 10, f. 39, a, b, 1864. 

Kiister, Syst. Conch. Cab. v, part 4, pi. 2*, f. 1, 1865. 

*S'^. Domingo, (Reeve.) La Guayra, (Swift.) 

159. M. pumila, Redf. Here proposed for 

Volvaria pusilla, II. Ad.,* Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 
303, pi. 19, f. 1, 1867. 

3Tauritius. 

160. M. punctulata, Petit, Revue Zool. Cuv. Soc. 1841, p. 

185, 1841. Senegal. 

M. PUSILLA, H. Ad., (Volvaria) is 31. pumila, Redf. 

161. M. pygmsea, Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 386, pi. 75, f. 78, 

79, 1846. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 23, f. 125, 1865. 

Hab. unknoum. 

* Adams' name is preoccupied by F. E. Edwards, for a fossil species. 



253 

162. M. pyriformis, (Carp.i 

Volutella pyriformis, Carp., Journ. de Conch, xiii, 148, 1865. 

3Ionterey to St. Diego ; California. 

M. PYRiFORiMiS, Pease, is 31. translata, Redf. 

163. M. pyrulata, Redf. 

31. obesa, (not Redf.) Sowb.,* Thes. Conch, i, 397, pi. 76, f. 

91, 92, 1846. 
31. pyrulata, Redf., Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist, iv, 494, 1848. 

Hab. unknown. 

164. M. pyrulum, Reeve,t Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 22, 

f. 117, 1865. I. St. Thomas, W. /., (Reeve.) 

165. M. pyrum, (Gron.) 

Lister, Conch, i, 818, f. 32, 1688. Klein, Ostrac. Tenta- 
men, pi. 5, f. 92, 1753. Knorr, Vergnug. v, pi. 23, f. 3, 
1771. Martini, Conch, ii, pi. 42, f. 434, 435, 1773. 

Voluta, No. 1318, Gronovius, Zooph. p 298, 1781. 

Voluta pi/nim, Gronovius, Zooph. Expl. tiibul. pi. 19, f. 13, 
14, 1781. 

3Iurex pallidus, Meuschen, Mus. Gevers. p. 328, No. 774, 
1787. 

Vohita glabella, var. e, Gmel. ed. Syst. Nat. p. 3445, 1788. 
Encych Meth. Vers. pi. 377, f. 2 a, b, 1798. 

Voluta picta, Dillw., Desc. Cat. p. 529, 1817. 

3Iarginella nubeculata. Lam., Anim. sans Vert, vii, 356, 
1822. Defrance, Diet, des Sci. Nat. xxix, 141, 1823. 

Voluta picta, Wood, Index Testae, p. 94, pi. 20, f. 65, 1828. 

31. nubeculata, Desh., Encycl. Meth. Vers, ii, 410, 1830. 
Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 8, pi. 1, f. 3, 1834. ? Griffith, Cu- 
vier, pi. 6, f. 15 {bad), 1834. Guerin, Regne Anim. 
illust. Moll. p. 145, pi. 52, f. 3, 3 a, ? Reichenbach, 
Conch, p. 62, pi. 37, f. 524, 525 {one figure reversed), 
1842. Reeve, Conch. Syst. ii, 249, pi. 277, f. 4, 18*43. 
Desh. ed. Lam. Anim. sans Vert, x, 436, 1844. Reeve, 
Elements of Conch, p. 53, pi. 1, f. 1, 1846. 

31. yiubecula, Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 380, pi. 75, f. 51, 1846. 

31. intermedia, Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 381, pi. 74, f. 6, and 
pi. 76, f. 90, 1846. 

31. nubeculata, Chenu, Lecons Element, p. 217, p. 719, 1847. 
• Berge, Conchylienbuch, p. 240, pi. 42, f. 3, 1855. 

*Sowerby's name was preoccupied. A species allied to M.lahiata, 
but the figure in Sowb. has much the appearance of a fossil shell. Reeve 
does not figure it. 

t Near M. miliacea. 



254 

M. nubecula, Chenu, Manuel de Conch, i, 197, f. 1044, 1859. 
M. pyrum. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 4, f. 13 a, b, 

c, 1864. Kiister, Syst. Conch. Cab. v, part 4, pi. 1*, f. 

8, 1865. East Africa. 

166. M. quadrilineata, Gaskoin, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1849, 

p. L7, 1849. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 12, f. 48 a, b, 1864. 

Hah. 2mknoum. 

167. M. quinqueplicata, Lam.* 

Kammerer, Rudolst. Cab. pi. 3, f. 4, 5, 1789. Encyc. 
Meth. pi. 376, f. 4 a, b, 1798. 

df. quinqueplicata, Lam., Anim. sans Vert. 1st ed. vii, 356, 
1822. Defrance, Diet, des Sci. Nat. xxix, 142, 1823. 
Schub. and Wagn., Chemn. p. 91, pi. 225, f. 4008, 4009, 
1829. Desh., Encyc. Meth. Vers, ii, 410, 1830. Kie- 
ner, Coq. Viv. p. 13, pi. 2, f. 5, 1834. Souleyet, Voy- 
age Bonite, pi. 45, f. 13, 15 (animal), 1841. Desh. ed. 
Lam. Anim. sans Vert, x, 437, 1844. Sowb., Thes. 
Conch, i, 385, pi. 77, f. 145, 146, 1846. Mrs. Gray, 
Fig. Moll. Anim. ii, pi. 83 a, f. 4 (ex Souletjet), 1850. 
Desh., Traite Element, pi. 123, f. 9, ? 1850. 

M. vermiculata, Redf., Catal. Coll. Marg. (zvorn shell), Jan. 
1851. 

M. Hainesii, Petit, Journ. de Conch, ii, 260, pi. 8, f. 5, 6, 
July, 1851. 

M. quinqueplicata, Chenu, Manuel de Conch, i, 199, f. 1059, 
1859. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 10, f. 40 a, 
b, 41 a, b, 1864. Kiister, Syst. Conch. Cab. v, part 4, 
pi. 1*, f. 1, 1865. 

Bay of Bengal, 3Ialacca and Sumatra. 
M. RADIATA, Lam., is Valuta zebra. Leach. 

168. M. Reeveana, Petit. 

M. splendens,-\ Reeve, Conch. Syst. ii, pi. 277, f. 2, 3, 1843. 

Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 375, pi. 74, f. 23, 24, 1846. 
M. Reeveajia, Petit, Cat. in Journ. de Conch, ii, 51, 1851. 
31. splendens, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 8, f. 30 a, 

b, 1864. West Africa, Reeve. 

169. M. regularis, Carpenter, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, xv, 

398, 1865. California ; 3Ionterey to St. Diego. 

M. RETUSA, Brown ( Volvaria), islBiilla retiisa. 

* Several perplexing forms are ranged under this type, some of which 
may prove to be good species. See note under M. ventricosa. 

t Reeve's name was preoccupied by Grateloup in 1833 for a fossil spe- 
cies. 



255 

170. M. ros, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 26, f. 147, 

1865. Hah. unlcnown. 

171. M. roscida, Redf., Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil, xii, 174, 

1860. Coast of S. Carolina. 

172. M. rosea, L;im. 

Petiver, Gazoph. pi. 102, f. 10 (^rude), 1711. Martini, 

Conch, ii, 113, pi. 42, f. 431, 1773. 
M. rosea, Lam., Anim. sans Vert. 1st ed. vii, 356, 1822. 

Defrance, Diet, des Sci. Nat. xxix, 142, 1823. Desh., 

Encycl. Meth. Vers, ii, 411, 1830. Kiener, Coq. Viv. 

p. 8, pi. 2, f. 9, 1834. 
31. nuheculata (not Lain.), Guerin, Icon, du Regne Anim. i, 

33, pi. 16, f. 15, ? 
31. rosea., Desh. ed. Lam. Anim. sans Vert, x, 438, 1844. 

Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 381, pi. 75, f. 56, 57, 1846. 

Krauss, Sud Afrik. Moll. p. 125, 1848. Reeve, Conch. 

Icon. Marginella, pi. 4, f. 14 a, b, 1864. Kllster, Syst. 

Conch. Cab. v, part 4, pi. 1*, f. 6, 7, 1865. 

South Africa. 

173. M. rubella, C. B. Ad., Proc. Bost. Nat. Hist. Soc. ii, 1, 

Jan. 1845. 
Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 391, pi. 76, f. 133, 1846. 
31. navieella, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 20, f. 103 
a, b, 1865. 

Jamaica (Adams) ; St. Thoynas, W. I. (Krebs.) 

174. M. rufescens, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 21, f. 

112, 1865. Hab. unknown. 

175. M. rufula, Gaskoin, Ann. Nat. Hist. 2d ser. xi, 359, 

1853. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 26, f. 149 a, b, 1865. 

C. of Good Hope (Reeve). 

176. M. sagittata, Hinds, Proc. Lond. Zool, Soc. 1844, p. 76, 

1844. 
Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 393, pi. 78, f. 223, 224, 1846. 
31. fluctuata, C. B. Ad., Contr. to Conch, p. 56, 1850. 
31. sagittata, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 15, f. 70, 
1865. Caribbean ; Bahamas to Brazil. 

177. M. Sandwicensis, Pease, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1860, 

p. 147, 1860. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 27, f. 157, 1865. 

Sandwich Islands. 

178. M. sapotilla, Hinds, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1844, p. 74, 

April, 1844. 



256 

Hinds, Moll. Voyage Sulphur, p. 45, pi. 13, f. 10, 11, 1844. 
Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 383, pi. 77, f. 150, 151, 1846. 
C. B. Ad., Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist, v, 264, 1852. 
C. B. Ad., Panama Shells, p. 40, 1852. Carpenter, 
Proc. Lend. Zool. Soc. 1863, p. 341, 1863. Reeve, 
Conch. Icon, Marginella, pi. 11, f. 47 a, b, 1864. Kus- 
ter, Syst. Conch. Cab. v, part 4, pi. 1*, f. 14, 15, 1865. 

Panama. 

179. M. sarda, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 30, pi. 4, f. 42, 1834. 
Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 400, pi. 78, f. 167, 168, 1846. 

Chenu, Manuel de Conch, i, 199, f. 1065, 1859. Reeve, 
Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 18, f. 91 a, b, 1865. 

Ceylon. 

M. Saulcyana, Petit, is M. Storeria, Couth. 

M. Saulcyana, Reeve, is M. cincta, Kiener. 

180. M. Saulise, Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 386, pi. 75, f. 68, 

1846. 
Chenu, Manuel de Conch, i, 197, f. 1038, 1859. 

Hab. unknown. 

181. M. scripta, Hinds, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1844, p. 73, 

April, 1844. 
Hinds, Moll. Voyage Sulphur, p. 45, pi. 13, f. 16, 17, 1844. 
Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 386, pi. 75, f. 83-85, 1846. 
Chenu, Manuel de Conch, i, 197, f. 1037, 1859. Reeve, 
Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 14, f. 58, 1865. 

Straits of 3Iacassa)', Hinds ; Madagascar, Petit. 

182.^ M. secalina, (Philippi.) 

Volvarta triticea, var. b, (syn. excl.) Lam., Anim. sans Vert. 

vii, 363, 1822. 
Voluta exilis (not Gmel.), Chiaje, Poli. Test, iii, 30, pi. 46, f. 

35, 36, 1826. 
Volvaria triticea, Payr., Cat. Moll, de Corse, i, 168, 1826. 

Phil., Moll. Sicil., i, 232, pi. 12, f. 15 (animal), 1836. 
Volvaria secalina, Phil., Moll. Sicil., ii, 197, pi. 27, f. 19, 

1844. 
Volvaria triticea, var. b (syn. excl.), Desh. ed. Lam., Anim. 

sans Vert, x, 460, 1844. 
?3Iarg. triticea, Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 388, (pi. 76, f. 119— 

121)? 1846. 
Volvaria triticea, Mrs. Gray, Fig. Moll. Anim. ii, pi. 102, f. 

4 {ex Philippi), 1850. H. and A. Ad., Genera Rec. 

Moll, i, 194, pi. 20, f. 5 {ex Philippi), 1858. 
M. secalina, Kiister, Syst. Conch. Cab. v, part 4, pi. 4*, f. 

21-23, 1865. 



257 

M. exilis (not Gmel.), Hidalgo, Cat. Moll. Mar. de I'Esp. p. 

96, 1867. 
M. seeallna, Hidalgo, Cat. Moll. Mar. de I'Esp. p. V6, 1867. 

Weinkauff, Coach. desMittelmeeres, ii, 22, 1808. 

Mediterranean Sea.* 

183. M. sem.en,t Reeve, Conch. Icon. M;trginelia, pi. 26, f. 

145, 1865. Ilab. unknotvn. 

184. M. seminula, Gould, Proc. Bost. Nat. Hist. Soc. vii, 

884, Dec. 1860. 
Gould, Otia Conchologica, 139, 1862. 

False Bay, C. of Good Hope. 

185. M. serrata, Gaskoin, Proc. Lend. Zool. Soc. 1849, p. 19j 

1849. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 23, f. 124 a, b, 1865. 

Mauritius, Gaskoin. 
M. siMiLis, Sowb., is 31. obesa, Redf. 

186. M. simplex, Reeve, Conch. Icon, Marginella, pi. 22, f. 

115, 1865. Eastern Australia. 

187. M. sordida, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 24, f. 

137, 1865. Hab. unknown. 

M. SowERBiANA, Petit, is 31. monilis, Sowb. and perhaps 

of Lian. 
M. SPILOTA, Ravenel, of Catalogues, is an unpublished, 

hence unknown, species. 
M. SPLENDENS, Recve, is 31. Reeveana, Petit. 

188. M. Storeria, Couthouy, Boston Journ. Nat. Hist, i, 440, 

pi. 9, f. 1, 2, 1837. 
f M. cosrulescens, var. Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, pi. 77, f. 155, 

{not 153 and 154), 1846. 
M. Sauleyana, Petit (not Reeve), Journ. de Conch, ii, 47, pi. 

1, f. 11, 1851. 
31. crassilabrum, Reeve (not Sowb.), Conch. Icon. Marginella, 

pi. 18, f. 92, 1865. Coast of Brazil and Caribbean Sea. 

189. M. striata,! Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 375, pi. 75, f. 81, 82, 

1846. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. pi. 27, f. 155, 1865. 

St. Thomas, W. I. 

* Most of the synonomy of the perplexing M. triticea of Lam. becomes 
clear if we separate the Senegal shell from that of the Mediterranean, 
referring the former type to M. exilis, Gm., and the latter to M. secalina, 
Phil. 

t Yery near to M. ovuliformis. Orb. 

X Compare with M. sulcata, Orb. 



258 

190^ M. strigata, (Dillw.) 

Valuta (jlabeUa undulata, Chemn., Conch, x, 166, pi. 150, f. 

1423, 1424, 1788. 
Valuta glabella, var d, Gmel. ed. Syst. Nat. p. 3444, 1788. 
Valuta glabella, var. c, Schreibers, i, 115, 1793. Enycl. 

Meth. Vers. pi. 377, f. 7, 1798. 
? Valuta parcellana, Perry, Conch, pi. 17, f. 2, 1811. 
Valuta strigata, Dillw., Descr. Cat. p. 530, 1817. Wood, In- 
dex Testae, pi. 20, f. 67, 1828. 
Marg. strigata, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 14, pi. 8, f. 37, 1834. 
Marg. undulata, Desh. ed. Lam. Anim. sans. Vert, x, 451, 

1844. 
Marg. elegans, var. Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 385, pi. 77, f. 148, 

1846. 
Marg. undulata, Roberts, Pop. Hist. Moll. pi. 4, f. 4 [animal), 

1851. Chenu, Manuel de Conch, i, 199, f. 1055, 1859. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 2, f. 5, 6 a, b, 

1864.' 
Marg. Burcliardi (not Dunker), Reeve, Conch. Icon. jMargi- 

nella, pi. 2, f. 3 a, b [colorless var.), 1864. 

Indian Ocean. 

191. M. suavis, Souverbie, Journ. de Conch, vii, 376, June, 

1859. 
Souverbie, Journ. de Conch, viii, 126, pi. 2, f. 13, Jan. 
1860. Souverbie, Journ. de Conch, xi, 170, 1863. 

JVew Caledonia Group, Pacific. 
M. SUBCCERULEA, Authors, is 31. prunum, Gmel, 

192. M. Subtrigona, Carpenter, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 

XV, 397, May, 1865. 

Mo7iterey to St. Barbara, California. 

193. M. subtriplicata, Orb. 

M. triplicata, Orb., Moll, de Cuba, pi. 20, f. 30-32 (name pre- 
occupied), date ? 

M. subtrijjUcata, Orb., Moll, de Cuba, Text. Vol. ii, 99, 
1853. 

31. lactea (not Kiener), Reeve, Conch. Icon. pi. 17, f. 81, and 
pi. 24, f. 135. Caribbean ; Bahamas to Guadeloupe. 

194. M. SUCCinea, Conrad, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil, iii, 26, 

pi. 1, f. 17, 1846. Tanqm Bay, Florida. 

195. M. sulcata, Orb., Moll, de Cuba, ii, 102, pi. 21, f. 14— 

16, 1853. 3Iarti)iique, Cande. 

M. SwAiNSONiANA, Petit, is M. phrygia, Sowb. 



259 

196. M. taeniata, Sowb., Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1846, p. 96, 

1846. 
Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 391, pi. 76, f. 128, 129, 1846. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 17, f. 85, 1865. 

West Indies. 

197. M. tantilla, (Gould). 

Persieula tantilla, Gould, Proc. Bost. Nat. Hist. Soc. vii, 384, 
Dec. 1860. Gould, Otia Conchologica, p. 139, 1862. 

China Sea. 
198.^ M. tenera, (Menke). 

Volvaria tenera, Menke, Sjnops. Meth. Moll. p. 88, 1828. 

Porto Rico. 

199. M. Terveriana, Petit, Journ. de Conch, ii, 49, pi. 2, f. 

2, liS51. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 23, f. 127, 1865. 

/. Socotra, Petit ; Red Sea, Reeve. 
M. TESSELLATA, Lam. is 31. porcellana, Dillw. 
M. TORNATELLA, Savignj, Moll. de I'Egjpt, is a Torna- 
tclla, or of an allied genus. 

200. M. Traillii, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 21, f. 

114, 1865. Malacca. 

201. M. translata, Redf. 

31. pyriforniis (preoccupied) Pease, Am. Journ. Conch, iii, 
280, pi. 23, f. 21, Jan., 1868. JPaumotu G-roup, Pacific. 

202. M. translucida, Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 376, pi. 75, f. 

62, ^yi, 1846. Eastern Australia. 

203. M. tribalteata, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 20, 

f. 102, 1865. Hah. unknoivn. 

204. M. tricincta, Hinds, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1844, p. 

76, 1844. 
Hinds, Moll. Voyage Sulphur, p. 46, pi. 13, f. 12, 13, 1844. 
Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 401, pi. 78, f. 181, 182, 1846. 
Chenu, Manuel de Conch, i, 197, f. 1039, 1859. Reeve, 
Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 12, f. 49, a, b, 1864. 

Straits of 3Iacassar. 

205. M. triplicata, Gaskoin, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1849, p. 

19, 1849. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 23, f. 126, 1865. 
31. angystoma, Gaskoin, ined. Philippine Islands. 

M. TRIPLICATA, Orb., Plates of Moll, de Cuba is 31. sub- 

triplicata of Text of same. 
M. TRITICEA, Lam., is 31. exilis, (Gmel.) 
M. TRITICEA, Pajr., is 31. secalina, Phil. 



260 

206. M. turbinata, Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 385, pi. 75, f. 70, 

71, 1846. 
M. albina, Gaskoin, Ann. Nat. Hist. 2d ser. xi, 358, pi. 12, 

f. 7, 8, 1853. 
M. turbinata, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 22, f. 122, 
1865. Australia. 

M. UNDULATA, Desh., is M. strigata, (Dillw.) 
M. VARIA, Sowb., is in part 31. aveiia, Val., and in part 

M. albolineata, Orb. 
M. Vautieri, Bernardi, is M. imbricata, Hinds. 

207. M. ventricosa, (Fischer,) Mus. DemidoflF,* 1807. 
Petit, Cat. in Journ. de Conch, ii, 53, 1851. Sumatra. 

M. vermiculata, Redf., Cat. of Coll. Marg. is a worn M. 
quinqueplicata, Lam. 

208. M. vexiUum, Redf., Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist, v, 224, 

1852. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 19, f. 98, 1865. Redf. 
Am. Journ. Conch, v, 94, pi. 8, f. 2, 1869. 

O. J*almas, W. Africa. 

209. M. vitrea, Hinds, Proc. Lond. Zool. Soc. 1844, p. 75, 

1844. 
Hinds, Moll. Voyage Sulphur, p. 45, pi. 13, f. 18, 19, 
1844. Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 387, pi. 75, f. 74, 75, 
1846. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 23, f. 128, 
1865. West Africa. 

M. vittata. Reeve, is M. ornata, Redf. 

210. M. volutiformis, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 

24, f. 131, 1865. Hab. unknoivn. 

M. XANTHOSTOMA, Morch, Cat. Yoldi (1852) is undescribed 
and hence unrecognizable. 

211. M. zonata, Kiener. 

Schroeter, Einleitung i, 303, No. 231, pi. 1, f. 18, a, b, 
1783. 
M. zonata, Kiener, Coq. Viv. p. 41, pi. 13, f. 4, ? 1840. 
Desh. ed. Lam. Anim. sans Vert, x, 453, 1844. Sowb., 
Thes. Conch, i, 392, pi. 76, f. 115, 116, 1846. Reeve, 
Conch. Icon. Marginella, pi. 16, f. 77, a, b, 1865. 

West Indies. 
M. ZONATA var. BILINEATA, Krauss, is var. of M. Dunkeri, 
Krauss. 

* A.S 1 have had no opportunity of referring to this work, I adopt the 
species on the authority of Petit's Catalogue. He phices it next to M. 
quinqueplicata, whence I infer that it may be one of the forms alluded 
to in my note upon that species. 



261 



B, Fossil Species.* 

1. M. aestuarina, Edwards. 

3L pusilla, (in part) Edwards, Eocene Moll, of G. B. p. 143, 

pi. 18, f. 6, 1852. 
31. cesfumu'na, Edwards, Geolog. Mag. ii, 541, pi. 14, f. 7, 

a-c, 1865. Eocene; New Forest, England. 

2. M. Americana, Conrad, Foss. of Med. Tertiary, p. 86, pi. 

411, f. 12, (no description) 1838. 

Oligocene ; Claiborne, 3Iiss. 

3. M. ampulla, Desh., Coq. Foss. de Paris ii, 711, pi. 95, f. 

17 — 19, 1824. Desh., ed. Lam. Anim. sans Vert, x, 
457, 1844. Middle Eocene ; Vahnondais, France. 

M. ANATINA, I. Lea, is 31. crassilabra, Conrad. 

4. M. angystoma, Desh., Coq. Foss. de Paris ii, 710, pi. 95, 

f. 1:3—25, 1824. 
Desh., ed. Lam. Anim. sans Vert, x, 456, 1844. 

3Iiddle Eocene ; France. 

5. M. antiqua, Redf., Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist, v, 226, 

June, 1852. 
Porcellana olivceformis, Tuomey and Holmes, Fossils of S. 

C. p. 131, pi. 27, f. 12, 13, 1857. 
3IargineUa olivceformis, Emmons, Report of Geol. Surv. N. 

C. 1858, p. 261, f. 133, 1858. 
Porcellana ( Volutella) oliviformis, Conrad, Journ. Ac. Nat. 
Sci. 1862, p. 564, 1862. 

3Iiocene and Pliocene ; Petershurgh, Va. ; N. Carolina, 
and Sumter and Darlington Distr. S. C. 
M. AURICULATA, Menard, is a Ringicula. 
M. AURiSLBPORis, Defrancc, is Voluta auris leporis, Broc- 

chi (not Grat.) 
M. A VENA, Michelotti, (not Val.) is 31. oblongata, Bonelli. 

6. M. bella (Conrad.) 

Porcellana [Porccllanelld) bella, Conrad, Cat. in Proc. A. N. 

S. Phil. 1862, p. 564, 1862. 
Priinum bella, (sic) Conrad, Am. Journ. Conch, iv, 67, pi. 6, 

f. 4, 1868. 3Iiocene ; James R., Va. 

7. M. bifido-plicata, Charlesworth, Edwards, Eocene Moll. 

Gr. Br. p. 139, pi. 18, f. 2, a-g, 1852. 

Eocene ; England. 

*T am indebted to T. A. Conrad, Esq.. for his aid in perfecting the 
Catalogue of the American fossil species of this genus. 



262 

M. BIPLICATA, Risso, ( Volvario) probably belongs to another 

genus. 
M. BIPLICATA, I. Lea, (in Contr. to Geol.) is a Rinijioula. 
M. CAXCELLATA, Du Bois, Conch. Foss. 1831, is a RingicuJa. 
M. CLANDESTiNA, (Brocchi) seo among recent species. 

8. M. COlumba, I. Lea, Contr. to Geol. p. 177, pi. 6, f. 187, 

18o3. Oligocene ; Claiborne, Ala. 

9. M. COniformis, Sowb., Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vi, if), 

1850. 
Sovvb., Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. xxii, 288, pi. 17, f. 2, 
1866. Miocene ; Cumaria, jSt. Domingo. 

10. M. COnstricta, Conrad, Fossil shells of Tert. Form. U. S. 

1st ed. 33, 1832. 
Conrad, Fossil shells of Tert. Form. U. S. 2d cd. 46, pi. 
16, f. 15, Oct., 1833. 
Erato ? constricta, Conrad, Am. Journ. Conch, i, 25, 1865. 

Oligocene ; Claiborne, Ala. 
M. CONSTRICTA, Emmons, is 31. contracta, Conrad. 

11. M. contracta, Conrad. Here proposed for Emmons' name 

preoccupied. 
M. constricta, (not Conrad) Emmons, Rep. Geol. Surv. N. C. 

1858, p. 261, f. 135, 1858. 
Porcellana {Glabella) constricta, Conrad, Cat. in Proc. Ac. N. 

Sc, 1862, p. 564, 1862. Miocene of North Carolina. 

12. M. COnulus, H. C. Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. ix, 273, pi. 

37, f. 102, 1845. 
Porcellana ( Volutella) conulus, Conrad, Cat. in Proc. Ac. N. 
Sc. 1862, p. 563, 1862. 3Iiocene ; Petersburgh, Va. 

M. COSTATA, Eichwald, is a Bingicula. 

13. M. Crassilabra, Conrad, Foss. Shells Tert. Form. U. S. 

1st ed. p. 33, pi. 16, f. 8, Aug., 1833. 
31. anatina, 1. Lea, Contr. to Geol. p. 176, pi. 6, f. 186, 

Nov., 1833. 
31. crassilabra, Conrad, Foss. Shells Tert. Form. U. S. 2d 

■ ed. p. 45, pi. 16, f. 13, 1834. 
Erato crassilabra, Conrad, Am. Journ. Conch, i, 25, 1865. 

Oligocene ; Claiborne, Ala. 
M. CRASSILABRA, I. Lea, is 31. humerosa, Conrad. 

14. M. Cuvieri, Desh. Traite Elem. pi. 123, f. 8, ? 1850. 

Hab. unknoivn. 



26;: 

15. M. denticulata, Comad, Jouni. Ac. Nat. Sci. riiil. vi, 

22."), pi. 9, f. 21, 1830. 
Conrad, Foss. Mod. Tort. Form. U. S. p. Sfi {not pi. 49, f. 
10),* 1838. 
Porcellana {Glabella) denticulata, Conrad, Cat. in Proc. Ac, 
Nat. Sci. 18G2, p. r)()4, 18G2. Miocene : Maryland. 

16. M. dentifera, Lam., Ann. du Mus. ii, 01, 1803. 
Roissy, BufFon, Moll, vi, 10, 1805. Lam., Anim. sans Vert. 

1st ed. vii, 359, 1822. Defrance, Diet, des Sci. .Nat. 
xxix, 145, 1823. Desh., Coq. Foss. de Paris, ii, 707, 
pi. 95, f. 27-29, 1824. Desh., Encycl. Moth. Vers, ii, 
413, 1830. Desli. ed. Lam. Anim. sans Vert, x, 442, 
1844. Middle Eocene ; Paris Basin. 

17. M. Deshaysii, Michelotti, Foss. Mioc. de I'ltalie Sept. p. 

321, pi. 17, f. 16, 1847. 
31. glabella (not Linn.), Sismonda, Syn. Metli. p. 46, 1847. 
M. Besliaysii, Desh., Traite Elementaire, pi. 123, f. 10. ? 1850. 

Miocene ; Piedmont. 
M. DISTANS, Conrad, in Cat. Proc. A. N. S. 1862, p. 563, 
is undescribed and unidentified. 

18. M. eburnea, Lam., Ann. du Mus. ii, 61, 1803. 

Lam., Ann. du Mus. vi, pi. 44, f. 9, 1805. Roissy, Bufion 
Moll, vi, 9, 1805. Lam. Anim. sans Vert. 1st ed. vii, 
359, 1822. Defrance, Diet, des Sci. Nat. xxix, 145, 
1823. Brongn., Foss. Terr. Tert. Vicentin, pi. 44, f. 9, 
1823. Desh., Coq. Foss. do Paris, ii, 707, pi. 95, f. 14 
—16, and 20—22, 1824. 

M. hordeola, Desh., Coq. Foss. de Paris, ii, 708, pi. 95, f. 26 
—29, 1824. 

M. eburnea, Desh., Encyel. Meth. Vers, ii, 413, 1830. Desh. 
ed. Lam. sans Vert, x, 441, 1844. 

M. hordeola, Desh. ed. Lam. sans Vert, x, 455, 1844. 

M. eburnea, Edwards, Eocene Moll. Gr. Brit. p. 137, pi. 18, 
f. 1 a, b, c, 1852. Eocene; England and Prance. 

M. EBURNEA, Grat., is M. subeburnea, Orb. 

M. EBURNEA, Beyrich, is M. intumescens, Koenen. 

19. M. eburneola, Conrad, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil, vii, 

141, 1«34. 
Conrad, Foss. Med. Tert. U. S. p. 86 {not pi. 49, f. ll),t 
1838. 

* The reference to this figure in Conrad's text is evidently wrong, 
t Wrong reference in Conrad's text. 

36 



264 

Forcellana {Glabella) eburneola, Con., Cat. in Proc. Ac. N. S. 

Phil. 1862, p. 564, 1862. 
Pranum eburneola, Con., Am. Journ. Conch, iv, 67, pi. 5, f. 

1, 1868. Miocene ; Suffolk, Va. 

20. M. elevata, Emmons, Report (feol. Surv. N. C. 1858, p. 

18cS, 1858. Miocene ; N. Carolina. 

21. M. elongata, Bellardi and Mich. Mem. Real. Ac. Sci. 

Torino, iii, 155, pi. 5, f. 10, 11, 1841. 
Bellardi, Sag. orit. p. 63, pi. 3, f. 10, 11. Sismonda, Syn. 
Meth. Anim. Invert. Foss. p. 46, 1842. Michelotti, Foss. 
Terr. Mioc. de I'ltal. Sept. p. 323, 1847. 

31iocene ; Piedmont. 

22. M. emarginata, Bonelli, ined., Sismonda, Syn. Meth. 

An. Invert. Foss. p. 46. 1842. 
Michelotti, Foss. Terr. Mioc. de I'lt. Sept. p. 321, 1847. 

Upper Miocene ; Piedmont. 
M. EXiLis , H. C. Lea (preoccupied), is 31. subexilis, Orb. 
M. GLABELLA, (Linn.) See among recent species, 
M. GRACILIS, Edwards (preoccupied), is M. subgracilis, 

Redf. 
M, HORDEOLA, Desh., is var. of 31. elmrnea, Lam. 

23. M. humerosa, Conrad. 

31. crassilabra,''^ I. Lea (not Conrad), Contr. to Geol. p. 177, 

pi. 6, f. 188, Nov. 1833. 
31. Jtumerosa, Conrad, Foss. Shells Tert. L^. S. 2d ed. p. 45, 

pi. 16, f. 14, 1834. Conrad, Cat. in Appendix Morton's 

Syn. p. 5, 1834. 
Erato humerosa, Conrad, Am. Journ. Conch, i, 25, 1865. 

Oligoeene ; Claiborne, Ala. 

24. M. incurva, I. Lea, Contr. to Geol. p. 179, pi. 6, f. 192, 

1833. Eocene; Claiborne, Ala. 

M. INFLEXA, Emmons (preoccupied), is 31. subinjie.va, Redf. 

25. M. intumescens, Koenen. 

M. eburnea, Beyrich (not Lam.) Conch. Nord-Deutsch Tert. 

p. 52, pi. 2, f. 9 a, b, 1853. 
31. intumescens, Koenen, Zeitsch. Deutsch. Geol. Gesellsch, 

1865, p. 505, 1865. 

Lower Oligoeene ; Brunswick, Prussia. 
M. INVOLUTA, Zekeli (a cretaceous species), is probably an 

Ovula. See Pictet Pal. Suisse, 3d ser. p. 687, 

* Preoccupied by M. crassilahra, Conrad. 



26o 

26. M. larvata, Conrad, Fossil Shells Tert. Form. U. S. 1st 

ed. p. 33, pi. 16, f. 7, Aug. 1833. 
M. ovafa, Lea, Contrib. to Geol. p. 179, pi. 6, f. 191, Nov. 

1833. 
M. semen (young). Lea, Contrib. to Geol. p. 179. pi. G, f. 190, 

Nov. 1833. 
M. larvata, Conrad, Fossil Shells, Tert. Form. U. S. 2d ed. 

p. 45, pi. 16, f. 12, 1834. 
VoJuteUa larvata, Conrad, Am. Journ. Conch, i, 25, 1865. 

Oliogocene ; Claiborne, Ala. 

27. M. limatula, Conrad. 

Porcellana limatula, Conrad, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci. vii, 140, 

1834. 
Marg. limatula, Conrad, Fossils Med. Tert. U. S. p. 86, pi. 

49, f. 11,* 1838. 
Porcellana limatula, Tuomey and Holmes, Pleiocene Foss. S. 

C. p. 130, pi. 27, f. 10, 11, 1857. 
Marg. limatula, Emmons, Rep. Geol. Surv. N. C. 1858, p. 

261, f. 134, 1858. 
Porcellana limatula, Tuomey and Holmes, Post Pleiocene Foss. 

S. C. p. 78, pi. 12, f. 12, 1860. 
Porcellana [Crlabella) limatula, Conrad, Cat. in Proc. Ac. Nat. 

Sci. 1862, p. 564, 1862. 
Prunum limatula, Conrad, Am. Journ. Conch, iv, 67, pi. 6, 
f. 5, 1868. 
Miocene ; N. Carolina and S. Carolina. Post Pleiocene of S. 
Carolina.'^ 
M. MILIARIA, (Linn.) See among recent species. 
M. MILIACEA, Dujardin (not Lam.), is 31. submiliacea, Orb. 
M. MiNUTA, Pf. See among recent species. 
M. MONiLis, (Linn.) See among recent species. 
M. NANA, Conrad, Cat. in Append. Morton's Synops. is un- 
described and unidentitied. 

28. M. nitidula, Desh., Coq. Foss. do Paris, ii, 709, pi. 95, f. 

10, il, 1824. 
Desh. ed. Lam. Anim. sans Vert, x, 456, 1844. Desh. 
Traite Elementaire, pi. 123, f. 13, ? 1850. Beyrich, 
Conch. Nord-Deutsch Tert. Geb. p. 54, pi. 2, f. 11 a, b, 
1853. Middle Eocene ; Paris Basin. 

* The text refers to fig. 9, but fig. 11 is evidently the one intended for 
M. limatula. 

t There is much variation between the earlier and later deposits in the 
size and development of the shell, and it must be confessed that it closely 
approaches some of the forms now existing. Compare with M. roscida, 
Redf., and the more robust varieties oi' 31. apicina, Menke. 



266 

29. M. oblongata, Bonelli, ined., Sism. Mem. Acad. Torin, 

V, 450, 18-i3. 
M. avena (not Val.), Michelotti, Foss. Terr. Mioc. de Vital. 
Sept. p. 323, 1847. Ujypei' Miocene ; Piedmont. 

M. OLiv^FORMis (Tuomey and Holmes), is M. antiqua, 

Redf. 
M. OVATA, I. Lea, is 31. larvata, Conrad. 

30. M. ovata, Emmons, Rep. Geol. Surv. N. C. p. 261, f. 136, 

1858. 
Porcellana {Glabella) ovata, Conrad, Cat. Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. 
Phil. 1862, p. 564, 1862. 3Iiocene ; lY. Carolina. 

31. M. OViformis, Conrad, Foss. Med. Tert. U. S. (not de- 

scribed, but figured), pi. 49, f. 9,* 1838. 
J^olutella {iflicrospira) oviformis, Conrad, Am. Journ. Conch. 
iv, 66, pi. 5, f. 3, 1868. 3Iiocene ; Virginia. 

32. M. ovulata, Lam. 

Encyc. Meth. Vers. pi. 376, f. a, b, 1798. Lam., Ann. du 
Mus. ii, 61, 1803. Lam., Ann. du Mus. vi, pi. 44, f. 10, 

1805. Roissy, Buffbn Moll, vi, 10, No. 6, 1805. Lam., 
Anim. sans Vert. 1st ed. vii, 359, 1822. Defrance, Diet. 
des Sci. Nat. xxix, 145, 1823. Desh., Coq. Foss. de 
Paris, ii, 709, pi. 95, f. 12, 13, 1824. Desh., Encyc. 
Meth. Vers, ii, 416, 1830. Desh. ed. Lam. Anim. sans 
Vert. X, 442, 1844. Bronn, Lethgea Geogn. 3d ed. iii, 
570, pi. 42, f. 44, 1852. Edwards, Eocene Moll. Gr. 
Brit. p. 141, f. 5 a — c, 1852. Eocene ; England, France. 

M. OVULATA, Grat. (not Lam.), is 31. subovidafa, Orb. 

M. OVULATA, Beyricli (not Lam.), is M. 'perovalis, Koenen. 

33. M. perexigua, Conrad, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil, viii, 

189, I84i!. 3Iiocene ; 3Iargland. 

34. M. perovalis, Koenen. 

31. ovulata, Beyrich (not Lam.), Conch. Nord Deutsch, Tert. 

p. 49, pi. 2, f. 10 a, b, 1853. 
31. perovalis, Koenen, Zeitsch. Deutsch. Geol. Gesell. p. 506, 

1865. Lower Oligocene ; Prussia. 

36. M. phaseolus, Brongn., Foss. Terr. Tert. Vicentin, p. 64, 
pi. 2, f. 21, 1823. 
Bronn., It. Tert. Gebilde, p. 18, No. 54, 1831. 

31iddle Eocene ; France and Italy. 

* This figure is by aa error of the text referred to M. Umatula. 



267 

36. M. pinea, Bronn, ( Volvaria) Italiens Tertiargebilde, ii, 17, 

No. 48, 1831. Upper 3Iiocene ; Italy. 

37. M. planulosa, Bonelli, ined. 

Sismonda, Synops. Meth. Foss. p. 46, 1847. Orbigny, 
Prodromus iii, ol, No. 830, 1852. Miocene ; Piedmont. 

38. M. plicata, I. Lea, Contr. to Geol. p. 178, pi. 6, f. 189, 

1833. Oliyocene ; Claiborne, Ala. 

39. M. pusilla, Edwards, Eocene Mollusca Gr. Br. p. 143, 

pi. 18, f. 6, a-c, (in part) 1852. Eocene ; Great Britain. 
M. SECALINA, Phil. See among recent species. 
M. SEMEN, I. Lea, is young of M. larvata, Conrad. 

40. M. simplex, Edwards, Eocene Moll. Gr. Brit. p. 143, pi. 

18, f. 8, a-c, 1852. Eocene ; Great Britain. 

41. M. splendens, Grat., Actes. Soc. Lin. Bord. vi, p. 301, 

No. 572, 1833. 
Grat., Atlas. Conch. Foss. Adour. i, pi. 42, f. 36, 37, 1845. 
Orb., Prodromus iii. 9, No. 134, 1852. 

3Iiocene ; Adour, France. 

42. M. subeburnea, Orb. 

M. eburnca, Grat., (not Lam.) Actes, Soc. Lin. Bord. vi, p. 

301, No. 573, 1833. Grat., Atlas, Conch. Foss. Adour. 

i, pi. 42, f. 38—40, 1845. 
M. subeburnea, Orb., Prodromus iii, 9, No. 135, 1852. 

Miocene ; France. 

43. M. subgracilis, Redf. Here proposed for M. gracilis, 

Edw. ; preoccupied. 
M. gracilis, Edwards, (not C. B. Ad.) Eocene Moll. Gr. Br. 
p. 140, pi. 18, f. 4, a-c, 1852, Eocene; Great Britain. 

44. M. subinflexa, Redf. Here proposed for M. inflexa, 

Emmons ; preoccupied. 
M. injiexa, Emmons, (not Sowb.) Rep. Geol. Surv. N. C. 
1858, p. 261, f. 137, 1858. Miocene ; N. Carolina. 

45. M. submiHacea, Orb. 

M. miliacea, Dujardin, (not Lam.) Mem. Soc. Geol. 1837, pi. 

19, f. 18, 1837. 
71/. submiliacea, Orb., Prodromus iii, 51, No. 844, 1852. 

Miocene ; Tours, France. 

46. M. subovulata, Orb. 

M. ovulata, Grat., (not Lam.) Actes. Soc. Lin. Bord. vi, 301, 
No. 573, 1833. Grat., (not Lam.) Atlas. Conch. Foss. 



268 

Adour. pi. 42, f. 35, 1845. Michelotti, (not Lam.) Foss. 
Terr. Mioc. p. 323, 1847. Sismonda, (not Lam.) 
Synops. Meth. i, 46, 2d ed. 1847. 
M. subotndata, Orb., Prodromus iii, 51, No. 845, 1852. 

Miocene ; France and Piechnonf. 

47. M. Taurinensis, Michelotti. 

M. ehurnca, Bonelli, ined. (not Lam.) Bronn, Ital. Ter- 
tiargebilde, p. 18, No. 53, 1831. Sismonda, Syn. Meth. 
Inv. Foss. p. 42, No. 3, 1847. 

M. Taurinensis, Michelotti, Foss. Ter. Mioc. p. 322, 1847. 
Orb., Prodromus iii, 51, No. 851, 1852. 

Miocene : Piedmont. 

48. M. Virginiana (Conrad). 

I'niniim Virginiana, Conrad, Am. Journ. Conch, iv, 67, pi. 
5, f. 4, Oct., 1868. Miocene; James R., Va. 

49. M. vittata, Edwards, Eocene Moll. Gr. Br. p. 143, pi. 18, 

f. 7, a-c, 1852. Eocene; G^reat Britain. 



Genus VOLVARIA, Lam.* ' 
Syst. Anim. p. 93, 1801. 
Volvaria, Lam., (in part) Syst. Anim. vii, 302, 1822. 

Fossil Species only. 

1, V. acutiuscula, Sowb., Genera of Shells, Volvaria, f. 3, 

1824. 
Desh., Coq. de Paris ii, 712, pi. 95, f. 7—9, 1824. Jas. 

Sowb., Mineral Conch. G. B. pi. 487, 1825. Desh., ed. 

Lam. Anim. sans Vert, x, 462, 1844. 
Loiver and Middle Eocene ; London Clay and Paris Bas:in. 

2. V. bulloides, Lam. 

Encyc, Meth. Vers. pi. 384, f. 4, a, b, 1791. 
Volvaria bulloides, Lam., Ann. du Mus. v, 29, 1804. Roissy, 
Buffon, Moll. V, 329, pi. 55, f. 2, 1805. Lam., Anim. 
sans Vert. 1st ed. vii, 364, 1822. Desh., Coq. de Paris 
ii, 712, pi. 95, f. 4, 5, 6, 1824. Sowb., Genera, Volvaria 
f. 1, 1824. 

* This genus was established by Lamarck for V. bidloides, and if 
restricted to the well marlved group of which that is a type, may well be 
retained. But as he afterwards employed it, in Anim. sans Yert., it em- 
braced a large number of species, which most writers, since his day have 
referred to Marginella- 



269 

Voharia concinna, Sowb., Genera, Volvaria f. 2, 1824. 

Voluta pallida, Wood, (not Lam.) Index Testae, pi. 19, f. 59, 
1828. 

Volvaria buUoides, Desh., Encyc. Meth. Vers, iii, 1830. 
Desh., ed. Lam. Anim. sans Vert, x, 401, 1844. Chenu, 
Lecons. Element, p. 217, f. 721, 1847. Desh., Traite 
Element, pi. 123, f. 6, 7, ?1852. Bronn, Lethasa Geogn. 
3d ed. iii, 459, pi. 42, f. 9, 1852. Chenu, Manuel de 
Conch, i, 200, f. 1072, 1859. 

Middle Eocene ; France and Belgium. 

V. CONCINXA, Sowb., is var. of V. huUoides, Lam. 

3. V. cretacea,* Binkhorst, Monog. Gast. de la Craie Sup. 
de Limbourg, p. 74, pi. 5, a, 3, f. 3, a, b, ? 

Cretaceous ; Limbourg. 

V. GALEA, Conrad, Tert. Foss. 1833, is a Cylichna. 
V. PINEA, Bronn, is Marginella piiiea. 
V. TENUIS, Reuss, is a Cylichia. 

* I have not seen this description and figure. If the species be a true 
Volvaria it is the only one of the family found so low as the Cretaceous. 



CATALOGUE 

OF THE 
OF THE 

FAMILY MELANID^. 

BY A BROT, M. D. 



Family MELANIDiE, D'Orbigny, (partim). 
Moll. Canar., 1837. 

Genus MELAWIA, Lamarck, (partim). 
Prodr. 1792. Syst. An. s. V. 1801. 

§1. 

{3IeIaneUa, Swainson, 1840. 

1. M. Holandri, Ferussac, C. PfeifFiii, t. 8, f. 6—8, 1828. 
Pot. Mich. Gal. t. 27, f. 13, 14, 1838. Rossmassler Icon. 

f. 664, me, 1839. 
Melanella Holandri, (Fer.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

1858. 
Melania aqnata, Ziegl., MSS. in Pot. Mich. Gal. t. 27, f. 3, 

4, 1838. 
M. afra, Ziegl., MSS. Rossm. Icon. f. 665, 1839. Reeve, 

Conch. Icon. f. 234, 1860. 
3IelaneUa afra, (Ziegl.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll., 

1858. * 

*I have excluded the United States species which were embraced iu 
the two editions of my " Synopsis," because they have been ascertained to 
belong to another family, Streponiatidas. 

37 



272 

3Ielania cornea, KUst., MSS. in Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 233, 

1860. 
M. macilenta, Parreyss., MSS.^ 
M. nodosa, Stentz, MSS. j 

M. coronata, Kiist., MSS. }Me Parreyss. 

JI. atra, Schmidt, MSS. | 

3f. cuspidata, Parreyss, MSS. j 
31. Holandri var : elegans et costulata, Schmidt, Syst. Ver- 

zeichn. Prov. Krain, 1847. Dalmatia, South Austria. 

2. M. parvula, Schmidt, (ubi ?). 

M. holandri, var. Rossm. Icon. f. 667, 1839. 

Carniola. 

3. M. glans, von dem Busch. Phil. Abbiklg. t. 1, f. 8, 9, 1842. 

Petit., Journ. Conch. 1853, t. 8, f. 6. Reeve, Conch. Icon, 

f. 232, 1860. 
Paludonius glans, Auct. Nonnull. in Journ. Conch. 1856, p. 

42. 
3IeIaneUa glans, (v. d. B.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

Moll. 1858. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 1948, 1859. 
Hemisinus glans, (v. d. B.) Brot. Mater, i, p. 62, 1862. 
3Ielania siccata, von dem Busch. Phil. Abbildg. t. 2, f. 9, 

1843. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 230, 1860. 
3Ielanella siccata, (v. d. B.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

Moll, 1858. Java. 

4. (?) M. inermis, Lesson, (non. Gray, nee. Sow.), Voy. 

Coquille ii, p. 359, 1829. New Guinea. 

6. M. retusa, Gray, (non. Rafin.), Griff. Cuv. t. 14, f. 9, 1824 
—33. 

6. M. ZOnata, Benson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. 1836, v, p. 747. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 217, 1860. 
31. zonata, von dem Busch, Phil. Abbildg. t. 1, f. 12, 1842. 
3Ielanella zonata, (v. d. B.), H. and A. Ad.. Gen. of Rec. 
Moll. 1858. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 1949, 1859. 

Bengal. 

§2. 
[Acrostoma, Brot.) 

7. M. Hiigelii, Philippi, Abbildg. t. 2, f. 8, 1843. 

Hanley, Conch. Misc. f. 43, 1854. 
31. hreviformis, Parreyss, MSS. 

Hemisinus Hiigelii, (Phil.), H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 
Moll. 1858. Brot. Mater, i, p. 62, 1862. 

New Holland {?), South India, (Blanford.) 



8. M. siphonata, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 143, 1860. 

Hemisinus HiigcUi, (Phil.) Var. Brot. Mater, i, p. 02, 1862. 

§3. 
{Paehycliilus, Lea, 1850.) 

.9. M. apis, Lea, Proc. Z. S. London, 1850. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 266, 1860. 
EUmia apis, (Lea) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. 

Vera Cruz. 

10. M. cinerea, Morelet, Test. Noviss. Cuba, i, 1849. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 235, 1860. 

MekiJiia graphium, (Mor.) Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 150, 1860, 
(non Morelet). Cuban, (Centr. Ayyier.) 

11. M. COnica, D'Orbigny, Hist. Nat. Cuba p. 154, t. 10, f. 

20, 1845. 
M. nigrata, Poey, Memor. ii, p. 33, 1857. 
M. nigrita, (Poey) Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 90, 1859, f. 362, 

1860. 
31. gemella, Reeve, Conch. Icon, f. 91, 1859. 
31. attenuata, Anthony, MSS., Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 438, 

1861. Cuba. 

12. M. COrvina, Morelet, Test. Nov. Cuba i, 1849. 

Hanley, Conch. Misc. t. 2, f. 16 ; t. 3, f. 25, 1854. Reeve, 

Conch. Icon. f. 135, 1860. 
Pach/chilus eorvinus, (Morelet) II. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

Moll. 1858. 
Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 1961, 1859, (errore typogr. nom. 

31. elevata.) Vera Paz. 

13. M. exigua, Morelet, Test. Nov. Cuba i, 1851. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 460, 1861. 
31. minuta, Brot, Mater, i, p. 43, 1862. 

Peten., [Centr. Amer.) 

14. M. foeda, Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. Java. 

15. M. Gassiesii, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 236, 1860. 

31. Sallei, Gassies, (ubi ?j Centr. Amer. 

16. M. glaphyra, Morelet, Test. Nov. Cuba i, 1849. 
Hanly, Conch, Misc. t. 2, f. 17, 1854. Reeve, Conch. 

Icon. f. 8, 1859. 
3Ielanoidcs glaphyra, (Morelet) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

Moll. 1858. 
3Ielania lacustris, (Morelet) Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 5, 1859, 

(non Morelet). Centr. Amer. 



274 

17. M. Godmanni, Tristram. 

3Iekmoides, Godmanni, Tristr., Proc. Z. S, Lond. 1863. 

Lake Peten, Vera Paz. 

18. M. gracilis, Tristram. 

Pachychilus gracilis, Tristr., Proc. Z. S. Lond. 1863. 

Lake Peten, Vera Paz. 

19. M. graphium, Morelet, Test. Nov. Cuba i, 1849. 
Hanley, Conch. Misc. f. 35, 1854. 

Pachychilus grapliium, (Morelet) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of 

Rec. Moll. 1858. 
Pacliychilus Cumingii, Lea, Ann. Mag. N. H. 1852. Pettit, 

Journ. Couch. 1853, p. 160. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 149, 

1860. 
Melania renovata, Brot, Mater, i, p. 43, 1862. 

Vera Paz, Cohan.' 

20. M. Gruneri, Jonas, Zeitsch. Mai. 1844, p. 48. 
Philippi, Abbildg. t. 4, f. 2, 1847. 

Varinas, ( Venezuela.) 

21. M. Guineensis, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 142, 1860. 

Guinea. 

22. M. Hellerii, Parreyss, MSS. 

3Ielania hevissima, (Sow.) var. Brot Mater, i, p. 42, 1862. 

(Jentr. Amer. 

23. M. immanis, Morelet, Test. Nov. Cul)a, ii, 1851. 
Reev., Conch. Icon. f. 238, 1860. 

M. polygonata. Lea, Proc. Z. S. Lond. 1850. Reeve, Conch. 

Icon. f. 11, 1859. 
Melanoides polygonata, (Lea) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

Moll. 1858. Peten, Cohan. [Amer. Centr.) 

24. M. lacunata, Reeve, Couch. Icon. f. 136, 1860. 

Centr. Amer. ? 

25. M. lacustris, Morelet, Test. Nov. Cuba i, 1849. 
Hanley, Conch. Misc. f. 26, 1854, (non Reeve, Conch. 

Icon.) 
Melanoides lacustris, (Morelet) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 
Moll. 1858. Lake Yzabal, [Guatemala). 

26. M. laevissima, Sowerby, Zool. Journ. i, t. 5, f. 5, 1825. 
Desh., in Lam. An. s. V.' No. 32, 1838. Ilanlev, Conch. 

Misc. f. 23, 1854. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 126, 1860. 
Pacliychilus Icevissimus, (Sow.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

Moll. 1858. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 1964, 1859. 
3Ielania clava, Menke, iNISS. (Mus. Menk.) 



275 

• M. Indorum, Morelet, Test. Nov. Cuba i, 1849. Petit, Journ. 
Conch. 1858, t. 5, f. 7. Hanley, Conch. Misc. f. 24, 
1854. 
PaeJit/chilus Indorum, (Morelet) H. and A. AJ., Gen, of Rec. 

Moll. 1858. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 19G3, 1859. 
Melania Sallei, Reeve, Conch. Icon, f, 133, 1860. 
31. inguinata, Jan., MSS. Catal. Coll. Cristof. Jan. 

Venezuela, 3Ie.vico, Centr. Amer. 

27. M. Largillierti, Philippi, Abbildg. t. 2, f. 10, 1843. 
? Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 127, 1860. 

3felanoides Largillierti, (Phil.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

Moll. 1858. 
Melania rusticula, von dera Busch., Mai. Blatt. 1858, p. 36. 
31. intermedia, von dem Busch,, Phil. Abbildg. t. 3, f. 4, 

1844. Reeve, Conch, Icon. f. 141, 1860. 

Centr. Amer. 

28. M. Liebmanni, Philippi, Abbildg. t. 5, f. 8, 1848. 
Reev., Conch, Icon. f. 139, 1860. 

3Ielania Liebmanni, (Phil.) H. and A, Ad., Gen. of Rec, 
Moll. 1858, 3Iexico. 

29. M. lumbricus, Reeve, Conch, Icon, f, 145, 1860. 

30. M. maxima, Lea, Proc, Z. S, Lond. 1850, Cohan. 

31. M. meretrix, Reeve, Conch, Icon. f. 152, 1860. 

Taiti. (.?) 

32. M. mexicana, Reeve, Conch, Icon, f. 129, 1860. 
31. Oerstedtii, Morch, Zeitsch. Mai. 1860, p. 79. 

Centr. Amer., 3fexico. 

33. M. murrea, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 138, 1860. 

Centr. Amer. 

34. ? M. nassa, Woodward. 

3IelanieUa nassa, \Yoodw., Proc. Zool. S, Lond, 1859, t. 47, 

f. 4. 
Melania nassa, AYoodw., Reeve, Conch. Icon, f. 216, 1860. 

Lake Tanganyika, {Centr. Africa.) 

35. M. nucula, Reeve, Conch, Icon, f, 210, 1860, 

Neiv Ccdedon. 

36. M. opiparis, Morelet, Test. Nov. Cuba i, 1851. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 241, 1860. Dolores, {Peten). 

37. M. pallens, Reeve, Conch. Icon, f. 153, 1860. 

West Africa. 

38. M. panucula, Morelet. Test. Nov. Cuba ii, 1851. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 131, 1860. Peten. 



276 

39. ? M. parva, Lea, (an Paludomus, sp. ?) 

Pachychilus parvinn^ Lea. Proc. Ac. N. S. Phil. 1856. Journ. 

Ac. N. S. Phil, vi, 1866. Lea, Obs. Gen. Unio xi, t. 

22, f. 14, 1866. 
3Ielania erassilabrum, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 221, 1860. 
Paludomus cyanostomus, Morelet, Journ. Conch. 1864. 

jSiam, New. Caled. (?) 

40. M. Planensis, Lea, Proc. Ac. N. S. Phil. 1858. 

Journ. Ac. N. S. Phil, vi, n. s., 1866. Lea, Obs. G. L^nio 
xi, t. 22, f. 26, 1866. Honduras. 

41. M. pluristriata, Say, Desc. New Shells N. America, 

1829-31. Mexico. 

42. M. porracea, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 218, 1860. 

43. M. pyramidalis, Morelet, Test. Nov. Cuba i, 1849. 
Hanley, Conch. Misc. f. 31, 1854. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 

25, 1859. 
MeUmoides pyrainidalis, (Morelet) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of 
Rec. Moll. 1858. Tabasco. 

44. M. rubicunda, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 206, 1860. 

45. M. Salvini, Tristram. 

Mela7ioides Salvini, Tristr., Proc. Z. S. Lond. 1863. 

Rio de la Pagion, Vera Paz. 

46. M. Saussurei, Brot, Rev. Zool. 1860, t. 17, f. 11. 

3fexico. 

47. M. Schiedeana, Philippi, Abbildg. t. 2, f. 11, 1843. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 101, 1859 ; 294, 1860. 

31. variegata, Wiegmann, MSS. Mus. Reg. Berol. 
Juga Schiedeana, (Phil.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 
1858. 3Ie.rico. 

48. M. subnodosa, Philippi, Abbildg. t. 4, f. 18, 1847. 
3Ielanoides subnodosa, (Phil.) II. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

Moll. 1858. Centr. America. 

49. M. testudinaria, von dem Busch. Phil. Abbildg. t. 1, f. 

14, 1842. 
Mousson, Moll. Java t. 11, f. 1-3, 1849. Reeve, Conch. 
Icon, f. 154, 1860. 
P achy chillis testudinarius, (v. d. B.) II. and A. Ad., Gen. of 
Rec. Moll. 1858. Java. 

50. M. tumida, Tristram, 

3felanoides tumida, Tristr., Proc. Z. S. Lond. 1868. 

Lake Peten, Ver Paz. 



277 

51. M. Turati, Villa., Giom. Mai. 1854, 8, p. 113. 

Villa Notiz. int. Gen. Melan. 1855. Brot, Mater, ii, t. 3, 

f. 11, 1868. 
Luigiana, (Axilla); ^fexico, (Wessel) ; TWa Cruz, (Beadle). 

52. M. Verreauxiana, Lea, Obs. Gen. Unio xi, t. 22, f. 27, 

1866. 
Journ. Ac. N. S. Phil, vi, n. s., 1866. 
M. Verreauiana, Lea, Proc. Ac. N. S. Phil. 1856. 

Sandwich Id. (f) 

53. M. brevis, D'Orbigny, Hist. Nat. Cuba p. 158, t. 10, f. 

15, 1845. 
Paludomus brevis, Auct. Nonnull. 
Melania zebra, Brot, Mater, i, p. 43, 1862. Cuba. 

§■1. 

[Sulcospira, Troschel, 1857. 

54. M. ambidextra, Martens, Mai. Blatt. 1860, p. 46. 

(An. r= 31. Japonica, Reeve. ?) Japan. 

55. M. ferruginea, Lea, Proc. Z. S. Lond. 1850. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 147, 1860. 

Pachychilus ferrugineus, (Lea) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 
Moll. 1858. (an Paludina, sp. ?) Zanzibar. 

56. M. Japonica, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 125, 1859, 
M. tenuisukata, Dunker, Moll. Jap. t. 2, f. 18, 1861. 

Formosa, Japan. 

57. (?) M. humerosa, Gould, Proc. Bost. S. N. H. 1847. 

Burmah. 

58. M. Sinensis, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 70, 1859. China. 

59. M. spadicea, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 132, 1860. 

60. M. sulcospira, Mousson, Moll. Java t. 9, f. 3, 1849. 
Suleospira typica, Troschel, Geb. der Schnecken, 1857. 

Java. 

61. M. turgidula, Philippi, Abbildg. t. 4, f. 9, 1847. 
Tarebia turgidula, (Phil.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

1858. ' China ? Manilla ? 

§5. 
{Nigritella, Brot.) 

62. M. conulus, Lea, Proc. Z. S. Lond. 1850. 

Fernando Po, ( West Africa.) 



278 

63. M. dimorpha, Brot, Rev. Zool. 1860, t. 16, f. 6. 

Gabon. 

64. M. decollata, Lamarck, (non Philippi) An. s. V. No. 9, 

1822. 
Delessert, Rec. Coq. t. 30, f. 14, 1841. Chenu, 111. Conch, 
t. 2, f. 25. Pot. Mich. Gal. t. 27, f. 7, 8, 1838. 
? Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 78, 1859. 
M. erosa, (Lesson) Phil. Abbildg. t. 2, f. 7, 1813, (an Les- 
son ?) Hanley, Conch. Misc. f. 36, 1854. 
31. scul2)tiHs, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 151, 1860. 

GuT/ana, (Lam.) ; JVossi Be, (Morelet). 

65. M. erosa, Lesson, Voy. Coquille ii, p. 357, 1829. 

{=31. decollata, Lam. ?) I^etv Guinea. 

66. M. Frethii, Gray, Griff. Cuv. 1834. 
Hanley, Conch. Misc. f. 22, 1854. 

67. M. Inhambanica, Martens, Make. Blatt. vi, t. 2, f. 10, 

1860. 3Iozambique. 

68. M. Morchii, Beck, MSS., Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 108, 

1859. 

69. M. nigritina, Morelet, Rev. Zool. 1848, p. 355. 

Morelet, Ser. Conch, i, t. 3, f. 8, 1858. 
31. yiigrita, Morelet, Journ. Conch. 1851, t. 5, f. 2. 
Pachycliilus nigritus, (Morelet) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

Moll. 1838. 
M. foenaria. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 134, 1860. Gabon. 

§6. 
[Melanoides, (Olivier) H. and A. Ad., pars 1807.) 

70. M. asperata, Lamarck, An. s. V. No. 1, 1822. 
Delessert, Rec. Coq. t. 30, f. 8, 1841. Chenu, 111. Conch. 

t. 2, f. 12. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 1955, 1859. 
3Ielanoides aspera, (Lam.) H. and A. Ad., Gen of Rec. Moll. 

1858. 
3Idania pagodidus, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 72, 1859. 

Var. a. 
3Ielania asperata, (Lam.) Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 2, a-d, 1859. 
31. pulchra, von dem Busch., Phil. Abbildg. t. 5, f. 1, 1848. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 19, 1859. 
3Ielanoides pulcher, (v. d. B.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

Moll. 1858. 
Pachycliilus pulcher, (v. d. B.) Troschel, Geb. der Schneck. 

1857. 



279 

Var. B. 

Melania inquinata, (Defrance), Deshayes., Mag. Conch, t. 13, 

1830, (exclus. fossil.) 
Deshayes in Lam., An. s. V. No. 28, 1838. (exclus. fossil.) 

Philippi, Abbildg. t. 2, f. 5, 6, 1843. Reeve, Conch. 

Icon. f. 6, 2 e, 1859. 
M. Reirivardii, De Haan, (ubi. ?) in Reeve Conch. Icon. 
Melanoides Reimvardii, (De Haan) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of 

Rec. Moll. 1858. 
Melania PliiUppinarum, Sowerby, Mai. Conch. Mag. i, t. 1, 

f. 1-4, 1838. Luzon, 3IaniUa, [Philippine Isl.) 

71. M. dactylus, Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. 

Hanley, Conch. Misc. t. 6, f. 48, 1857. Reeve, Conch. 

Icon. f. 7, 1859. 
Melanoides dactylus, (Lea) II. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

Moll. 1858. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 1954, 1859. 
Pachycliihis dactylus, (Lea) Troschel, Geb. der Schneck. 

1857. Guiynara, Mindanas, Luzon, Leyte. 

72. M. perfecta, Mousson, Moll. Java t. 22, f. 5, 1849. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 84, 1859. 
Melanoides perfecta, (Mouss.) H. and A. Ad., (len. of Rec. 
Moll. 1858. ^ 3Iaros, Celebes. 

73. M. Pernambucensis, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 3, 1859. 

Pernamhuco. 

74. M. Wallace!, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. m, 1859. 

31. constricta, Mousson, MSS. 3Iacassar, Celebes. 

* 

75. M. baccata, Gould, Proc. Brot, S.' N. H. 1847. 

Thoungyin Rio, [Burniah.) 

76. M. batana, Gould, Proc. Bost. S. N. H. i, p. 144, 1843. 

Burmah. 

77. M. cancellata, Benson, Journ. As. S. Bengal ii, 119, 

1833. 
Ann. Mag. N. II. 1842. Hanley, Conch. Misc. t. 2, f. 11, 

1854. 
3L Ningpocnsis, Lea, Proc. Ac. N. S. Phil. 1856. Journ. 

Ac. N. S. Phil, vi, n. s. Obs. Gen. Unio xi, t. 22, f. 

20, 18(36. 
31. Fortunei, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 97, 1859. 
3L Amurensis, Gerstfeld, Moll. Sibir. t. 1, f. 14—24, 1859. 

V. Schrenk, Reise, Amur. Land, ii, p. 627, 1867. 
31. Heukeloyniana, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 123, 1859. 



280 

31. calculus, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 117, 1859. 
M. Bensoui, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 96, 1859. 
31. Hanleyii, Brot, Mall. Bliltt. 1860, p. 109. 

Amur Miv., N-inc/j^o, Chuscm, [China.) 

78. M. circumstriata, Metcalfe, Proc. Z. S. Lond. 1851 ; 

Ann. of N. H. 1853. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 205, 1860. 
Melanoides circumstriata, (Mete.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of 
Rec. Moll. 1858. Borneo. 

79. crebricostis, Benson, Ann. Mag. N. H. 1842, p. 488. 
Hemisinus crebricostis, (Benson) Brot, Mater, i, p. 61, 1862. 

(= 31. cancellata, Benson ?) Chusan. 

80. M. episcopalis, Lea, Proc. Z. S. Lond. 1850. 

Hanley, Conch. Misc. f. 27, 1854. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 

12, 1859. 
3Ielanoides episcopalis, (Lea) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

Moll. 1858. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 1952, 1859. 
3[elania infracostata, Mousson, Moll. Java t. 10, f. 3, 1849. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 14, 1859. 
3Ielanoides infracostata, (Mouss.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

Moll. 1858. 
3Ielania sparsimnodosa, von dem Busch. Mai. Blatt. 1858. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 208, 1860. 
3Ielania pontijicalis, von dem Busch, Zeitsch. Mai. 1850. 
3Ielania Brookei, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 207, 1860. 

3Ialacca, Java, Borneo. 

81. (?) M. fluctuosa, Gould, Proc. Bost. S. N. H, 1847. 

Tavoy, {Bur mail). 

82. (?) M. Hainesiana, Lea, Proc. Ac. N. S. Phil. 1856. 
Journ. Ac. N. S. Phil, vi, n. s. Lea, Obs. Gen. Unio xi, 

t. 22, f. 18, 1866. India. 

83. M. Henriettse, Gray, Griff. Cuv. t. 13, f. 2, 1834. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 1, 1859. 

31. reticulata, Lea, Proc. Z. S. Lond. 1850. 
3Ielanoides reticulata, Lea, H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 
Moll. 1858. China. 

84. M. Menkiana, Lea, Obs. Gen. Unio iv, 24, 1841. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 13, 1859. 
31. plicata, Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. S. Phil, vi, t. 23, f. 95, 

1835. 
lo 2)licata, (Lea) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. 

Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 1975, 1859. 
3Ielama spinosa, Benson, (ubi. ?) Hanley, Conch. Misc. f. 7, 

1854. Bengal. ? 



381 

85. ? M. praemordica, Tryon, Am. Jouni. Conch, ii, t. 10, f. 

o, p. Ill, 18G(J. Burmali. 

86. M. Reevei, Brot, Mater, i, p. 4G, 18G2. 

31. balteata, Reeve, (non Philippi) Conch. Icon. f. 144, 18G0. 

87. M. Sooloensis, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 31, 1859. 

Sooloo Isl. 

88. M. torquata,.von dem Busch, Phil. Abbihlg. t. 1, f. 18, 

1842. 
Mousson, Moll. Java t. 12, f. 2 ; t. 22, f. 2, 1849. 
M. terehra, Benson, (non Lesson) Journ. Ac. N. S. Calcutta 
V, p. 747, 183G. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 59, 1859. 

Java, Bengal. 

89. M. Tourannensis, Souleyet, Vov. Bonite, t. 31, f. 4-7, 

1839-44. 
3Ielanatria Tourannensis, (Soul.) Gray, Guide Syst. Distr. 
1857. Cochin-china. 

90. M. variabilis, Benson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Calcutta, 1835. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 204, 18G0. 

MeJanatria variabilis, (Bens.) Gray, Guide Syst. Distr. 1857. 
Melania Indica, Soul., Voy. Bonite, t. 31, f. 12, 1839-44. 
Melanoides Indica, (Soul.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

i, t. 21, f. 5, 1858. 
Melania Hercidea, Gould, Proc. Bost. S. N. H. ii, p. 100. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 4, 1859. Reeve, Syst. Conch, t. 

194, 1843. Brot. Mater, ii, t. 3, f. 1-3, 1868. 
Melanoides Hercidea, (Gould) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

Moll. 1858. 
Melania Sp. in Sow. Gen. of Shells f. 2, 1820-24. 
Melayiia varicosa, Troschel, Wiegm. Archiv. 1837. Philippi, 

Abbildg. t. 2, f. 2, 3, 1843. Mousson. Moll. Java t. 10, 

f. 4, 1849. 
Melanoides varicosa, (Trosch.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

Moll 1858. 
Melania corrugata, (Lam.) Reeve, (non Lamarck) Conch. Icon. 

f. 10, a, b ; 67, 1859. 
Melania gloriosa, Anthony, Am. Journ. Conch, i, t. 18, f. 3, 

1865. 
. Ganges, India, Ceylon ? [Tlmaites), Bengal, Java, Pegu. 

§7. 
{3Ielania, II. and A. Adams, 1858.) 

91. M. aculeus, Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. S. Phil, v, t. 19, f. 72, 

1833. 



282 

Lea, Obs. Gen Unio i, t. 19, f. 72. Lea, Proe. Z. S. Lond. 
1850. Hanlej, Conch. Misc. f. 33, 1854. 

Java ? Philippine Isl. 

92. M. acutissima, von dem Busch., Mall. Blatt. 1858, p. 33, 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 57, 58, 185^'. Gruadeloupe. {? !) 

93. M. aerea, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 64, 1859. 

Pliilippine Isl. 

94. M. albovittata, Brot, Mater, i, p. 47, 1862. 
3Ielania vittata, Brot, Rev. Zool. 1860, t. 17, f. 7. 
Mela7iia chicta, Lea, var. in Reeve, Conch. Icon. Errata. 

Philippine Isl. 

95. M, anthracina, von dem Busch, Phil. Abbildg. t. 3, f. 3, 

1844. 
(?) Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 17, 1850. Java. ? 

96. M. Arroensis, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 48, 1859. 

Arroo Isl. 

97. M. aspirans, Hinds., Ann. Mag. N. H. xiv, p. 8, 1844. 
Voy. Sulphur t. 15, f. 9, 10, 1843-45. Hanley, Conch. 

Misc. f. 47, 1857. Chenu, 111. Conch, t. 2, f. 9, 1843. 
Mousson, Moll. Java t. 11, f. 5, (?) t. 22, f. 3, 1849. 
Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 1991, 1859. 

Fecjee Isl., Bimah, Viti Letvii, Ovalan, (Griiffe). 

98. M. aterrima, Cristoforis Jan., Catal. Coll. 

99. M. baculus, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 130, 1860. 

100. M. biflammata, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 85, 124, 1859. 

Solomon s Isl. 

101. M. blatta, Lea, Proc. Z. S. Lond. 1850. 

Hanley, Conch. Misc. f. 49, 1857. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 
16, 1859. Philippine Isl. 

102. M. BlossevUliana, Lesson, Voy. Coquille, ii, p. 358, 

1829. JSfew Guinea. 

103. M. Buschiana, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 50, 1859. 

California, {f !) 

104. M. bullioides, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 65, 1859. 

Philippine Isl. 

105. M. canalis, Lea, Proc. Z. S. Lond. 1850. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 63, 1859. (non Gassies, Faun. 
Nov. Caled.) Philippine Isl. 

106. M. carbonata, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 88, 1859. 



283 

107. M. cincta, Lea, Proc. Z. S. Lond. 1850. 

Reeve. Conch. Icon. f. 35, 1859. Lidia. 

108. (?) M. COarctata, Lamarck, (non Pliilippi ; nee. Reeve,) 

An. s. Y. IMo. 3, 1822. 
Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 1967, 1859. 
MeJania strangulata, Encycl. JNIeth. t. 458, f. 5, a, b, 1816. 
{?) M. agrestis, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 140, 1860. 

India, ? Borneo. 

109. M. COrrugata, Lamarck, An. s. V. No. 5, 1822. (non 

Reeve, Conch. Icon.) 
Delessert, Rec. Coq. t. 30, f. 10, 184 L Chenu, 111. Conch, 
t. 2, f. 18. Chenu, Legons. Elem. f. 497, 1847. Chenu, 
Man. Conch, f. 1951, 1859. 
3Ielania semidecussata, Encyclop. Vanikoro. 

110. M. COStata, Quoy, Gaimard, Voy. Astrol. t. 56, f. 34-37, 

1826-34. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 28, 29, 1859. 
3Ielasma costata, (Q. G.) Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 2000, 1859. 
Bidimus plicarbis., Bruguiere, Encycl. No. 52, 1792. 
Helix pUcaria, Born, t. 16, f. 14, 1780. Wood, Ind. Test. f. 

139, 1825. 
3TeIania pHcaria, (Brug.) Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 1985, 1859. 
3Ielania hastula, Lea, Proc. Z. S. Lond. 1850. H. and A. 

Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll, i, t. 32, f. Ic, 1858. Hanley, 

Conch. Misc. f. 21, 1854. 

Philippines, Almaheira, (Landauer). 

111. M. crenulata, Deshayes in Lam., An. s. V. No. 17, 1838. 
Helix turrita cremdata, Chemn, Conch, t. 135, f. 1230, 1786. 
Helix crenata, Gmelin, 3655, in Wood. Ind. Test. f. 143, 

1825. 
3Ielania crenulata, (Chemn.) Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 26, 1859. 
3Ielania torulosa, Bruguiere, Diet. Sc. Nat. xxix, p. 464, 

1823. 
3Ielania cuspidata, Menke, MSS. Mus. Menk. 
3Ielania hastula, (Lea) Chenu. jNlan. Conch, f. 1983. (non 

Lea,) 1859. 
31. Tirouri, (Ferussac) Desh. in Lam., An. s. V. No. 18, 

1838. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 1986, 1859. Quoy, 

Gaimard, Vov. Astrol. t. 56, f. 38, 39, 1826-34. H. and 

A. Ad., Gen!' of Rec. Moll. 1858. 
3I.porcata, Jonas, Zeitsch. Mai. 1844, p. 50. Phil. Abbildg. 

t. 4, f. 19, 1847. Mousson, Moll. Java t. 11, f. 4, 1849. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 37, a. (nom. semicaneellata,) 

1859. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 1990. (nom. aculeus, 

Lea,) 1859. H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. 



284 

M. monilifera, von dem Busch, Mai. Bliitt. 1858, p. 34. 

Keeve, Conch. Icon. f. 112, 1859. 
31. confusa, Dohrn., Proc. Z. S. Lond. 1858, p. 135. 
PMlippiyie IsL, Celebes, 3Ianilla, Java, Solomon s lis., Ceylon. 

112. M. Cumingii, Lea, Proc. Z. S. Lond. 1850. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 23, 1859. Philijjpines. 

113. M. CUSpidata, Chemnitz. 

Helix CUSpidata, Chemnitz, Conch, f. 1228, 1786. Wood, 

Ind. Test. f. 138, 1825. 
3Ielania cuspidata, (Chem.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

MolL 1858. (An = cuspidata, Menke ; =; crenulata, 

Desh. ?) 

114. M. duplex, Brot. Mater, i, p. 48, 1862. 
31. australis. Lea, Proc. Ac. N. S. Phih 1856. 

31. 3Ianillaensis, Lea, Journ. Ac. N. S. Phih vi, n. s. Lea, 
Obs. Gen. Unio xi, t. 22, f. 24, 1866. 3Ianilla. 

115. M. fauna, Lesson, Voj. Coquille ii, p. 355, 1829. 

New Ireland. 

116. M. fimbriata, Thorpe, (ubi. ?) Hanlej, Conch. Misc. f. 

32, 1854. 

117. M. forulata, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 122, 1859. 

118. M. flammulata, von dem Busch, Phil. Abbildg. t. 1, f. 3, 

4, 1842. 
(?) Reeve, Conch. Icon f. 45, 1859. II. and A. Ad., Gen. 
of Rec. Moll. 1858. Java. 

119. M. figurata, Hinds, Ann. Mag. N. H. xiv, p. 8, 1844. 
Yoy. ISulph. t. 15, f. 13, 1843—45. Chenu, III. Conch, t. 

2, f. 24. Mousson, Moll. Java, t. 22, f. 4, 1849. ? Reeve, 
Conch. Icon. f. 49, 1859. IL and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 
Moll. 1858. Celebes, JSfeiv Ireland. 

120. M. Fraseri, von dem Busch, Proc. Z. S. Lond. 1859. 
(An = 31. terebra v. d. B. ?) Ecuador {?) 

121. M. fulgida, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 24, 1859. Fldlippines. 

122. M. fumosa, Hinds, Ann. Mag. N. H. xiv, p. 8, 1844. 
Voy. Sulph. t. 15, f. 11, 12, 1843—45. Chenu, 111. Conch. 

t. 2, f. 11. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 1994, 1859. Brot, 
Mater, ii, t. 2, f. 12, 1868. H. and A. Ad., Gen. of 
Rec. Moll. 1858, (non Hanley, Conch. Misc.) 
31. obstricta. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 30, 1859. 

Port Carteret [Neiv Ireland), I. Batjan, 3Ioluccas. 



285 

123. M. funiculus, Quoy, Gaimardj Voy. Astrol. t. 56, f. 43- 

44, 1826—34. 
H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. Chenu, Man. 
Conch, f. 1984, 1859. Moluccas. 

124. M. fuscata, Born., (non Desliayes nee Chemnitz). 
Helix fuscata, Born., t. 16, f. 17, 1780. Wood, Ind. test. f. 

144, 1825. 

125. M. infumata, Brot. 

31. fuscata, Deshayes, (non Born., nee Chemn.) Traite. Elera. 
" Conch, t. 74, f. 10, 1839. 

126. M. graciosa. Lesson, Voy. Coquille, ii, p. 359, 1829. 

New Gruinea. 

127. M. juncea, Lea, Proc. Z. S. Lond. 1850. 

H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. Reeve, Conch. 
Icon. f. 33, 1859. Luzon. 

128. M. lancea, Lea, Proc. Z. S. Lond. 1850. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 39, 1859. Society IsL 

129. M. laevigata, Lamarck, An. s. Y. No. 7. 

Delessert, Rec. Coq. t. 30, f. 12, 1841. Chenu, 111. Conch, 
t. 2, f. 20. ' Timor. 

130. M. Latronum, Tarnier MSS. i. Laclrones. 

131. M. macilenta, Menke, Synops. Meth. p. 43, 1830. 
Helix maculata, Born., t. 16, f. 15, 1780. 

{?) Helix widulata, Gmelin, 3654, in Wood Ind. test. f. 140, 
1825. 

132. M. macrospira, Morelet, Test. nov. Austral. 1857. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 240, 1860. (?) Gassies, Faun. nov. 

Caled. t. 6, f. 3. New Caledonia. 

133. M. mucronata, von dem Busch, Zeitsch. Mai. 1853, p. 

177. 

(An = 31. eostata, Q. G. var. ?) 

134. Offachiensis, Lesson, Voy. Coquille, ii, p. 356, 1829. 

Waigiou. 

135. M. palimpsestos, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. Ill, 1859. 

136. M. perrimosa, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 114, 1859. 

137. M. Philippii, Adams, (ubi ?) 

31. picta, Phil., Zeitsch. Mai. 1848, p. 154, (non Hinds). 
31. Philippii, H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. 

3Ianilla. 



286 

138. (?) M. phlebotomum, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 105, 1859. 

West Africa. 

139. M. picta, Hinds, Ann. Mag. N. H. xiv, p. 8, 1844. 
Voy. Sulphur, t. 15, f. 3, 1843—45. H. and A. Ad., Gen. 

of Rec. Moll. 1858. Chenu, 111. Conch, t. 2, f. 4. 
(?) Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 43, 1859. Chenu, Man. Conch, 
f. 1992, 1859. New Ireland. 

140. M. plicatilis, Mousson, MSS. Catal. GodeflFroy. Ovalan. 

141. M. Plutonis, Hinds, Ann. Mag. N. H. xiv, p. 8, 1844. 
Voy. Sulph. t. 15, f. 14, 1843—45. H. and A. Ad., Gen. 

of Rec. Moll. 1858. Chenu, 111. Conch, t. 2, f. 22. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 36, 1859. Fecjee Isl. 

142. M. pugioniformis, Philippi, Zeitsch. Mai. 1851, p. 83. 

143. (?) M. rufescens, Martens, Mai. Blutt. 1860, p. 47. 
M. Martensi, Brot, Mater, i, p. 48, 1862. Japan. 

144. M. rustica, Mousson, Journ. Conch. 1857, p. 160. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 21. 

M. digitalis, Mousson, Journ. Conch. 1857, p. 160. Brot, 
Mater, ii, t. 2, f. 11, 1868. (Status juvenilis). Java. 

145. M. Samoensis, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 60, 1859. 

Samoe Isl. ; Upolu (Griiffe). 

146. M. Scipio, Gould, Proc. Bost. S. N. H. 1847. 

Exped. Shells f. 156, 1852. H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

Moll. 1858. 
M. Belone, Phihppi, Zeitsch. Mai. 1851, p. 81. 
M. veruculum, Morelet, Journ. Conch. 1851, t. 5, f. 3, 1852, 

p. 262, 1856, p. 36. H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

1858. Navigato7-''s Isl. ; Samoa Isl. 

147. M. semicanceHata, von dem Busch, Phil. Abbildg. t. 3, 

f. 3, 1844. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 37. h, 1859. H. and A. Ad., Gen. 
of Rec. Moll. 1858. Java ? 

148. M. spadicea, Philippi, Zeitsch. Mai. 1848, p. 154. 

H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. 3Ianilla. 

149. M. subula, Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. 

H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. Reeve, Conch. 
Icon. f. 62, 1859. Philipinnes. 

150. M. subulata, Lamarck, An. s. V. No. 6, 1822. 

(Non Sowerby, Gen. of Shells, nee Sowerby Man. Conch., 
nee Chemnitz). Delessert, Rec. Coq. t. 30, f. 11. 1841. 
Chenu, 111. Conch, t. 2, f. 19, (non Chenu, Man. Conch.) 



287 

151. M. subsuturalis, Metcalfe, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1851, 

p. 78. 
3L Metcalfei, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 212, 1860. Borneo. 

152. M. terebriformis, Brot, Mater, i, p. 51, 1852. 

31. terebra, von deiu Busch, Phil, Abbildg. t. 1, f. 17, 1842, 
(non Benson, nee Lesson). H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 
Moll. 1858. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 46, 1859. 

HI. subulata, Sowerbj, Gen. of Shells, f. 3, 1820—24. Java. 

153. M. uniformis, Quoy, Gaimard, Voy. Astrol. t. 56, f. 30- 

35, 1826—34. 
II. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. (non Reeve 
Conch. Icon). Celebes. 

154. M. unisulcata, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 44, 1859. 

155. M. angusta, Philippi, Abbildg. t. 5. f. 9, 1848. 
H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. 

156. M. arctecava, Mousson, Journ. Conch. 1857, p. 161. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 71, 1859. Java. 

157. (?) M. Bensoni, Philippi, (non Reeve) Zeitsch. Mai. 

1851, p. 82. Liew Kiew. 

158. M. Isevis, Gray, Griff. Cuv. t. 14, f. 8, 1834. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 40, 1859. 

159. M. Mindorensis, Lea, Proc. Z. S. Lond. 1850. 

H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. Reeve, Conch. 
Icon. f. 34, 1859. 
31. Utigiosa, Brot, Rev. Zool. 1860, t. 16, f. 4. 3Iindoro. 

160. M. monile, Mousson, Journ. Conch. 1857, p. 162. 

Java. ? 

161. M. ornata, von dem Busch, Phil. Abbildg. t. 1, f. 15, 16, 

1842. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 146, 1860. Java. 

162. M. pantherina, von dem Busch, Malac. Blatt. 1858, p. 

33. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 38, 1859. Philippines. 

163. M. punctata, Lamarck, An. s. V. No. 4, 1822. 
Delessert, Rec. Coq. t. 30. f. 9, 1841. Chenu, 111. Conch. 

t. 2, f. 14. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 1987, 1859, (non 
Pot. Mich. Gal. Moll). 
31. albescens., Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. Reeve, Conch. 
Icon. f. 42, 1859. Hanley, Conch. Misc. f. 52, 54, 1857. 
H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. Philippines. 
38 



288 

164. M. rimata, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 94, 1859. 

165. M. Timorensis, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 79, 1859. Timor. 

166. M. tristis, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 121, 1859. Java. 

167. M. acuminata, Dunker, Phil. Abbihlg. t. 3, f. 5, 1844. 
M, acus, Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lend. 1850. Reeve, Conch. 

Icon. f. 92, 1859. H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 
1858. Philipinnes. 

168. M. albizonata, Mousson, MSS. Catal. Godeffroy. 

Ovalan. 

169. M. amabilis, von dem Busch, in Reeve Conch. Icon. f. 

223, 1860. 
M. jmlchra, von dem Busch, Mai. Bliltt. 1858, p. 35. Celebes. 

170. M. cimelium, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 52, 1859. 

Solojnons Isl. 

171. M. clavus, Lamarck, An. s. V. No. 8, 1822. 
Delessert, Rec. Coq. t. 30, f. 13, 1841. Chenu, Ll. Conch, 

t, 2, f. 21. 
Melanoides clavus, H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. 

172. M. COStellaris, Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. 
Ilanley, Conch. Misc. f. 59, 1857. Reeve, Conch. Icon. 

f. 98, 1859. 
Aylacostoma costellaris, (Lea) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 
Moll. 1858. Siquijor, Negros. 

173. (?) M. Doreyiana, Lesson, Voy. Coquille ii, p. 358, 

1829. Havre Dorey {N. Guinea.) 

174. M. florata, Hinds, Ann. Mag. N. H. xiv, p. 10, 1844. 
Voy. Sulph. t. 15, f. 22, 1843—45. Chenu, 111. Conch, t. 

2, f. 17. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 89, 1859. H. and A. 
Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. Neiv Ireland. 

175. M. floricoma, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 99, 1859. 

176. M. fulgurans, Hinds, Ann. Mag. N. H. xiv, p. 9, 1844. 
Voy. Sulph. t. 15, f. 6, 1843—45. Chenu, 111. Conch, t. 

2, f. 7. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 1993, 1859. Reeve, 
Conch. Icon. f. 55, 1859. H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 
Moll. 1858. New Ireland. 

177. M. gaudiosa, Hinds, Ann. Mag. N. II. xiv, p. 10, 1844. 
Voy. Sulph. t. 15, f. 19, 1843—45. Chenu, 111. Conch, t. 

2, f. 15. Netv Ireland. 



289 

178. M. Housei, Lea, Proc. Ac. N. S. Phil. 1856. 

Journ. Ac. N. S. Phil, vi, n. s. Obs. Gen, Unio xi, t. 22, 
f. 22, 1866. Takrong Riv. Korat {Siam). 

179. M. impura, Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 216, 1859. 

Aylacostoma imjjurus, Lea, H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 
1858. Philippines. 

180. M. luctuosa, Hinds, Ann. Mag. N. H. xiv, p. 9, 1844. 
Voy. Salph. t. 15, f. 1, 1843—45. Chenu, 111. Conch, t. 

2, f. 1. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 61, 1859. H. and A. 
Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. Feejee M. 

181. M. moesta, Hinds, Ann. Mag. N. H. xiv, p. 9, 1844. 
Voy. Sulph. t. 15, f. 4, 1843—45. Chenu, 111. Conch, t. 

2, f. 3. 
Aylacostoma moestus, (Hinds) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 
Moll. 1858. Feejee Isl. 

182. M. papuensis, Quoy, Gaimard. Voy. Astrol. t. 56, f. 45 

—47, 1826—34. 
31eIanoide8 papuensis, (Q. G.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 
Moll. 1858. New G-uinea. 

183. (?) M. pireniformis, v. Martens, Mai. Blatt. 1863, p. 

135. Burn Isl. 

184. M. plana, von dem Busch, MSS. (fide Cuming) ubi ? 

Philipjnne. 

185. M. pyramis, Benson, (non von dem Busch) ubi ? 
Reeve Conch. Icon. f. 51, (non 102) 1859. • Borneo. 

186. M. pyramidata, Hinds, Ann. Mag. N. H. xiv, p. 10, 

1844. 
Voy. Sulph. t. 15, f. 20, 1843—45. Chenu, 111. Conch, t. 
2, f. 23. 
Melayioides pyramidata, (Hinds) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 
Moll. 1858. Nezv Ireland. 

187. M. Schomburgki, Hanley,_MSS. (Mus. Cuming). 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 93, 1859. Siam. 

188. M. sobria, Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 32, 80, 1859. 

Aylacostoma sobrius, (Lea) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

1858. 

VAR. 

31. cochlidium, Lea, var. Proc. Z. S. Lond. 1850. Reeve, 

Conch. Icon. f. 27, 1859. 
Aylacostoma cochlidium, (Lea) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

Moll. 1858. Philippines. 



290 



{Striatella, Brot.) 

189. M. affinis, Lea, Proc. Ac. N. S. Phil. 1856. 

Jouni. Ac. N. S. Phil, vi, n. s. Lea, Obs. Gen. Unio xi, 
t. 22, f. 23, 1866. Manilla. 

190. M. Arthurii, Brot. 

M. sjjeciosa, Morelet, (non Adams) Test. nov. Austral. 1857. 

M. Moreleti, Reeve, (non Deshayes) Conch. Icon. f. 239, 

1860. New Caledon. 

191. M. brunnescens, Tryon, Am. Journ. Conch, i, t. 22, f. 

1, 1865. Philippines. 

192. M. corporosa, Gould, Proc. Bost. S. N. H. 1847. 
Expedit. Shells f. 161, 1852. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 68, 

1859. 
M. bicolor, Brot, Rev. Zool. 1860, t. 17, f. 12. 
M. incisa, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 118, 1859. 
{?) M. gracilina, Gould, Proc. Bost. S. N. H. vii, 1859. 
31. unicolor, Tryon, Am. Journ. Conch, i, t. 22, f. 2, 1865. 
M. Tahitensis, Dunker, Verhandlg. K. K. Zoal. Bot. Ges. 

Wien, 1866. Reise der Novarra t. 1, f. 8, 1867. 
M. luteola, Dunker, Verhandlg. K. K. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wein, 

1866. Reise der Novarra t. 1, f. 9, 1867. Tatti. 

193. M. crepidinata, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 120, 1859. 

Java. 

194. M. divisa",Philippi, Zeitsch. Mai. 1851, p. 81. 

Solomo}i s Isl. 

195. M. exusta, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 74, 1859. 

31. maurula, (Reeve) Gassies, Faun. Nov. Caled. t. 5, f. 9, 

1863, (non Reeve). Neiv Caledon. 

196. M. ferrea, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 9, 1859. 

(an = corporosa., Gould. ?) Borneo, West Africa. 

197. M. Gouldiana, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 115, 1859. 

New Caledonia. 

198. M. humilis, Philippi, Zeitsch. Mai. 1851, p. 82. 

199. M. indefinita, Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 56, 1859. (exclus. synon.) II. and 
A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. Luzon. 

200. M. Javanica, von dem Busch, MSS. 

M. coarctata, (Lam.) Philippi, Abbildg. t. 4, f. 20, (non La- 
marck) 1847. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 22, 1859. 



291 

201. M. Landaueri, Brot, Mai. BUitt. 1865. 

Brot. Mater, ii, t. 2, f. 2, 3, 18G8. Arrotv Isl. '/ 

202. M. latebrosa, Hinds., Am. Mag. N. H. xiv, p. 10, 1844. 
Voy. Sulph. t. 15, f. 21, 1843-45. Chenu, 111. Conch, t. 

2, f. 13. 
Melanoides latebrosa, (Hinds) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 
Moll. 1858. New Ireland. 

203. M. lutosa, Gould, Proc. Bost. S. N. H. 1847. 
Exped. Shells f. 159, 1852. 

Ceriphasia lutosa, (Gould) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll 

1858. 
Melania Graffei, Mousson, MSS. Brot, Mater, ii, p. 18, 1868. 
M. interposita, Mousson, MSS. Brot, Mater, ii, p. 18, 1868, 

204. (?) M. lyraeformis, Lea, Proc. Ac. N. S. Phil. 1856. " 
Journ. Ac. N. S. Phil, vi, n. s. Lea, Obs. Gen. Unio xi. 

t. 22, f. 25, 1866. 3Ianilla. 

205. M. Mageni, Gassies, Faun. Nov. Caled. t. 6, f. 10, 1863. 

Balade, [N. Caled.) 

206. M. Matheroni, Gassies, Faun. Nov. Caled. t. 4, f. 5, 

1863. Balade, {N. Caled.) 

207. M. Maurula, Reeve, (non Gassies Faun. N. Cal.) Conch. 

Icon. f. 15, 1859. Guinea. 

208. M. minuta, Tryon, Am. Journ. Conch, ii, t. 20, f. 3, 

1866. Taiti. 

209. M. Montrouzieri, Gassies, Faun. Nov. Caled. t. 5, f- 

10, 1863. Art, Balade, {New Caled.) 

210. M. Myersiana, Lea, Proc. Ac. N. S. Phil. 1856. 
Journ. Ac. N. S. Phil, vi, n. s. Lea, Obs. Gen. Unio xi, 

t. 22, f. 21, 1866. Feejee Isl. ■ 

211. M. Newcombii, Lea, Proc. Ac. N. S. Phil. 1856. 
Journ. Ac. N. S. Phil, vi, n. s. Lea, Obs. Gen. Unio xi, 

t. 22, f. 17, 1866. Sandwich I 

212. M. obscura, Brot, Rev. Zool. 1860, t. 17, f. 9. Hah.—f 

213. M. pauHa, Dunker, MSS. (ubi. ?) Sandivich I 

214. M. Petitii, Philippi, Zeitsch. Mai. 1848, p. 153. 

? Hanley, Conch. Misc. f. 46, 1857. Brot, Mater, ii, t. 2, 
f. 7, 8, 1868, (non Reeve, Conch. Icon.) 
M. Droueti, Gassies, Faun. Nov. Caled. t. 5, f. 11, 1863. 
?-M. Erehus, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 75, 1859. New Caledon. 



292 

216. M. recta, Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. 
ileeve, Conch. Icon. f. 41, 1859. 
Aylacostoma rectus^ (Lea) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 
1858. Philippines, 

216. M. retifera, Tryon, Am. Journ. Conch, i, t. 22, f. 4, 

1865. Japan. 

217. M. semiornata, Bret, Rev. Zool. 1860, t. 16, f. 5. 

Java. 

218. M. subfasciata, Mousson, MSS. Catal. Godeffroy. 

Upolu. 

219. M. sulcata, Brot, Mater, i, p. 18, 1868. 

M. circumsidcata, Gassies, (non von dem Busch) Journ. Conch. 
1865, p. 212. JSfeiv Caledonia. 

220. (?) M. Waigiensis, Lesson, Yoy. Coquille ii, p. 355, 

1829. Waigiou. 

221. M. Vainafa, Gould, Proc. Bost. S. N. H. 1847. 

Exped. Shells t. 10, f. 157, 1852. 
Ceriphasia Vainafa, (Gould) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 
Moll. 1858. Upolu. 

* 

222. M. adspersa, Troschel, Archiv. f. Nat. Gesch. 1837, i, p. 

175. 
Philippi, Abbildg. t. 5, f. 6, 1848. 
Hemisinus adspersus, (Troschel) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of 

Rec. Moll. 1858. 
Melania fiammigera,D\iuker, Phil. Abbildg. t. 3, f. 11, 1844. 

Granges. 

223. M. Assavaensis, Mousson, MSS. 

31. tuberculata var. Assavaensis, Mouss., Catal. Godeffroy. 

Assava Viti. 

224. M. Boninensis, Lea, Proc. Ac. N. S. Phil. 1856. 
Journ. Ac. N. S. Phil, vi, n. s. Lea, Obs. Gen. Unio xi 

t. 22, f. 15, 1866. Bonin l\ 

225. M. clavulus, Mousson, Journ. Conch. 1865, p. 202. 

Feejee Isl. 

226. M. Commersoni, Morelet, S^r. Conch, p. 116, t. 6, f. 4. 

1860. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 237, 1860. Madagascar. 

227. M. cylindracea, Mousson, Moll. Java t. 11, f. 9, 1849. 
Melanoides cylindracea, (Mousson) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of 

Rec. Moll. 1858. Pardana, {Java.) 



293 

228. M. Dembea, RUppel, MSS. Mus. Cuming. 

Keeve, Conch. Icon. f. 161, 1859. 
Tarehia Dembea, (RUppel) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 
1858. Lake Dembea, {Abyssinia.) 

229. M. erythrostoma, Quoj, Gaimard, Voy. Astrol. t. 56, 

f. 15-18, 1826-34. 
Melanoides erythrostoma, (Q. G.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of 
Rec. Moll. 1858. Vanikoro. 

230. M. fontinalis, Philippi, Abbildg. t. 5, f. 7, 1848. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 119, 1859. Poulo Penang. 

231. M. gemmulata, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 86, 1859. 

M. pyramis, von dem Busch, (non Benson) Phil. Abbildg. t. 

4, f. 16, 1847. 
M. tuberculata, (MUll.) var. Morelet, Ser. Conch, p. 113, 

1860. India. 

232. M. inhonesta, von dem Busch, Phil. Abbildg. t. 4, f. 5, 

1847. 

(?) Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 226, 1860. 
M. inhonesta, (v. d. B.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 
1858. ? Mousson, Moll. Java p. 71, (an eadem ?) 

Malang, (Mousson) ; Java. ? 

233. M. Judaica, Roth, Make. Blatt. 1855, t. 2, f. 1-3. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 103, 1859. Palestine. 

234. M. Mauriciae, Lesson, Voy. Coquille, ii, p. 354, 1829 

(an = M. tuberculata, Miill. ?) Mauritius. 

235. M. Nicobarica, Morch MSS. Mus. von dem Busch. 

H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. Reeve, Conch. 
Icon. f. 54, 1859. Nicobar. 

236. M. nodocincta, Dohrn, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1865. 

Lake Nyassa. 

237. M. Ovalana, Mousson MSS. Catal. Godeffroy, iv. 

1. Ovalan. 

238. M. Peasei, Tryon, Am. Journ. Concli. ii, t. 20, f. 5, 

1866. Feejee 1. 

239. M. perpinguis, Hinds, Ann. Mag. N. H. xiv, p. 9, 

1844. 
Voy. Sulph. t. 15, f. 2, 1843-45. Chenu, 111. Conch, t. 
2, f. 2. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 113, 1859 (? non Gould, 
Expedit. Shells). 
Melania perpinguis. Hinds, H. and A. Ad. Gen. of Rec. Moll. 
1858. 



294 

M. turnculus, Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond, 1850. Hanley, 

Conch. Misc. f. 55, 1857. 
Melania turnculus, Lea, H. and A. Ad. Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

1858. Fejee Isl, Luzon. 

240. M. rivularis, Philippi, Abbildg. t. 4, f. 6, 1847. 

Melania rivularis, Phil., H. and A. Ad. Gen. of Rec. Moll. 
1858. Java. 

241. M. SCitula, Gould, Proc. Bost. S. N. H. 1847. 
Exped. Shells, t. 10, f. 158, 1852. Upolu. 

242. M. siituralis, Philippi, Abbildg. t. 4, f. 17, 1847. 

243. M. Tamsii, Dunker, Zeitsch. Mai. 1845, p. 165. 
Dunker, Ind. Moll. Guin. t. 2, f. 9, 10, 1853 (? an Reeve, 

Conch. Icon.) I. S. Anton. 

244. M. terebra, Lesson (non Benson nee von dem Busch), 

Yoy. Coquille ii, p. 354, 1829. New Guinea. 

245. M. truncatula, Lamarck, An. 8. V. No. 15, 1822 (non 

Quoy, Gaimard. Astrol.) 
Delessert, Rec. Coq. t. 30, f. 17, 1841. Chenu, 111. Conch, 
t. 2, f. 28. Potiez, Michaud. Gal. t. 27, f. 21, 22, 1838 
(an = M. tuberculata, Mlill. ?) Timor, Malabar. 

246. M. tuberculata, MUller, (Nerita) Verm. p. 191, No. 

378 (non Schroter), 1773. 
Chemnitz, ix, p. 189, t. 136, f. 1262, 1786. Philippi, Ab- 
bildg. t. 1, f. 19, 1842. Mousson, Moll. Java, t. 11, f. 

6, 7, 1849. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 87, 110, 1859. 

Bourguignat, Malac. Alg. 1864-66. 
3Ielanoides tuberculata, Mlill. H. and A. Ad. Gen. of Rec. 

Moll. 1858. 
3Ielania fasciolata, Olivier, Voy. t. 31, f. 7, 1801-7. Lam- 
arck, An. s. V. No. 16, 1822. Caillaud, Voy. Meroe, t. 

60, f. 8, 1823. Pot., Mich. Gal. t. 27, f. 9, 10, 1838. 
Strombus costatus, Schroter, Fluss. Conch, p. 373, t. 8, f. 14, 

1779. 
Melania punctulata, Grateloup, in Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 100, 

1859. 
Melania virgulata, Ferussac, Quoy, Gaimard. Voy. Astrol. iii, p. 

141, t. 56. f. 1—4, 1826-34. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 

109, 1859. 
M. truncatula, Lam., Quoy, Gaimard. (non Lamarck) Voy. 

Astrol. t. 56, f. 5—7, 1826-34. 
M. punctata, Lam., Pot. Mich, (non Lamarck) Gal. t. 27, f. 

15, 16, 1838. 



295 

M. Layardi, Dohrn, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1858, p. 135. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 104, 1859. 
M. heryllina, Brot, Rev. Zool. 1860, t. 17, f. 8. 
M. Bothiana, Mousson, Coq. Terr. Fluv. Palest. (Roth.) 1841, 

p. 61. 
M. rubropunctata, Tristram, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1865, p. 

541. 
Tijringen, Pardana, Java^ Algeria, Alexandria, Coromandel, 

Mauritius, Ceylon, I. S. Anton., Pondicherry, Tiberias, 

Palestine. 

247. M. unifasciata, Mousson, Moll. Java, t. 11, f. 8, 1749. 

Melanoides unifasciata (Mouss.), H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 
Moll., 1858. Malang, Java. 

248. M. Victoriae, Dohrn, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1865. 

Victoria, Zamblsi. 

249. M. Zengana, Morelet, Ser. Conch, p. 115, t. 6, f. 9, 

1860. Zanzibar. 

§ 9. 
{Tarebia, H. and A. Adams, 1858.) 

250. M. armillata, Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. 
Brot, Mater, ii, t. 1, f. 12, 1868. 

Tarebia armillata (Lea), H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 
;L858. India, Java f 

251. M. Baliensis, Dunker MSS. (ubi?) Lake Bator, Bali. 

252. M. Celebensis, Quoy, Gahnard. Voy. Astrol. t. 56, f. 

26—29, 1826-34 
Brot, Mater, ii, t. 1, f. 13, 1868. 
Tarebia Celebensis (Q. G.), H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

1858. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 2014, 1859. 
Vibez Celebensis (Q. G.), Gray, Guide Syst. Distr. 1857. 

Celebes Temate. 

253. M. coffea, Philippi, Abbildg. t. 2, f. 4, 1843. 

Tarebia coffea (Phil.), H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 
1858. Java ? 

254. M. crebra, Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 162, 1860. 

Tarebia crebrum (Lea), II. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 
1858. Cfuimaras, Philippines. 

255. M. crenifera, Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 169, 1860. 

Tarebia crenifera (Lea), H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 
1858, Java. 



296 

256. M. granifera, Lamarck, An. s. V. No. 13, 1822. 

Quoj, Gaimard, Voy. Astrol. t. 56, f. 19, 1826-84. En- 
cycl. Method, t. 458, f. 4, 1816. Pot., Mich. Gal. t. 27, 
f. 11, 12, 1838. Hanley, Conch. Misc. f. 13, 1854. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 225, 1860. 

Timor, Utnata, Guam. {^Marianne). 

257. M. granospira, Mousson, Joum. Conch. 1857, p. 161. 

Brot, Mater, ii, t. 1, f: 10, 1868. Java. 

258. M. Helense, Tryon, Proc. Ac. N. S. Phil. 1863, p. 146, 

t. 1, f. 7. PhilipiJines. 

259. M. hybrida, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 163, 1860. 
31. neictra, Brot, Mater, i, p. 53, 1862. 

260. M. lateritia, Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. 
Hanley, Conch. Misc. f. 56, 1857. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 

164—166, 1860. 
Tarehia lateritia (Lea), H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll, 
1858. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 2012, 1869. Philippines. 

261. M. lirata, Benson (non Menke), Glean. Sc. 1830, ii. 
Journ. As. Soc. Calcutta, 1836, v, 782. Reeve, Conch. 

Icon. f. 170, 1860. 
Helix lineata (Gray), Wood, Ind. Test. f. QS, 1825. 
Melania lineata, Troschel, Wiegm. Archiv. 1837, p. 176. 

Philippi, Abbildg. t. 3, f. 7, 1844. Mousson, Moll. Java, 

t. 10, f. 6, 1849. 
Tarehia lineata, H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. 
Melania semigranosa, von dem Busch, Phil. Abbildg. t. 1, f. 

13, 1842. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 167, 1860. Hanley, 

Conch. Misc. f. 12, 1854. 
Tarehia semigranosa (v. d. B.), H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

Moll. 1858. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 2013, 1859. 
Melayiia flavida, Dunker, Phil. Abbildg. t. 3, f. 15, 1844. 

Mousson, Moll. Java, t. 10, f. 5, 1849. 
Tarehia flavida (Dunk.), H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

1858. Ganges, Pardana, Java. 

262. M. Luzoniensis, Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 171, 1860. 

Tarehia Luzoniensis (Lea), H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 
1858. Calamang, Philippines. 

263. M. Mauiensis, Lea, Proc. Ac. N. S. Phil. 1856. 
Journ. Ac. N. S. Phil, vi, n. s. Lea, Obs. Gen. Unio, xi, 

t. 22, f. 19, 1866 (an = granifera, Lam. ?) 

Sandwich Isl. 



297 

264. M. Moluccensis, Quoy, Gaimard, Voy. Astrol. t. 56, f. 

22-25, 1826-34. 
luffa Moluccensis, (Q. G.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 
1858, (non Reeve, Conch. Icon.) Moluccas. 

265. M. nana, Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. 
Brot, Mater, ii, t. 1, f. 8, 1868. 

Sermyla riana, (Lea) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 
1858. I. Negros. 

266. M. psorica, Morelet, Journ. Conch. 1864, p. 287. 

Madagascar. 

267. M. SCOpulus, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 155, 1860. 

Philippines. 

268. M. Tahitensis, Pease, (non Dunker) MSS. Mus. von 

dem Busch, (ubi. ?), an = 31. Helence, Tryon. ?) 

Taiti. 

269. M. verrucosa, Hinds, Ann. Mag. N. H. xiv, p. 9, 1844. 
Voy. Sulph. t. 15, f. 7, 8, 1843-45. Chenu, 111. Conch, t. 

2, f. 5, 16. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 168, 1860. 
Tarehia verrucosa, (Hinds) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 
1858. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 2010, 1859. 

New Ireland. 

§ 10. 
[Sermyla, H. and A. Adams, 1858.) 

270. M. mitra, Dunker, Phil. Abbildg. t. 3, f. 9, 1844. 

M. tornatella. Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. Hanley, 
Conch. Misc. f. 56, 1857. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 173, 
1860. 

Sermyla tornatella, (Lea) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 
1858. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 1950, 1859. 

Melania Miquetii, Reeve, (non Grateloup) Conch. Icon. Errata. 

Tanhay, Negros, [Philippines.) 

271. M. Riquetii, Grateloup, Mem. plus. esp. Moll. t. 3, f. 

28, 1840. 
Mousson, Moll. Java t. 11, f. 10, p. 76, (exclus. synon.) 

1849, (non Reeve, Conch. Icon.) 
Tarehia Riquetii, (Gratel.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

Moll. 1858. 
{?) Melania triquetra^ Parreyss, MSS. (in Mouss. Moll. Java.) 
Melania harpula, Dunker, Phil. Abbildg. t. 3, f. 6, 1844. 
Sermyla harpula, (Dunk.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

1858. Bombay, ? Java ? 



298 

272. M. semicostata, Philippi, Abbildg. t. 4, f. 12, 1847. 

Sei'mi/la semicostata, (Phil.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

1858. 

273. M. BCulpta, Souleyet, Voy. Bonite t. 31, f. 16-18, 1832. 

Fhiliijpines. 

§11 

[Tiaro'psis, Brot.) 

274. M. Broti, Dohrn, MSS. in Reeve Conch. Icon. f. 160, 

1800. 
M. cJiocoIatum, Brot, Rev. Zool. 1860, t. 16, f. 2, (an = 31. 
o'udis, Lea, var. ?) Ceylon. 

275. M. COllistricta, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 158, 1860. 

Philippines. 

276. M. dura, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 18T, 1860. 

{?) M. stroMlus, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 214, 1860, (an = M. 
JlerJdotzi, Petit, var. V) Seville {9 !) 

277. M. Herklotzi, Petit, Journ. Conch. 1853, t. 7, f. 10. 
Plotia Herklotzi, (Petit) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

1858. 
3Ielania dimidiata, Menke, Zeitsch. Mai. 1854, p. 28. 

Java. 

278. M. mirifica, A. Adams, (Plotia) Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 

1853, p. 99. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 159, 1860. 
Plotia 7nirijiea, (Ad.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 
1858. -/Vew Ireland. 

279. M. orientalis, A. Adams, (Plotia) Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 

1853, p. 99. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 181, 1860. 
Tiara orientalis, (Ad.) II. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

1858. 
Melania Jiippocastanum, Brot, (non Reeve) Rev. Zool. 1860, 

t. 16, f. 1. Neiv Caledonia. 

280. M. plumbea, Brot, Journ. Conch. 1864, t. 2, f. 1. 

var. spinulis ornata, coll. mea. JVezv Cruinea. 

281. M. rudis, Lea, Proc Zool. S. Lond. 1850. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 172, 1860. 

Tarebia rudis, (Lea) 11. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. 
Melania microstoma, Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. Han- 
ley, Conch. Misc. f. 58, 1857. 



299 

Tarehia microstoma, (Lea) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

1858. 
var : 31. rudis, M. Broti affinis, Brot, Mater, ii, t. 1, f. 7, 
1868. 
Amhoyna, 1. Negros, {Philippines), Halmaeira, [Moluccas) Co- 
lombo, [Ceylon). 

282. M. Winteri, von dem Busch, Phil. Abbildg. t. 1, f. 1, 2, 

18-12. 
Mousson, Moll. Java t. 12, f. I, 1849. Hanley, Conch. 
Misc. f. 19, 1854. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 157, 1860. 
Plotia Winteri, (v. d. B.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 
1858. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 1945, 1859. Java. 

283. (?) M. hippocastanum, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 188, 

1850. Borneo. 

§12. 
[Tiara, (Bolten) H. and A. Adams, 1858.) 

284. M. amarula, Linne, (Helix) Syst. Nat. xii, p. 1249, No. 

702, 1767. 
Lamarck, An. s. V. No. 10, 1822. Encycl. Method, t. 
458, f. 6, a, b, 1816. Chenu, Legons. Elem. Conch, f. 
928, 1847. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 177, 1860. 
Tiara amarula, (L.) H. and A. Ad,, Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. 
Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 1941, 1859. 

/. de France, 3Iadagascar, Mauritius. 

285. M. pornuta, Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon, f. 176, 1860. 

Tiara cornuta, (Lea) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. 

Madagascar. 

286. M. crenularis, Deshayes, Mag. Zool. 1844, t. 83. 
Tiara crenularis, (Desh.) H. and A. Ad,, Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

Philippines. 

287. M. diadema, Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 174, 1860. 

Tiara diadema, (Lea) H. and A. Ad,, Gen. of Rec, Moll. 
1858. Guimaras Philippines. 

288. M. mitra, Meuschen, (Helix) Mus. Gronov. p. 128, No. 

1868, 1778. 
Reeve, Conch, Icon, f, 175, (1860), (exclus. synon.) 
M. Cyhele, Gould, Proc. Bost. S. N. H. 1847. Exped. Shells 
f. 154, 1852. 



300 

Tiara Cyhele, (Gould) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. 
Point Pahnas, (Sumatra), Navigators, Feejee Isl. 

289. M. Moreleti, Deshayes, (non Reeve) Traite Elem. 
Conch, t. 74, f. 13, 1839. 

290. M. thiarella, Lamarck, An. s. V. No. 11, 1822. 
Helix mitra, Schroter, Fluss. Conch, t. 9, f. 12, 1779. 

M. thiarella, (Lam.) Pot. Mich. Gal. t. 27, f. 19, 20, 1838. 
Tiara thiarella, Brot, Mater, ii, t. 3, f. 10, 1868. (Lam.) H. 

and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. Chenu, Man. 

Conch, f. 1939, 1859. 

291. M. villosa, PhiUppi, Zeitsch. Mai. 1848, p. 154. 
Gassies, Faun. Nov. Caled. t. 4, f. 7, 1863. 

Tiara villosa, (Phil.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

1858. Neiu Caledonia. 



292. M. setigera, Brot. 

Melania setosa, Swainson, var. in Reeve Conch. Icon. f. 185, 
1860. Gruimaras, Negros, (Philipinnes.) 

293. M. setosa, Swainson, Quarterly Journ. Sc. 1824. 

Zool. 111. t. 7, f. 7, 8, 1820-33. "Gray, Zool. Journ. i, t. 8, 
f. 6-8, 1825. Lesson, Voy. Coquille t. 11, f. 2, g. n., 
1830. Philippi, Abbildg. t. 3, f. 10, 1844. Chenu, 
Lemons Elem. Conch, t. 5, f. 4 ; fig. 929, (text), 1847. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 186, 1860, (non Quoy, Gaimard, 
Voy. Astrol.) 
Buecinum aculeatum, Lister, Hist. Conch, t. 1055, f. 8, 1692, 
Gualtieri, Ind. t. 6, f. B, 1742. Favanne, t. 61, f. G. 
5, 1780. 
Tiara setosa, (Swain.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. 
Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 1940, 1859. 

I 31. setosula, Mousson, MSS. (Mus. Mousson.) 
Var. Minor. < M. Baliensis, Mousson, MSS. (non Dunker) (Mus. 

(^ Mousson). 

Waigiou, New Guinea ; Poiiit Palmas, Sumatra ; Amhoyna : 
Bali I. 

294. M. speciosa, A. Adams, (Tiara) Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 

1853. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 184, 1860. 
Tiara speciosa, (A. Ad.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 
1858. New Caledonia. 



301 

§ 13. 
{Plotia (Bolten) H. and A. Adams, 1858.) 

295. M. bellicosa, Hinds, Ann. Mag. N. H. xiv, p. 11, 1844. 
Voj. Sulph. t. 15, f. 15, 16, 1843—45. Chenu, 111. Conch. 

t. 2, f. 10. 
Plotia bellicosa, (Hinda) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

1858. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 1947, 1859. 
Melania piigilis, Reeve, (non Hinds) Conch. Icon. f. 180, 1860. 
M. acanthica, Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. Hanley, 

Conch. Misc. f. 8, 1851. 
Tiara acanthica, (Lea) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

1858. 
3Ielania riidicosta, Mousson, MSS. (Mus. Mousson). 

296. M. cochlea, Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. 

Feejee Id. ; 3IaniUa, Negros {^Philippines) ; Amhoyna. 

297. M. corolla, (Gould) Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 366, 1860. 

(non Gould). 
(An status juvenilis sp. cuj. ?) 

298. M. datura, Dohrn, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1858, p. 135. 
Reeve, Couch. Icon. f. 213, 1860. Ceylon. 

299. M. furfurosa. Gould, Proc. Bost. S. N. H. 1847. 
Exped. Shells, t. 10, f. 162, 1852, (an = M. spinidosa, 

Lam. ?) Manilla. 

300. M. granum, von dem Busch, Phil. Abbildg. t. 1, f. 7, 

1842. 
Mousson, Moll. Java t. 12, f, 3, 4, 1849. Reeve, Conch. 
Icon. f. 219, 1860. 
Plotia granum^ (von dem Busch) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 
Moll. 1858. Java. 

301. M. myurus, Brot, Rev. Zool. 1860, t. 16, f. 3. 

302. M. pagoda, Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 182, 1860. 

Tiara pagoda, (Lea) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. 

Cruimaras. 

303. M. pugilis, Hinds, (non Reeve) Ann. Mag. N. H. xiv, 

p. 10, 1844. 
Voy. Sulph. t. 15, f. 17, 18, 1843—45. Chenu, 111. Conch, 
t. 2, f. 8. 
Plotia pugilis, (Hinds) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 
1858. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 1944, 1859. New Ireland. 



302 

304. M. scabrella, Philippi, Abbildg. t. 4, f. 13, 1847. 
Mousson, Moll. Java t. 12, f. 2, 1849. 

Plotia seahrella, (Phil.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

1858. 
Melania nodosa^ Parreyss, MSS. Java. 

305. M. spinescens, Lesson, Voy. Coquille ii, p. 353, 1829. 

New Gruinea. 

306. M. spinulosa, Lamarck, An. s. V. No. 12, 1822. 
Quoy, Gaimard, Voy. Astrol. t. 56, f. 12—14, 1826—34. 

Pot. Mich. Gal. t. 27, f. 17, 18, 1838. Delessert, Rcc. 

Coq. t. 30, f. 15, 1841. Chenu, 111. Conch, t. 2, f. 26. 

Philippi Abbildg. t. 1, f. 20, 1842. Mousson, Moll. 

Java t. 11, f. 11, 1849. Hanley, Conch. Misc. f. 20, 

1854. (?) Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 156, 1860. Brot, 

Mater, ii, t. 3, f. 8 ; t. 2, f. 6, 1868. 
■ Plotia spinulosa, (Lam.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

1858. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 1493, 1859. 
Helix aspera, Gmelin, 3656, in Wood. Ind. test. f. 141, 1825. 
Melania turrita, Parreyss MSS. 
Buceinum scabrum, (Miiller) Schroter, Fluss. Conch, t. 6, f. 

13, 1779. 
miix seabra, Chemnitz, Conch, t. 136, f. 1259, 1260, 1786. 
3Ielania scabra, (Ferussac) Deshayes, in Lam. An. s. V. No. 

35, 1838. ? Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 183, 1860. 
Plotia scab7-a, (Lam.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

1868. 
Melania denticulata, Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. Reeve, 

Conch. Icon. f. 211, 1860. 
Tiara denticulata, (Lea) H. and A. Ad,, Gen. of Rec. MolL 

1858. 
Melania elegans, Benson, MSS. Mus. Cuming. Reeve, Conch. 

Icon. f. 178, 1860. 
Plotia elegans, (Benson) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

1858. 
Timor, Vanikoro, Lake Tirir, East Java ; Solomon's IsL, Cey- 
lon, Halmoiira, 3Iauritius, Seychelles, I. Negros, Afghan- 
istan. 

307. M. tetrica, Gould, (non Conrad) Proc. Bost. S. N. H. 
1847. 
Exped. Shells, t. 9, f. 153, 1852. 
Plotia tetrica, (Gould) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

1858. 
M. Feejeensis, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 179, 1860. Feejee IsL 



303 

308. M. Terpsichore, Gould, Proc. Bost. S. N. H. 1847. 
Exped. Shells, t. 9, f. 155, 1852. 

Plotia Terpsichore^ (Gould) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

1858. 
Melania Oualanensis, Pease, Am. Journ. Conch, ii, t. 20, f. 

4, 1866. 
31. Ovalanensis, Mousson, MSS. Olim. Catal. Godeffroy. 

Ovalan [Feejee hi.) 
* 

309. M. australis, Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 82, 1859. 

31. decussata, Brot, Mater, i, p. 55, 1862. 

Victoria Riv. [N. Australia.) 

310. M. Balonnensis, Conrad, Proc. Ac. N. S. Phil. 1850, 

p. 11. 
Am. Journ. Conch, ii, t. 1, f. 10, 1865. 
31. tetrica, Conrad, (non Gould) Proc. Ac. N. S. Phil. 1850, 
p. 11. Am. Journ. Conch, ii, t. 1, f. 9, 1865. 
Balonne Riv. {Australia) ; Wide Bay, Claretice Riv. (Australia). 

311. M. eerea, Brot, Rev. Zool. 1860, t. 17, f. 13. 

(An == 31. australis, Lea?) Australia, 

312. M. incerta, Brot, Mater, i, p. 52, 1862. 

31. lirata, Menke, (non Benson) Moll. Nov. Holl. No. 21, 
1843. Australia. 

313. M. Onca, Adams et Angas, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1863. 

Adelaide Riv. [Australia.) 



3Ielanice ignotce vel incertoe sedis. 
31. cethiops, Beck, Lea Catal. Melan. 

31. aspera, Lesson, Voy. Coquille ii, p. 357. New Guinea. 
31. aspersa, Cristoforis Jan. Catal coll. South America. 
31. Carolina^, Gray, Lea, Catal. Melan. 
31. conus, Jacquin, (Hemisinus) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

Moll. 
31. dolorosa, Gould, Proc. Bost. S. N. H. vii, 1859. Hako- 

dadi (Japan.) 
31. costula, Rafinesque, Atl. Journ. and Friend of Knowl. v, 

1833. Ganges. 
31. ehurnea, Miihlfeld, Lea's Catal. Mel. 
31. erodes, Ziegler, Lea's Catal. Mel. 
31. jiuminalis, Miihlfeld, id. 

39 



304 

M. gibhosa, Rafinesque. 

M. (jlabrata, Mulilfeld, Lea's Catal. Melan. 

31. hians, Lea, H. and A. Ad. Gen. of Rec. MolL 1858. 

31. ina'quata, Fischer, d. Waldheim, Lea's Catal. Mel. 

31. inermis, Gray, Lea's Catal. Melan. 

31. inermis^ Sowerby. 

31. Hbertina, Gould, Proc. Bost. S. N. H. vii, 1859. Simoda, 

Ousina, China. 
31. ligata, Cristoforis, Jan. Catal. Coll. South America. 
31. maculata, Parreyss, Lea's Catal. Melan. 
31. ochracea, Cristoforis, Jan. Catal. Coll. Martinique. 
31. plicata, Menke, Syn. Meth. p. 137. 
31. portalis, Rossmiissler, Lea, Catal. Mel. 
31. lyygmcea, Hoch., Desh,, id. 

31. soluta, Philippi, id. 

3f. spimgera, Lea, id. 

31. subcarinata, Gray, id. 

31. subulata, Sowerby, Man. Conch, f. 312, 
31. sulculata, Mawe (Helix), Wood, Ind. Test. f. 73. 
31. tenuis (Lea), Plotia, H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 
31. terebella, Miihlfeld, Lea, Catal. Melan. 
31. tessula, Rafinesque, Atl. Journ. and Friend of Knowl. v, 

1833. Bengal. 
31. tuberculata, von dem Busch, Lea, Catal. Mel. 

Genus DORYSSA, H. and A. Adams. 

1. D. aspersa, Reeve. 

3Ielania aspersa, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 325, 1860. 

31. tigrina, Brot, Mater, i, p. 45, 1862. Pernamhuco. 

2. D. atra, Richard. 

Bulimus atevj Richard, Act. S. H. N. Paris, p. 126, No. 1 8, 

1792. 
3Ielania atra (Desh,), D'Orbigny, Diet, Univ, t. 12, f. 1, 2 

(non Reeve, Conch. Icon., nee Philippi, Abbildg,) 
Aylacostoma atra (Rich.), Morch., Catal, p. 56. 
Pachychilus ater (Desh.), Troschel, Gebiss. d. Schneck. 1857. 
3Iurex decolJatus (Linne), Syst. Nat. xii. No. 578, 1767. 

Wood, Ind. Test. f. 169, 1825 (non 31. decoUata, Lam., 

nee Chemnitz). 
Irlelania truncata, Lamarck, An. s. V. No. 2, 1822. Chenu, 

Man. Conch, f. 1089, 1859. 
3Ielania semipUcata, Encycl. Meth, t. 458, f, 3 a, b, 1816. 
3Ielania JVicotiana, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 202, 1860. 

Guyana, Brazil. 



305 

3. D. brevior, Troschel. 

Melania brevior, Troschel, Schomb. Reise Brit. Guyana, iiiy 
p. 550, 1848. Phil., Abbildg. t. 5, f. 4, 1848. Hanley, 
Conch. Misc. f. 5, 1854. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 197, 
1860. Rio Branca, Guyana. 

4. D. bullata, Lea. 

Melania bullata, Lea, Proc. Ac. N. S. Phil. 1856. Journ. 

Ac. N. S. Phil, vi, D. 8. Lea, Observ. Gen. Unio, xi, t. 

22, f. 29, 1866. 
M. ventricosa, J. Moricand, Journ. Conch. 1856, t. 6, f. 6. 
31. Batesii, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 203, 1860. 

Brazil, Macapa, mouth of Amazon. 

5. D. chloris, Troschel. 

Melayiia chloris, Troschel, Schomb. Reise. Brit. Guyana, iii, p. 
545, 1848. Guyana. 

6. D. circumsulcata, von dem Busch. 

Melania circumsulcata, v. d. Busch, Mai. Blatt, 1858, p. 35 
(non Gassies). Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 201, 1860. 

Helix decollata, Chemnitz, ix, f. 1258, 1786. 

Bulimus consolidatus, Bruguiere, Encycl. No. 48, 1792. 

Helix consolidata, Wood, Ind. Test. f. 134, 1825. 

Melania decollata, Lea, fide von dem Busch (non Linne, nee 
Lamarck). JPallo {?), Maranon, Surinam. 

7. D. Hohenackeri, Philippi. 

Melania Hohenackeri, Philippi, Zeitsch. Mai. 1851, p. 82. 

Surinam. 

8. D. Lamarckiana, Brot. 

Afelania atra (Richard), Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 195 a, b, 
1860. Philippi, Abbildg. t. 5, f. 2, 1848. 

Burmah{?), JEsequibo Riv. [Guyana). 

9. D. Macapa, J. Moricand. 

Melania Macapa, J. Moricand, Journ. Conch. 1856, t. 6, f. 

7. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 194, 1860. 
31. aquatilis, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 73, 1859, 193, 1860. 
M. Charpentieri, Dunker MSS. (Mus. Cuming.) (baud adulta). 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 76, 1859. 3Iacapa, Rio Branca. 

10. D. millepunctata, Tryon. 

3Ielania millepunctata, Tryon, Am. Journ. Conch, i, t. 22, f. 

3, 1865. 
3Ielania Krantzii, Charpentier MSS. (coll. Mousson). 

Amazon. 

11. (?) D. obruta, Lea. 

Melania obruta, Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. 



306 

12. D. petechialis, Brot. 

3Iela7iia petechialis, Brot, Rev. Zool. 1860, t.l7, f. 10. 

13. (?) D. rubida, Lea. 

Melania rubida, Lea, Proc. Ac. N. S. Phil. 1856. Journ. Ac. 
N. S. Phil, vi, n. s. Lea, Obs. Gen. Cnio, xi, t. 22, f. 
16, 18,66. 3Iexico. 

14. D. transversa, Lea. 

Melania transversa, Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. Reeve, 
Conch. Icon. f. 196, 1860. Guyana. 



Genus VIBEX, Oken, 1815. 

1. V. auritus, Mliller, (Nerita) Verm. p. 192, No. 379, 1773. 
Bulinnis auritus, Briiguiere, Encycl. Method. No. 58, 1792. 
Stromhus auritus, Gmelin, No. 43, 1788-93. (Gray) Wood, 

Ind. Test. Suppl. t. 4, f. 22, 1828. 
Stromhus tymijanorum, Chem., t. 136, f. 1265, 1266, 1786. 
? 3Ielania tympanotonos, Desh., Encycl. M^th. No. 12. 
Melania aurita, Ferussac, Syst. Conch, p. 73, No. 4, 1807. 

Rang, Mag. Conch, pi. 12, 1830. Reeve, Conch. Icon. 

f. 190, 1860. 
Pirena aurita, Lamarck, An. s. V. No. 3, 1822. Chenu, 

Le . Elem. Conch, t. 5, f. 1, 1847. 
Vihex auritus, (Mliller) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

1858. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 2004, 1859. SenigaL 

2. V. balteatus, Philippi. 

Melania halteata, Philippi, Abbildg. Register des Bd. iii (non 

Reeve). 
Vihex halteata (Phil.), H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

1858. 
Melania zonata, Philippi, Abbildg. t. 5, f. 5 (non von dem 

Busch nee Benson), (an =^ V. granulosus, Lam. ?) 1848. 

Senegal. 

3. V. Byronensis, Gray (Stromhus), Wood, Ind. Test. Suppl. 

t. 4, f. 23, 1828. 
Melania Byronensis, Gray, Encycl. Metropol. Moll. t. 21. 

Hanley, Conch. Misc. f. 14, 1854. 
Vihex Byronensis (Gray), Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 2006, 1859. 
Melania Owensiana, Gray, Zool. Misc. 1831. 
3Ielania Oiveniana (Gray), "Wood, Ind. Test. Suppl. p. 216, 

1828. 
Vihex Oivenii (Gray), Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 2005, 1859. 

Gray, Guide Syst. Distrib. 1857. 



307 

Melania tuberculosa, Rang, Mag. Zool, 1832, t. 13. Reeve, 

Conch. Icon. f. 191, 1860. 
Vihex tuberculosa (Rang), H. and A. Ad. Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

1858. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 2007, 1859. 
Melania Rangii, Deshayes, in Lamarck, An. s. V. No. 34, 

1838. Senegal. 

4. V. fastigiella, Reeve. 

Melania fastigiella, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 189, 1860. 

5. V. fuscus, Gmelin (Murex), p. 3561, No. 139, 1788-93. 

Lister, Conch, t. 120, f. 15, 1692. 
Murex fuscatus, Maton Rackett, Catal. Test. Brit, in Trans. 

Lin. Soc. (Edit. Chenu,) p. 187, t. 17, f. 6, 1804. 
Melania 3Iatoni, Gray, Zool. Misc. 1831. Hanley, Conch. 

Misc. f. 1, 1854. 
3Ielania Listeri, Anton (ubi ?) 
3Ielania fusca (Gmel.), Philippi, Abbildg. t. 2, f. 1, 1843. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 200, 1860. 
Vibex fusca (Gmel.), H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

1858. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 2008, 1859. Senegal. 

6. V. granulosus, Lamarck. 

Pirena granulosa, Lamarck, An. s. Y. No. 4, 1822. Deles- 
sert, Rec. Coq. t. 31, f. 1 a, b, 1841 (non Chenu, Man. 
Conch.) 

7. V. histrionicus, Reeve. 

dielania histrionica, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 192, 1860. 
Hemisinus histrionicus (Reeve), Brot, Mater, i, p. 61, 1862. 

Cape Colony. 

8. V. quadriseriatus, Gray. 

3Ielania quadriseriata, Gray, Zool. Misc. 1831. Hanley, 

Conch. Misc. f. 9, 1854. 
Tarebia quadriseriata (Gray), H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

Moll. 1858. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 2011, 1859. 
3Ielania tessellata, Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. Brot, 

Mater, ii, t. 1, f. 4, 5, 1868. 
Tarebia tessellata (Lea), H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

1858. 
3Ielania loricata, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 198, 1860. 
3Ielania mutans, Gould, Proc. Bost. S. N. H. 1843. Reeve, 

Conch. Icon. f. 215, 1860. 
Dorgssa mutans (Gould), H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

1858. Gfaboon. 

9. V. soriculatus, Morelet (Melania), Journ. Conch. 1864, p. 

287. Grand Bassan. 



308 

Genus PIRENA, Lamarck, 1812. 
Extrait du Cours, 1812. An. s. V. 1822. 

§1. 

{Faunus, Montfort, 1810). 

1. P. atra, Linne (Strombus), Syst. Nat. xii, p. 1213, No. 516, 
1767. 
Nerita atra, Miiller, Verm. No. 375, 1773. Schrbter, Fluss. 

Conch, p. 371, 1779. 
Strombus atropurput^eus, Schroter, Fluss. Conch, p. 372. 

1779. 
Strombus dealbatus, Gmelin, No. 46, p. 3523, 1778-93. 
Strombus ater, Chemnitz, t. 135, f. 1227, 1786. 
Cerithium Jluviatile, Ferussac, Syst. Conch, p. 69, No. 1, 

1807. 
3Ielanamo7ia, Bowdich, Elem. Conch, t. 6, f. 19, 1822. 
Pirena atra (Linn(^),Mousson, Moll. Java, t. 10, f. 1, 1849. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 5, 1859. 
Faunus ater (Linne), H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 
1858. Gray, Guide Syst. Distrib. 1857. Chenu, Man. 
Conch, f. 2080, 1859. 
Melanopsis atra (Linnd), Ferussac, Monog. Melanops. t. 2, f. 
7, p. 32, 1823. Sowerby, Gen. of Shells, f. 1, 1820- 
24. Deshayes, Encycl. Method. Verm, ii, p. 337, No. 
11. 
Pirena terebralis, Lamarck, An. s. V. No. 1, 1822. Quoy, 
Gaimard, Voy. Astrol. t. ^Q, f. 40—42, 1826-34. Les- 
son, Voy. Coquille, ii, p. 360, 1829. Sowerby, Conch. 
Man. f. 316, 1839. 
Pirena picta, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 3, 1859. 

^ Buceinum acicula, Gmelin, p. 3503, 1788-93. 
Pirena acus, Lesson, Voy. Coquille, ii, p. 360, 1829. 
Status J 3Iela7iopsis princeps, Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. S. Phil. 
juvenilis. \ v, t. 19, f. 74. 

I Faunopsis princeps (Lea), Gill, Proc. Ac. N. S. Phil. 
(^ 1863. 
Monstrosa: Pirena pagodus, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 4, 1859. 
Java, Philippines^ 3Ioluccas, Ceylon (Humbert), Amboyna, 
I. Bourbon, New Guinea. 

2. P. Cantori, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 2, 1859 Penang. 

3. P. nana, Reeve, Conch. Icon, f. 1, 1859. New Caledonia. 

4. P. nitida, von dem Busch, Malac. Bliltt. 1858, p. 36 (an = 

P. atra, L ?) Philippines. 



309 

§2. 
{Melanatria, Bowdich, 1822.) 

5. p. Cecillei, Philippi, Zeitsch. Mai. 1849, p. 28. 

6. P. Duisabonis, Grateloup. 

Melania Duisabonis, Grateloup, M^m. plus. esp. Coq. p. 46, t. 

4, f. 8, 1840. 
Melania bicarinata, Grateloup, ibid. t. 4, f.9, (jnonstrosa). 

Madagascar. 

7. P. fluminea, Gmelin (Buccinum), p. 3603, 1788-93. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 10, 1859. 
Melanatria fluminea (Ginel.), Gray, Guide Syst. Distrib. 
1857. H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. 

8. P. Lamarckii, Valenciennes MSS. Mus. Paris. 
Melanopsis Lamarckii (Valeuc), in Pot. Mich. Gal. t. 31, f. 

5,6,1838. 
Potamides Lamarckii (Valenc), H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 
Moll. 1858. Madagascar f 

9. P. lingulata, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 7, 1859. 

West Africa. 

10. Madagascariensis, Grateloup, (non Encyclop.) 
Melania Madagascariensis^ Grateloup, Mem. plus esp. Coq. 

1840, t. 4, f. 7. 
? Pyrene de 3Iadagascar, Blainville, Malac. t. 21, f. 22, 1825 
-27. 3Iadagascar. 

11. P. maura, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 6, 1859. 

Pirena Deheauxiana, Crosse, Journ. Conch. 1862, t. 13, f. 6. 

West Africa. 

12. (?) P. pirenoides,, Reeve. 

Melania pirenoides, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 128, 1860. 

Fernando Fo. 

13. P. plicata, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 11, 1859. 

3Ielania suhimhricata, Philippi, Abbildg. t. 5, f. 3, 1848 (baud 

adulta). Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 199, 1860. 
Melania fraterna, Lea, Proc. Ac. N. S. Phil. 1856. Journ. 

Ac. N. S. Phil, vi, n. s. Lea, Observ. Gen. Unio, xi, t. 

22, f. 28, 1866. 
Pirena gramdosa (Lzm.),Qh.Qn\x, ^l^n. Conch, f. 2081 (non 

Lamarck), 1859. 

14. P. sinuosa, Philippi, Zeitsch. Mai. 1851, p. 91. 



310 

15. P. spinosa, Lamarck, An. s. V. No. 2, 1822. 

Deshayes, Traite Elem. Conch, t. 75, f. 3, 2, 1839. Reeve, 
Conch. Icon. f. 9, 1859. 
Melanatria spinosa (Lamarck), Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 2082, 

1859. 
Pirena 3Iadagascariensis, Encjclop. t. 458, f. 2 (non Grate- 
loup), (an = P. jiuminea, Gm. var. ?) 3Iadagascar. 

Genus HEMISINUS, Swainson. 
Treat, on Malacol. 1840. 

1. H. acicularis, Ferussac. 

3Ielanopsis acicularis, Ferussac, Monogr. Melanops. p. 31, 

1823. Rossmassler, Icon. f. 672, 1839. H. and A. Ad., 

Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. 
31elania acicularis, (Pfeiffer) Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 209, 1860. 
Melanopsis Paudebartii, Prevost, Bull. Sc. Soc. Philom. 1821. 
Melanopsis Audebartii, Prevost, Mem. Soc. H. N. Paris i, p. 

259, 1823. 
3Ielanopsis Audebardi, (Prev.) Rossm., Icon. f. 673-675, 

1839. 
Melanopsis pyramidalis, Lang, Isis. 1833, p. 430. 
dielanojjsis cornea, Miililfeld, MSS. (ubi ?) 
3Ielanopsis acicidcUa, Ziegler, MSS. in Pot. Mich. Gal. t. 31, 

f. 3, 4, 1838. 
3Ielanop)sis Lembergensis, Schroder, (fide Parreyss.) ubi ? 

Laybach, Vosslau, Lemberg [G-alicia) Carniola, 

2. H. Behnii, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 8, 1860. Pernambuco. 

3. H. bicinctus, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 2, 1860. 

Melania cingidata, J. Moricand, Journ. Conch. 1860, t. 12, 
f. 6. Brazil. 

4. H. Brasiliensis, J. Moricand. 

Melanopsis Brasiliensis, J. Moricand, Mem. Soc. Phys. Genev. 

viii, t. 3, f. 12, 13, 1837. 
Melania Brasiliensis, (Moric.) Phil., Abbildg. t. 4, f. 1, 1847. 

T. Moricand, Journ. Conch.- 1860, t. 12, f. 7. 
Hemisinus Brasiliensis, (Moric.) II. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

Moll. 1858. Reeve, Conch, Icon. f. 5, 1860. 
3Ielania scalaris, (?) var. Wagner, Spix. test. Brasil t. 8, f. 5, 

1827. 
Aylacostoma scalaris, (Wagn.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

Moll. 1858. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 1966, 1859. Brazil 

5. H. bucoinoides, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 3, 1860. 

Jamaica ? 



311 

6. H. Cambojensis, Reeve. 

Melania Cambojensis, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 468, 1861. Ma- 
bille, Journ. Conch. 1866, t. 7, f. 2. Cambodia. 

7. H. contractus, Lea. 

Melania contracta, Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. 
Memisinus contractus, (Lea) Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 19, 1860. 
H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. Seychelles. 

8. H. crenocarina, J. Moricand. 

Melanopsis crenocariiia, J. Moricand, Mem. Soc. Phys. Genev. 

ix, p. 61, t. 4, f. 10, 11, 1838. 
3Ielayiia crenocarina, (Moric.) Phil., Abbildg. t. 4, f. 14, 1847. 

Hupe, Voy. Castelnau t. 13, f. 6, 1857. 
Verena crenocarina, (Moric.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

Moll. 1858. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 2055, 1859. 
Hemisinus crenocarina, (Moric.) Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 16, 

1860. 
3Ielania cingulata, Jonas, (non J. Moricand) Zeitsch. Mai. 

1844, p. 51. Brazil. 

9. H. Cubanianus, d'Orbigny. 

Melania Cubaniana, d'Orbigny, Hist. Nat. Cuba t. iO, f. 16, 

1845. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 358, 1860. 

{?) Melania pallida, Gundlach, Poey's Memor. ii, p. 16, t. 1, 
f. 15, 1856. Pfeiffer, Mai. Blatt. 1856, p. 42. Cuba. 

10. H. dermestoideus, Lea. 

3Ielania dermestoidea. Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. 
Hemisinus dermestoideus, (Lea) H. and A. Ad., Gen of Rec. 
Moll. 1858. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 9, 1860. Seychelles. 

11. H. Edwarsii, Lea. 

Basistoma Edivarsii, Lea, Obs. Gen. Unio v, t. 30, f. 1, 1852. 

Hemisinus Edivarsii, (Lea) Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 7, 1860. 

Reeve, Monogr. Pirena f. 8, 1860. Pernambuco. 

12. H. Esperi, Ferussac, (Melanopsis) Monogr. Melanops. p. 

31, 1823. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 14, 1860. 
Melanopsis Esperi, (Fer.) Blainv., Fauna Franc, t. 7, f. 7, 

1820—30. H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec." Moll. 1858. 

Rossm. Icon. f. 668—671, 1839. 
Melanopsis p)ardalis, Urhlfeld, MSS. 
Melanopsis decussata, Ferussac, Monogr. Melanops. p. 30, 

1823. 
Melanopsis picta, Lang, in Menke Synops. 

Laybach, Plattensee, S. E. Austria, 



312 

13. H. Guayaquilensis, Petit. 

Melania GuaT/aquilensis, Petit, Journ. Conch. 1853, t. 5, f. 6. 
Hemisinus Guayaquilensis, (Petit) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of 

Rec. Moll. 1858. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 1996, 1859. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 23, 1860. 
Melano-psis elatior, Parreyss, MSS. Guayaquil. 

14. H. Kochii, Bernardi, (Melania) Journ. Conch. 1856, p. 

83, t. 3, f. 6. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 21, 1860. Brazil. 

15. H. lineolatus, (Strombus) Gray,, MSS. in Wood Ind. test- 

Supplem. f. 11, 1828. Griffith, Cuv. t. 13, f. 4, 1824— 
33. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 4, 1860. H. and A. Ad., 
Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 1995, 
1859. 

Melania lineolata, (Wood) Phil., Abbildg. t. 6, f. 10, 1848. 

Melanopsis lineolata, (Gray) Hani., Conch. Misc. f. 29, 1854. 

Venezeula, Jamaica. 

16. H. obesus, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 17, 1860. Brazil. 

17. H. olivaceus, Behn, MSS. in Reeve Conch. Icon. f. 12, 

1860. Pernambuco. 

18. H. ornatuB, (Melania) Poey, Memor. p. 422, t. 33, f. 5, 6, 

1854. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 20, 1860. Cuba. 

19. H. Osculati, Villa. 

Melania Osculati, Villa, Giorn. Mai. 1854, viii, p. 113. Notiz, 

int. Gen. Mel. 1855. 
Hemisinus Osculati, (Villa) Brot, Mater, ii, t. 2, f. 9, 1868. 
Melania fuscopunctata, von dem Busch, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 

1859. 
Hemisiyius aspersiis, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 10, 1860. 
Hemisinus Binneyii, Tryon, Am. Journ. Conch, ii, t. 2, f. 8. 
{?) Melanopsis maculata, Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. S. v. t. 19, 

f. 75, 1837. 

Quito, Ecuador, Brazil, Neiv Granada, Peru^ 

20. H. Pazi, Tryon, Am. Journ. Conch, ii, t. 20, f. 6, 1866. 

Quito. 

21. H. pulcher, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 15, a, b, 1860. 

Pernambuco. 

22. H. punctatus, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 1, 1860. 

Pernambuco. 

23. H. ruginosus, Morelet. 

3Ielania ruginosa, Morelet, Test. Nov. Cuba 1, p. 25, 1849. 



313 

Hemisinus ruginosus, Behn., MSS. in Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 

18, 1860. 
R. zoster, Bret, Mater, i, p. 62, 1862. 
Melania Patenensis, Tristram, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1863. 
(f) Jlemismus ruginosus, (Lea) H. and A. Ad., Gen of Rec. 

Moll. 1858. Yzahal, Brazil, L. Peten, Vera Paz. 

24. H. simplex, Tryon, Am. Journ. Conch, ii, t. 20, f. 7, 

1866. Quito. 

25. H. strigillatus, Dunker. 

Melania strigillata, Dunker, Phil. Abbildg. t. 2, f. 14, 1843. 

Hemisinus strigillatus, (Dunk.) Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 11, 

1860. Brazil. 

26. H. tenellus, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 6, 1860. 

Pernamhuco. 

27. H. tenuilabris, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 22, 1860. Brazil. 

28. H. tuberculatus, (Melania) Wagner, 1827. 
Aylacostoma tuberculatum, Spix, Test. Brazil p. 15, t. 8, f. 4, 

1827. 

3Ielania tuherculata, (Wagn.) Brot, Mater, i, p. 45, 1862. 

3Ielania asperata, (Lamarck) Menke Synops. p. 43, (non La- 
marck). Brazil. 

39. H. Venezuelensis, (Melania) Dunker, MSS. Mus. Cum- 
ing. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 81, 1860. Venezuela. 

30. H. Wesselii, Brot, Journ. Conch. 1864. t. 2, f. 2." 

31. H. zebra, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 15, c, d, 1860. Brazil. 



Genus CLEA, A. Adams. 
Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1855. 

1. C. Annesleyi, Benson, Ann. Mag. N. H. 1860. 

Quilon, [Malabar). 

2. C. funesta, H. Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1861. 

Malacca. 

3. C. nigricans, A. Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1855, p. 

119. 
Hemisinus nigricans, (A. Ad.) Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 25, 
1860. Brot, Mater, i, p. 61, 1862. 

Malacca; Sarawak, [Borneo.) 



314 

Genus CANIDIA, H. Adams. 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1861. 

1. C. fusca, H. Adams, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1861. 

Cambodia. 

2. C. Baudoniana, Mabille. 

Hemisinus Baudonianus, Mabille, Journ. Conch. 1866, t. 7, f. 1. 

Cambodia. 

3. C. Helena, Meder, (Melanopsis) MSS. 

Melania Helena, (Meder) Phil. Abbildg. t. 4, f. 4, 1847. 
Melanopsis Helena, (Meder) Mousson, Moll. Java t. 10, f. 4, 

1849. 
Canthidomus Helena, (Meder) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

Moll. 1858. 
Hemisinus Helena, (Meder) Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 24, 1860. 

Brot, Mater, i,- p. 61, 1862. Java. 

4. C. Theminckiana, Petit. 

3Ielania Theminckiana, Petit, Journ. Conch. 1853, t. 7, f. 11. 
3Ielania Helena, Meder, var. Petit, Journ. Conch. 1856, p. 

41. 
Canthidomus Theminckiana, (Petit) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of 

Rec. Moll. 1858. 
Hemisinus Helena, Meder var. Brot, Mater, i, p. 61, 1862. 

Java. 

Genus MELANOPSIS, Ferussac. 

Essai d'une Methode. 1807. 

1. M. Ammonis, Tristram, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1865, p. 542. 

Amman, East of Jourdain. 

2. M. aperta, Gassies, Faun. Nov. Caled. t. 7, f. 11, 1863. 

Jengen, {Nov. Caledon.) 

3. M. brevis, Morelet, Test. nov. Austral. 1857. 

Gassies, Faun. nov. Calid. t. 7, f. 10, 1863. 

Kanala, Balade, [N. Caled.) 

4. M. cariosa, Linne, (Murex) Sjst. Nat. xii, p. 1220, 1767. 

Deshayes, in Lam. An. s. V. No. 8, 1838. Rossmnessler, 
Icon. f. 680, 1839 ; 846, 1854, (exclus. synon.) Hanley, 
Conch. Misc. f. 30, 1854. Reeve, (partim) Conch. Icon. 
f. 4, d, e, 1860. 

Melanopsis pyramidalis, Lang, Isis. 1833, ix, p. 430. 

Melanopsis costellata, Ferussac, Monogr. Melanops. No. 6, 
1823. 



315 

Melanopsis Sevillensis, Grateloup, M^m. plus. esp. Coq. 1840, 

t. 4, f. 10, 11. 
Canthidoonus costatus, (Feruss.) Chenu, (partim) Man. Conch. 

f. 2071, 1859. 
Canthidomus cariosa, (L.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Bee. Moll. 

1858. Spain. 

5. M. carinata, Gassies, Faun. Nov. Caled. t. 7, f. 13, 18G3. 

Balade, Kanala, [N. Qaled.) 

6. M. Charpentieri, Parreyss, MSS. Schiraz. 

7. M. COStata, Ferussac, Monogr. Melanops. No. 5, t. 1, f. 14, 

15, 1823. 
Deshayes in Lam., An. s. V. No. 1, 1838. Encyclop. t. 

458, f. 7, 1816. Chemnitz, xi, f. 2082-83, 1786. 

Guerin, Icon. Regne Anim. t. 13, f. 13, 1829-44. Sower- 

by, Gen. of Shells f. 3, 1820-24. 
Melania costata, Olivier, Voy. Levt. t. 31, f. 3, 1801-1807. 
Canthidomus costata, (Oliv.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

Moll. 1858. 
Canthidomus costatus, (Fer.) Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 2072, 

2077, 1859. 
Melanopsis cariosa, (Linnd) Reeve, (partim) Conch. Icon. f. 

4, b, c, 1860. 

Melanopsis subcostata, Parreyss, MSS. 

3Ielanopsis Jordanica, var., Roth., Moll. Spec. t. 2, f. 12, 13, 

1839. 
Melanopsis eariosa, (Linne) Reeve, (partim) Conch. Icon. f. 4, 

f-h. Rhodes, Palestine. 

8. M. Deshaysiana, Gassies, Faun. Nov. Caled. t. 6, f. 12, 

1863. Neiv Caledonia. 

9. M. Dufourii, Ferussac, Monogr. Melanops. p. 24, No. 2, t. 

1. f. 16, 1823. 
Graells, Catel. Moll. Espana f. 20-22, 1846. Rossmassler, 

Icon. f. 835-839, 1854. Reeve, (partim.) Conch. Icon. 

f. 1, c, 1860. 
Lyrcea Dufourii, (Graells) H. and A, Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

1858. 
Buccina Maroccana, Chemnitz, (partim.) x, t. 210, f, 2080 — 

81, 1786. 
Melanopsis Maroccana, (Chenu) Gassies, Descr. Cog. Alg. f. 

5, 6, 1856. Bourguignat, Mai. Alg. t. 15, f. 24-26, 
1864-66. 

Melanopsis Boriae, Issel, Catal. Moll. Miss. Ital. Persia, 1865, 
in M^m. Zool. Ac. Sc. Torino Ser. ii, Vol. 23. 



316 

Var. a. Melanopsis Graellsii, Villa, in Graells Catal. Moll. 

Espana f. 16-19, 1846. 
Melanopsis Dufourii, (Fer.) var. Rossm. Icon. f. 841, 1854. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 1, a, b, c, 1860. 
Buccinum tricarinatum, Lamark, An. s. V. No. 31, 1822. 

Spain, Algeria, Morea, Persia, Tuscany. 
Var. e. Melanopsis etrusca, Villa, (ubi ?) 

10. M. eremita, Tristram, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1865, p. 542. 

Palestine, near the Dead Sea. 

11. M. frustulum, Morelet, Test. Nov. Austral, 1857. 

Gassies, Faun. Nov. Caled. t. 7, f. 14, 1863, (an = 31. va- 
riegata, Morelet ?) Kanala, Jengen, [New Caled.) 

12. M. Hammanensis, Gassies, Descr. Coq. Alg. f. 9, 10, 

1856. 
Bourguignat, Mai. Alg. t. 15, f. 21-23, 1864-1866. 

Oued el Hamman, [Algeria.]. 

13. M. insignia, Parreyss, MSS. Persepolis, [Persia.) 

14. M. Kotschyi, von dem Busch, Phil. Abbildg. t. 4, f. 11, 

1847. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 7, 1860. 
Cantliidomus Kotschyi, (v. d. B.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of 
Rec. Moll. 1858. Persepolis, [Persia). 

15. M. lineolata, Gassies, Journ. Conch, vi. t. 9, f. 9, 10, 

1857. 
3Ielanopsis livida, Gassies, Faun. Nov. Caled. t. 7, f. 9, 1863, 
(an = 31. frustulum, Morelet, var. ?) 

Balade, [N. Caled.) 

16. M. Lorcana, Guirao, Mall. Blatt. 1854, p. 32. 

Rossmassler, Icon. f. 845, 1854. Lorca, [3Iurcia.) 

17. M. Maresi, Bourguignat, Moll. Sahara (Duveyrier) 1864. 

Mai. Alg. t. 16, f. 22—24, 1864—66. Tunisia. 

18. M. neritoides, Gassies, Joum. Conch, vii, p. 371, 1859. 

1859. 
Faun. Nov. Caled. t. 7, f. 15, 1863. 

Balade, Jengen, Kanala, [N. Caled.) 

19. M. nodosa, Ferussac, Monogr. Melanops. No. 7, t. 1, f. 

13, 1823. 
Lyrcea nodosa, (Fer.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 1858. 

Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 2078, 1859. 
Alelanopsis affinis, Ferussac, Mem. Geol. p. 54, No. 3, 1814. 

Bagdad. 



317 

20. M. ovata, Dunker, Mall. Bliitt. 1861, p. 150, (an = M. 

Zelandiea, Gould ?) New Zealand. 

21. M. Parreysii, MUhlfeld, MSS. in Phil. Abbildg. t. 4, f. 

15, 1847. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 5, 1860. 
Canthidomus Parreyssii, (Mhlf.) H. and Ad., Gen. of Rec. 
Moll. 1858. Hungary. 

22. M. praerosa, Linne, (Buccinum) Syst. Nat. xii, p. 1203, 

m. 471, 1767. 
Chemnitz, ix, t. 121, f. 1035, 1036, 1786. Reeve, (partim) 

Conch. Icon. f. 10, a, c, d, 1860. 
Bulimus p'aerosus, Bruguiere, Encycl. Meth. p. 361, No. 105, 

1792. 
Buccinum praemorsum, Linne, Syst. Nat. x, p. 740, No. 408, 

1758—9. 
Melayiopsis praemorsa, (L.) Gassies, Descr. Cog. Alg. No. 15, 

1856. 
Melanopsis castanea, Ferussac, M^m. Geol. No. 6, 1814. 
Melania buccinoidea, Olivier, Voy. Levt. t. 17, f. 8, 1801 — 

1807. 
Melanopsis buccinoidea, Ferussac, Monogr. Melanops. No. 1, 

1823. Sowerby, Gen. of Shells, f. 2, 1820-24. Bow- 

dich, Elem. Conch, t. 6, f. 18 ; t. 8, f. 14, 1820-22. 
Melanopsis Icevigata, Lamarck, An. s. V. No. 2, 1822. En- 
cycl, Method, t. 458, f. 8, 1816. Chenu, Man. Conch. 

f. 2076, 1859. 
Melanopsis erosa, Roth, Moll. Spec. p. 24, 1839. 
Melanopsis Ferussaci, Roth, Moll. Spec. 1839, t. 2, f. 10. 
Melanopsis hrevis, Parreyss, MSS. Mousson Coq. Bellardi p. 

51, 1854. 
Melanopsis oliva, Cristoforis, Jan. Catal. Coll. 
Melanopsis Mingrelica, Mousson, Coq. Schliifli, ii, 1863, p. 91. 
3Ielanopsis Jlothii, Ziegler, MSS. fide Parreyss. 
M.fusiformis, Sowerby, Gen. of Shells f. 5, 1820 — 24. 

Smyrna, Fl. Leonthes, Mingrelia, Syra, Greece, Algeria, 

23. M. Retoutiana, Gassies, Faun. Nov. Caled. t. 6, f. 9, 

1863. JSfetv Caledonia. 

24. M. Saulcyi, Bourguignat, Catal. Raison. Moll. Saulcy, p. 

66, t. 2, f. 52, 53, 1853. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 8, 1860. Palestine. 

25. M. scalaris, Parreyss, (non Gassies) MSS. Deva {uhi ?) 

26. M. Strangei, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 3, a, b, 1860. 

Neiv Zealand. 



318 

27. M. Tingitana, Morelet, Journ. Conch. 1864, p. 155. 

3Iorocco. 

28. M. turcica, Parreyss, MSS. Jourdain. 

29. M. variabilis, von dem Busch, Phil. Abbildg. t. 4, f. 7, 

10, 1847. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 6, 1860. 
Melanopsis fasciata, Parreyss, MSS. Scliiraz, Persepolis. 

30. M. variegata, Morelet, Test. Nov. Austral. 1857. 
Gassies, Faun. Nov. Caled. t. 7, f. 12, 1863. 

Melano2)sis fuJgurans, Gassies, Journ. Conch, vii, p. 371, 1859. 
Melanopsis lentiginosa^ Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 9, 1860. 

Kanala^ jBalade, {New Caledonia.) 

31. M. Wagneri, Roth, Moll. Spec. 1839, t. 2, f. 11, 1839. 
(?) Lyrcea Dufourii, (Feruss.) Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 2079, 

1859. 
Blelanopsis scalaris, Gassies, Descr. Coq. Alg. f. 7, 8, 1856. 

Bourguignat, Mai. Alg. t. 15, f. 19, 20, 1864. 
Melanopsis prcerosa, (L) var. in Reeve Conch. Icon. f. 10, b, 

1860. (An =c= M. Dufourii, Feruss. var. ?) 

Smyrna, Algeria. 

32. M. Zelandica, Gould, Proc. Bost. S. N. H. 1847. 
Exped. Shells f. 146, 1842. Hanley, Conch. Misc. f. 64, 

1857. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. ^2069, 1859. Reeve, 
Conch. Icon. f. 2, 1860. Neiv Zealand. 



Species ignotce. 

Melanopsis cornea, Ferussac. 

" denegabilis, Ferussac, H. and A. Ad. Gen of Rec. 

Moll. 
" orientalis, von dem Busch. 

" truncata, Cristoforis, Jan. Catal. Coll. 

" trifasciata, Gray, II. and A. Ad. Gen. of Rec. 

Moll. 
" tic/ris, Ferussac (Canthidomus), II. and A. Ad. 

" Gen. of Rec. Moll. 
" zebra, Cristoforis Jan. Catal. Coll. 



319 

Genus PALUDOMUS, Swainson. 
Treat. Mai. 1840. 

§1. 
Tanalia, Gray, 1847.) 

1. P. loricatus, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 1, b, c, 1847. 

Tcinalia lorieata, (Reeve) Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 2215, 1859. 

? Nerita aculeata, Chemnitz, f. 1642,* 

Tanalia aculeata, (Chemn.) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec 

Moll. t. 36, f. 3, 1858. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 2216, 

1859. Blanford, (partim) Trans. Lin. Soc. Lond. xxiii, 

t. 60, 1862. 
Paludomus erinaceus, Reeve, Proc. Zool. S. Lond, 1852. 

Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. la, (nom. loricatus) 1847. 
P. cereus, Reeve, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1852. 
P. uudatus, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 2, 1847. 
Tanalia undata, (Reeve) Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 2218, 1859. 
P. Lai/ardi, Reeve, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1852. 
P. rudis, Reeve, ibid. 

P. jJictus, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 10, 1847. 
P. funiculatus, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 11, 1847. 
Tanalia similis, Layard, Ann. Mag. N. H. 1855. 
Tanalia Reevei, Layard, ibid. 

P. 7ioduIosus, Dohrn, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1857, 
P. Swainsoni, Dohrn, ibid. 

P. jSkinneri, Dohrn, ibid. 

P. disti7iguendus, Dohrn, ibid. 

P. sphcericus, Dohrn, ibid. 

P. solidus, Dohrn, ibid. 

P. torrenticola. Dohrn, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1858. Ceylon. 

2. P. neritoides, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 3, 1847. 

Tanalia aculeata, (Gmelin) Blanford, (partim) Trans. L. Soc. 

Lond. xxiii, 1862, t. 60, s^r. i, f. 1 ; ser. iii a, f. 1 ; ser. 

iiib, f. 1. 
P. Gardneri, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 9, 1847. 
Tanalia Gardneri, (Reeve) Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 2217, 1858. 
P. Teniiantii, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 12, 1847. 
Tanalia Tennantii, (Reeve) Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 2214, 

1859. 
P. dilatatus, Reeve, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1852. 

* Nerita aculeata, Gmelin, No. 72, is Neritina sp. [N. aculeata, Gmel. 
in Reeve Conch. Icon.) 

40 



820 

P. Cumingiamis^ Dohrn, Proc. Zool. S. Loncl. 1857. 

P. Promedarius^ Dohrn, ibid. 

P. Hanleyii, Dohrn, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1858. Ceylon. 

3. P. violaceus, (Tanalia) Layard, Ann. Mag. N. H. 1855. 

Ceylon. 

§2. 
{Philopotamis, Layard, 1855.) 

4. P. Ajanensis, Morelet, Sdr. Conch, t. 6, f. 10, 1860. 

Hafoun, Cape Guardafui. 

5. p. baccula, Reeve, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1852. 

Hanley, Conch. Misc. f. 63, 1857. (An = P. nigricans^ 
Reeve?) Ganges; SeycJielles {Cnming.) 

6. P. bicinctus, Reeve, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1852. 

Hanley, Conch. Misc. f. 42, 1854. 
3Ielania glohdosa, Gray, Griff. Cuv. t. 14, f. 6, 1834. 
Paludomus ghbidosus, (Gray) Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 4, 1847, 

Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 2210, 1859. 
Philopotamis glohidosa^ (Gray) Blanford, Trans, L. Soc. Lond. 

xxiv, t. 27, f. 1, a-e, 12, a, b, 1863. 
Paludomus qlobosus, (Gray) H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

Moll. 1858. Ceylon. 

7. P. COnicus, Gray, Griff. Cuv. t. 14, f. 5, 1834. 

Hanley, Conch. Misc. f. 34, 1854. Reeve, Conch. Icon. 
f. 14 a, b, c, 1847. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 2211, 1859. 

Himalaya. 

8. (?) P. crassus, (Melania) von dem Busch, Phil. Abbildg. t. 

1, f. 10, 11, 1842. Bengal. 

9. P. nigricans, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 6, 1847. 

Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 2213, 1859. 
Pliilopotamis nigricans (Reeve), Blanford, Trans. L. S. Lond. 
xxiv, t. 27, f. 3 a — e, 15 a, b, 1863. Ceylon. 

10. (?) P. olivaceus, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 5, 1847. 
Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 2212, 1859. Sumatra. 

11. P. regalis, (Philopotamis) Layard, Ann. Mag. N. H. 1855. 

Ceylon. 

12. P. sulcatus, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 8, 1847. 
Philopotamis sidcata (Reeve), Blanford, Trans. L. S. Lond. 

xxiv, t. 27, f. 5 a— c, 11, 1863. Ceylon. 

13. P. Thwaitesii, (Philopotamis) Layard, Ann. Mag. N. II. 

1855 (an = sulcatus, Reeve var. ?) Ceylon. 



321 

§3. 
{Paludomns (Swainson), Layard, 18S5.) 

14. P. abbreviatus, Reeve, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1852. 

Ce7/l07l. 

15. p. chilinoides, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 7 a — c, 1847. 

Blanford, Trans. L. S. Lond. xxiv, 1863, t. 27, f. 4 a— f. 
P. co7istrictus, Reeve, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1852. 
P. phasianinus, Layard (non Reeve), Ann. Mag. N. H. 1855. 
P. hevis, Layard, Ann. Mag. N. H. 1855. 
P. fulguratus, Dohrn, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1857. 
P. nasutus, Dohrn, ibid. Ceylon. 

16. P. clavatus, Reeve, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1852. Ceylon. 

17. P. decussatus, Reeve, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1852. 
Philopotamis decussata (Reeve), Blanford, Trans. L. S. Lond. 

xxiv, 1808, t. 27, f. 6, 10. Ceylon. 

18. P. labiosus, Benson, Ann. Mag. N. H. 1858. Burmah. 

19. P. maculatus, (Rivulina) Lea, Proc. A. N. S. Phil. 1856. 

Obs. Gen. Unio, xi, t. 22, f. 10, 1866. 

Ahmednugger, India. 

20. P. maurus, Reeve, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1852. Granges. 

21. P. ornatus, Benson, Ann. Mag. N. H. 1858. Burmah. 

22. P. paludinoides, Reeve, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1852. 

Ganges. 

23. (?) P. petrosus, (Paludina) Gould, Proc. Bost. S. N. H. 

1843. 

24. P. phasianinus, Reeve (non Layard), Proc. Zool. S. 

Lond. 1852. 
Hanley, Conch. Misc. f. 62, 1857. Seychelles, 

25. P. palustris, Layard, Ann. Mag. N. H. 1855. Ceylon. 

26. P. punctatus, Reeve, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1852. 

3Iauritms. 

27. P. pyriformis, Dohrn, Proc. Zool S. Lond. 1858. 

Ceylon. 

28. P. regulatus, Benson, Ann. Mag. N. H. 1858. Burmah. 

29. P. Stephanus, (Melania) Benson, Journ. As. Soc. Cal- 

cutta, V, p. 747, 1836. 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 11, 1847. Ghenu, Man. Conch, f. 
2209, 1859. 



32^ 

Melania coronata, von dem Busch, Phil. Abbildg. t. 1, f. 5, 
1842. Bengal. 

30. P. trifasciatus, Reeve, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1852. 

Ganges. 

31. P. Tanjoriensis, Blanford, Trans. Lin. S. Lond. xxiv, 

1863, t. 27, f. 2 a— e. 
Helix Lanschaunca, Gmelin, 3655, No. 244. 
Helix Tanschauriensis (Gmel.), Chemnitz, ix, f. 1243, 1786. 
Helix fluviatilis, Dillwyn, 959. Wood, Ind. Test. f. 160, 

1825. 
Paludomus acuttis, Reeve, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1852. 
Melania 7iiodicella (Rivulina), Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 1850. 
Rivulina modicella (Lea), H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. Moll. 

Supplem. ii, p. 623, 1858. 
Paludomus spiralis, Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 15, 1847. 
Pahidina lutosa, Souleyet, Voy. Bonite, t. 31, f. 28, 1852. 
Paludomus spurcus (Souleyet), H. and A. Ad., Gen. of Rec. 

Moll. t. 36, f. 2, 1858. Chenu, Man. Conch, f. 2208, 

1859. 
Paludomus parvus, Layard, Ann. Mag. N. H. 1855. 
3Ielania obesa, Philippi, Abbildg. t. 4, f. 3, 1847. 
Melania Zeylanica (Rivulina), Lea, Proc. Zool. S. Lond. 

1850. Pondichery, Timor, Ceylon, Bombay. 

§4. 

[Stomatodon, Benson, 1862.) 

32. P. (? Tanalia) Stomatodon, Benson, Ann. Mag. N. H. 

1862, c, figura. Travancorc, India. 



323 



SUPPLEMENT. 

Species published since January 1st, 18G7. 



Genus MELANIA. 

7 a. M. pisum, Brot, Mater, ii, t. 2, f. 5, 18G8. Java ? 

§6. 
70 a. M. citrina, Brot, Mater, ii, t. 3, f. 13, 1868. Siam. 

83 a. M. insolita, Brot, Mater, ii, t. 3, f. 4, 1868. 

M. jSia7nensis, Martens, (ubi ?) Siam. 

90 a. M. ZoUingeri, Brot, Mater, ii, t. 2, f. 4, 1868. Java. 

§T. 
99 a. M. Bernardii, Brot, Mater, ii, t. 2, f. 13, 1868. 

170 a. Christobalensis, Brot, Mater, ii, t. 2, f. 1, 1868. 

aS'. Christoval. 

§8. 

188 a. M. acutespira, Mousson, Journ. Conch. 1869, t. 15, 

f. 4. Upolu. 

189 a. M. aperta, Mousson MSS. Catal. Godeffroy. Ovalan. 

190 a. M. bifasciata, Mousson, Journ. Conch. 1869, t. 15, 

f- 3. Upolu. 

191 a. M. compressa, Brot, Mater, ii, t. 3, f. 5, 1868. 

200 a. M. Lamberti, Crosse, Journ. Conch. 1869, p. 415. 

New Caledonia. 
202 a. M. laxa, Mousson, Journ. Conch. 1869, t. 15, f. 6. 
M. gratiosa, Mousson MSS. Catal. Godeffroy. Upolu. 

209 a. M. Moricandi, Brot, Mater, ii, t. 3, f. 6, 7, 1868. • 



324 

211 a. M. Ninafouana, Mousson MSS. Catal. GodefFroy. 

Ninafou. 
213 a. M. peregrina, Mousson, Journ. Conch. 1869, t. 15, 
f. 5. Upolu. 

217 a. M. subexusta, Mousson MSS. (Journ. Conch. 1869. 

Upolu. 

§9. 
250 a. M. asperula, Brot, Mater, ii, t. 1, f. 11, 1868. Java. 

255 a. M. Damonis, Brot, Mater, ii, t. 1, f. 9, 1868. 

^S'. Christoval. 

§13. 
235 a. M. calcitrapa, Brot, Mater, ii, t. 3, f. 9, 1868. 

Genus VIBEX. 

9. V. subauritus, Brot (Melania), Mater, ii, t. 1, f. 1 — 3, 

1868. 

M. sori'cwZa^rt (? juvenis), Morelet, Journ. Conch. 1864, p. 
287. Grand Bossan. 

Genus PIRENA. 
1. P. aspera, Brot, Mater, ii, t. 1, f. 6, 1868. 

Genus HEMISINUS. 

27 a. H. thermalis, (Tit.) Parreyss MSS. Brot, Mater, ii, t. 
3, f. 14, 15, 1868. Hungary. 

Genus MELANOPSIS. 

7 a. Melanopsis curta, Gassies, Journ. Conch. 1870, p. 146. 

Neiv Caledonia. 

9 a. M. Dumbeensis, Crosse, Journ, Conch. 1869, p. 70, t. 

8, f. 4. New Caledonia. 

10 a. M. faseolaria, Parreyss MSS. Brot, Mater, ii, t. 2, f. 

10, 1868. Persepolis. 

11 a. M. fusca, Gassies, Journ. Conch. 1870, p. 147. 

Netv Caledonia. 

11 b. M. fusiformis, Gassies, Journ. Conch. 1870, p. 148. 

Neio Caledonia. 



325 

15 a. M. lirata, Gassies, Journ. Conch. 1809, p. 77. 

New Caledonia. 

17 a. M. Mariei, Crosse, Journ. Conch. 1869, p. 69, t. 8, f. 3. 

Neiv Caledonia. 

19 a. M. obesa, Guirao MSS. Brot, Mater, ii, t. 1, f. 14, 15, 

1868, Murcia. 

21 a. M. Pinchinati, Bourguignat, Rev. Mag. Zool. 1868. 

Aragon. 

23 a. M. robusta, Gassies, Journ. Conch. 1870, p. 147. 

New Caledonia. 

25 a. M. Souverbieana, Gassies, Journ. Conch. 1870, p. 148. 

New Caledonia. 

33. M. Zonites, Gassies, Journ. Conch. 1870, p. 147. 

Netv Caledonia. 



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CoTvrad^ Chiy Upper AmazorL Fossils 



A. M E E I C ^ liSr 

JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY. 

NEAV SEKIES. 

PUBLISHED BY THE 

CONCHOLO&ICAL SECTION of the Academy of Natural Sciences of PhiladelpMa 

Vol. YI. 1870-71. Part 3. 

Meeting July 1th, 1870. 
Mr. Tryon, Vice-Director, in the chair. 

The Chairman called attention to the curious error committed 
by several conchologists in plucm^ Strebelia {JPhysella) Bere?idtii 
among the fluviatile mollusks. He supposed that the resem- 
blance of the original generic name to Physa was the cause of 
the error. This Mexican snail has a Glandiniform shell, and 
Mr. T. believed that its nearest relation would probably be with 
Crlandina. The Pliysella Berendtii is described as a fluviatile 
moliusk in Mr. Biuney's work on the Mollusca of N. America, 
recently published by the Smithsonian Institution, and since, in 
Mr. Diill's paper on the classification of Limngeidse, published 
in the Annals of the N. York Lyceum of Nat. Hist. There is 
nothing contained in the original description of the species ov 
in subsequent reference to it by European authors, to cause a 
doubt of its being terrestrial. 

Mr. John S. Phillips presented to the Section the MSS. (and 
colored drawings of the plates) of Spix's Testacea of Brazil. 



Meeting Oct. Qth, 1870. 

Dr. RuscHEXBEKGER, Director, in the chair. 

An extract of a letter from Wm. H. Dall was read, as fol- 
lows : 

" I would call your attention to a fact which may be of inte- 

13 



182 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

rest to the Section. A late paper by A. G. More, in the An- 
nals and Magazine of Natural History, gives, ostensibly for the 
first time, an account of the animal of Limncea involuta, Har- 
vey. The description of tliis species was read by Mr. Harvey 
to the Linnean Society in April, 1834, but the description was 
first published in the Annals of Nat. History, v, 1st series, p. 
22, March, 1840, by W. Thompson, Esq., with a thorough 
account of the form and anatomy of the animal by John Goodsir, 
Esq. In view of this fact, it is extraordinary that thirty years 
after, in the same periodical, the animal should be described 
again, as for the first time." 

The following papers were presented and referred to Commit- 
tees : 

" On the Relations of the Amphiperasid?e ;" by Theo. Gill. 

"Notes on the Land Shells of East Tennessee;" by Jas. 
Lewis, M. D. 

"Descriptions of New Fossil Shells of the Upper Amazon; 
by T. A. Conrad. 

" Descriptions of new Tertiary Fossils, with Notes on two 
genera of Lamellibranchiata ;" by T. A. Conrad. 

"Notes on Lingual Dentition, No. 2;" by W. G. Binney and 
Thos. Bland. 

"Notices and Reviews of New Conchological Works ;" by G. 
W. Tryon, Jr. 

A specimen of Unio cylindricus^ Say, from the Wabash river, 
was presented by Mrs. L. W. Say. The pattern of coloring of 
the epidermis in this specimen consists of broad and narrow 
green rays, disposed on a yellow ground. Very few rayed 
specimens of the species are known to science. 



Meeting Nov. M, 1870. 
Dr. RusCHENBERGER, Director, in the chair. 

Several donations to the cabinet and library were announced. 
The following papers were presented for publication : 

" On the Limpets, with special reference to the species of the 
West Coast of America, and to a more natural Classification of 
the Group;" by Wm. H. Dall. 

"Shells of the Holston River;" by James Lewis, M. D. 



OP CONCHOLOGY. 



183 



ON THE RELATIONS OP THE AMPHIPERASIDiE. 



BY THEODORE GILL, M. D., PH. D. 



Various species and groups of species, -which a critical exami- 
nation demonstrates to be little related to each other and indeed 
to be very widely removed from their mimetic analogues, are yet 
so simihar in superficial form or features, that close approxima- 
tion of such is perfectly justifiable and may perhaps be the only 
alternative so long as the entire organization rcnmins unknown. 
Numerous are the molluscous forms that have been thus approx- 
imated on account of a similarity of the shells, but which are 
now ascertained to belong to entirely different groups. Refer- 
ence need only be here made to the patelliform shells, now dis- 
tributed among different orders and subclasses, to Lunatia and 
Ampullaria, to Meladonius and Viviparus, to 3Iarisa and Pla- 
norbince, to Erato and the 31arginellidce, to Turridce and the 
Mitridce,* and to the A7nj)Idperasidce and Cyprceidce. But it must 
be confessed that while the similarity between most of the groups 
just contrasted is very considerable, that between the Araphipe- 
rasidae and CypriTeidie is in truth comparatively sliglit and of the 
most superficial nature. And yet the distinctness and the re- 
mote character of the affinities of the really similar shells is now 
generally admitted, while many of the best conchologists still 
approximate next to each other, and evidently with the idea 
that their affinity is more than usually great, the last mentioned 
groups. It will therefore not be a labor of supererogation to 
inquire into the propriety of such a collocation. 

It is evident that the idea of the affinity of the Amphipera- 
sidse and Cyprseidge has been insensibly, perhaps almost wholly, 
derived from the largest and one of the most common and well 
known species — the Ampliiperas ovum. And certainly there is 
considerable similarity in the general contour of that species to 
that of the Cyprseidae, and even in color there is a likeness to 

* Dr. Troschel has overlooked the prior foundation, by J. E. Gray, of 
a family [Turritidce) based on the same characters as Strigatellacea. See 
Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. ; Guide, 1857, p. 23. 



184 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

C. ehurnea. Amphiperas ovum, however, is one of tlie most 
aberrant forms of the family to which it has given its name, 
under the patronymic form, and Radius volva is one of the most 
typical, — that is, it exhibits the plan of growth in its greatest 
simplicity. 

In all the Cyprseidje the shell exhibits at the posterior end the 
evidences of a spire, although sometimes almost or entirely con- 
cealed from view in the adult, and even sunk in an umbilical 
depression, produced by the accumulation of callous around it. 
In the young, however, the spire is very distinct, ihuugh it may 
be either depressed or elevnted, and the whorls are Avound 
around an axis as in all spiral shells, the modifieil form of the 
adult shell beincr the result of the great successive increase of 
the whorls, the closeness of the Avinding near the sutures, the 
inflection of the labrum aad the expansion of a callous deposit 
over the lips. 

On the other .hand, the Amphiperasidre have not even spiral 
shells, the testaceous envelope being simply a shell loosely rolled 
on itself, and more or less attejmated and twisted at the extre- 
mities, and of course a spire is never seen either in young* or 
old, and the only feature of resemblance in the shell is the infla- 
tion of the testaceous roll, combined with the proportionately 
little attenuation of the extremities, the inflection of the outer 
lip, and that exten&ion at the extremities which is the co-ordi- 
nate of the peculiar plan of growth. The resemblance in form 
of any species of the Amphiperasidse to Cyprseidaa is therefore 
simply analogical, and the elements for an exact comparison do 
not exist. The resemblance between Cypn^idie and certain 
Cassididje and Marginellidfe is homological, and based on simi- 
lar modifications of growth; but in Amphiperasidie the reverse 
is decidedly the case. And it may still further be remarked 
that, while the shells of Cyprgeidse, Planorbinae, TerebridfB and 
IlaliotidjB are comparable among themselves, because they all 
exhibit modifications of a spiral, the comparison cannot be ex- 
tended to the Araphiperasidge. But, at the same time, it may 
be added that the morphologic;! 1 problem of the conversion of 
the spiral into the roll is not a difficult one, and various forms, 
otherwise closely allied, are found among the Tectibranchiates, 
distinguished from each other by the development of a spiral or 
simply rolled testaceous envelope. Among the Pectinibranchiates, 
however, the difi'erence is the co-ordinate of other and more im- 
portant ones. An illustration may serve best to render the con- 
trast obvious. A circle and an ellipse are two fundamentally 

*The embryonic condition is not referred to, and is unknown. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 185 

different figures, and yet the character of the ellipse allows of an 
immense variation, so that one form of it may be superficially 
entirely unlike another, and only distinguishable from the circle 
by exact measurement. And yet the circle-like ellipse has all 
the elements of the ellipse. 

As it might be supposed that such differences as those cited 
must be so obvious as to have at once been remarked, and that 
there was universal tacit acquiescence as to the fact, but con- 
tempt of the systematic value, it may be added that, in the latest 
edition of the most esteemed "Manual of the Mollusca," Am- 
phiperas or '•'■Ovulum, Lam.," is expressly defined as having a 
"shell like Cyprcea ; inner lip smooth," and that both the latter 
and the family Cyprpeidfe are accredited with a "spire con- 
cealed." In the latest monograph of the family, the shell is ex- 
pressly said to have a " spire more or less immersed, mostly [!] 
concealed," and it is remarked that "Linnaeus is not to he com- 
plimented on his sagacity in having referred the typical species 
of this group to Bulla. The resemblance of the shell of Ovu- 
lum to that of Cyprcea is obvious enough, and there is a simihir 
affinity between the animals of the two genera. The Ovulum 
is, in fact, a Cowry, with the extremities moi'c or less pro- 
duced.""^ 

It may, however, be justly regarded as rather meritorious ou 
the part of Linne to have remarked that real similarity of de- 
velopment of the shells of the forms now called Amphipevasidte 
and BulHdjB which induced him to place them in one genus ; he 
at least did not assign a spire to shells in which it is entirely ab- 
sent : as to his reference of the species to Bulla, it is more than 
possible that he really regarded the Amphiperasidifi as the typi- 
cal species of Bulla., but, as he mentioned no type, it seems ex- 
pedient to recognize the subsequent subdivision of that group, 
and the limitation by exclusion to the restricted genus now uni- 
versally recognized under the name Bulla. 

Lest the previous remarks may be misunderstood, it may, 
how^ever, be added that the similarity noticed is simply analogi- 
cal ; for, however similar some of the shells of the respective 
families may be (^. e. Volvula and Atys, and most of the Am- 
phiperasidas), the study of the entire organization demonstrates 
that they belong to two different subclasses of the Mollusca. 

The necrlect to notice the true character of the shell of Am- 
phiperas is the more remarkable, as in the classic work on the 

* Reeve, Monograph of the geaus Ovulum, 1865, Diagnosis aud 
Remarks. 



186 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

Mollusca it was especially described,* ami the genus was ex- 
pressly distinguished from Cyprcea by the constant absence of 
the spire. t It is true that Lamarck failed to appreciate the 
value of the difference he perceived, but it must be remembered 
that the relations of analogy and affinity were not then so well 
understood as now, and he, too, was unduly impressed by the 
similarity of contour between the two groups. 

The impression conveyed by the superficial resemblance of 
the shells has been carried over to the consideration of the ani- 
mal, and formerly the belief was current that the animals of the 
two groups were scarcely distinguishable, or, as M. Deshayes has 
remarked, zoologists were not surprised to find that between the 
two there was a perfect identity.X M. Deshayes himself has, 
however, while convinced of the justice of M. de Blainville's 
opinion, discovered differences between the two forms — not, how- 
ever, the important ones now recognized — although he has re- 
garded them as of slight value. But when it is asserted that 
there is a complete identity between the two, or that the differ- 
ences are slight, it can only be because the two forms exhibit 
the normal gasteropodous structure with adaptive modifications 
as regards the shell, and with no very prominent special exter- 
nal modifications; for a more profound study of the organiza- 
tion reveals the most important differences. In the first place, 
the AmphiperasidfE have a non-retractile snout or muzzle, while 
the Cyprseidse are one of a small group provided with a snout 
retractile from the tip. Other important differences in the struc- 
ture of the oral region have been observed, § and the dif- 
ference in the dentition of the radula is very marked, the late- 
ral teeth having an unsymmetrical fan-like form, expanding 
towards their extremities and finely pectinate. It must also not 
be forgotten that the visceral sack is the mould on which the 
shell is framed, and that there must be corresponding differences 
between it and that of the Cyprgeidae. 

In view of the differences observed by him. Dr. Troschel has 

* " Elles sont enroulees sur elles-niemes de manie.re que leur cavite 
tourne autour de I'axe de la coquille et I'enveloppe eiitierement, en sorte 
qu'elles n'ont reellenietit point de spire." Lamarck, H. N. des Animaux 
8. Vert., 2e ed. x, p. 465. 

t " Ce caractere du bord gauche jamais dente, et celui d'un defaut 
constant de spire, suffisent pour distinguer les Ovules des Porcelaines." 

J " AUiSsi, lorsque MM. Quoy et Gainiard * * * eurent rapporte 
I'animal de 1' Ovuta oviformis, et lorsque M. de Blainville en eut donne 
une description et une figure, les zoologistes ne furent point etonnes de 
trouver, entre cet animal et celui des Porcellainea, une identite com- 
plete." Deshayes in Lamarck, H. N. des Animaux s. Vert., x, 1844, 
p. 465. 

I See Troschel, Gebiss der Schnecken, i, p. 216, 217. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 187 

most truly remarked that the affinity of the Amphiperasidse to 
the Cyprseidse has been much exaggerated. To that learned 
naturalist we also owe the definite approximation on substantial 
grounds of the Amphiperasidse and Pediculareacea* and the 
combination of those two families in a technical but at the same 
time natural group, f distinguished by the form of the lateral 
teeth of the radula and their comb-like armature, and, it may 
now be added, by the simple rolling of the shell on itself. Such 
characters isolate them from the rest of the great group of Ta- 
nioglossa. of which they are members, and, if any special name 
is desired, the designation Digitoglossa, (although a hybrid), 
imagined by Gray for the Amphiperasidse, but soon afterwards 
abandoned, may be taken up and extended to embrace the large 
group. 

As the young shells of Amphiperasidae are rare in cabinets, it 
may not be superfluous to add that their character can be ascer- 
tained by a longitudinal section of the adult. 

* Messrs. Adams admit three families — Cypraeidse, Amphiperasidse and 
Pediculariidse (i, p. 263 — 274), and Dr Chenu has united all in one family 
— Cypraeidse (i, p. 264 — 274. 1859) — but no reasons fcr such juxtapositioa 
are given, or are apparent from the diagnoses or remarks. 

fTroschel, Gebiss der Schnecken, ii, p. 12, 1866. 



188 AMERICAN JOURNAL 



NOTES ON THE LAND SHELLS OP EAST TENNESSEE. 



BY JAMES LEWIS, M. D. 



I cim indebted to Miss Annie E. Law, of Concord, Tennessee^ 
for the material on which the tbUowing notes are based. Very 
likely other species than those included herein may hereafter be 
found in the region accessible to Miss Law ; but any such may 
be regarded as exceptional or ver}'' rare, and not likely to be pre- 
sented in such numbers as to throw much light on species. The 
species and well marked varieties number 33. Some of them 
were presented to my notice under circumstances well calculated 
to impress me with tlie idea that they were new species. But re- 
garding them as more likely to be favorably received as remark- 
able varieties of known species, I present them in this list under 
that form- of treatment. 

1. Helix albolabris, Say, var. A limited number of 
specimens of rather small size, depressed spire and light color 
are all I have seen. Evidently a rare variet}^ 

2. Helix alternata, Say. An abundant species of large 
size, light color — those found in the valley of the Holston being 
lighter than those found in Monroe county on elevated land. 
The young specimens are much disposed to be carinate. 

3. Helix alternata, Say, var. costata. A smaller shell 
with a more depressed spire, strongly marked striae or ribs. 
Not abundant. 

4. Helix appressa, Say, Small var. A somewhat abun- 
dant shell. 

5. Helix capsella, Gould, (Plate 12, figs. 1, 2.) A rare 
species found in Monroe county, on hill sides, associated with 
J{. suppressa, Say. When first presented to ray notice I was 
disposed to regard it as a new species, designing to propose for 
it the name Helix [Hyalina) Monroensis. My specimens have 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 



189 



a diameter of nearly one-third of an inch, and a fraction over 
seven whorls. Dr. Binney and W. G. Binney ascribe to cajjsella 
a diameter of one-fifth of an inch and a fraction over six 
■whorls. Notwithstanding the discrepancy, I am constrained for 
the present to regard my shells as being possibly a variety of 
capsella. Dr. Gould's shells were probablv immature. 

Helix concava, Say. A not very abundant species. Found 
mostly in the valley of the Holston. My largest specimen is 
0.81 inch in diameter. The shells of this species from near 
Concord are remarkable for their large size. 

7. Helix demissa, Binney. 

8. Helix Downteana, Bland. About a dozen specimens in 
all were at various times taken from under a log near Philadel- 
phia, Monroe county. Not found elsewhere. 

9. Helix elevata, Say. A very abundant species. 
Banded specimens are not uncommon. 

10. Helix exoleta, Binney. Rare, 

11. Helix FALLAX, Say. Abundant in the hilly regions of 
Monroe county. 

12. H. FULIGINOSA, Griffith. Found in Blount county, and 
near Concord. Rare. My largest specimen is nearly \\ inch 
in diameter (= 31| mill.) Mr. W. G. Binney ascribes the diam- 
eter 26 mill, to this species. 

13. Helix gularis, Say. A very abundant species. 

14. Helix Hazardi, Bland. A rare species; less abundant 
than H. spinosa, Lea. 

15. Helix interna, Say. A somewhat rare species. 

16. Helix intertexta, Binney. A somewhat rare species, 
not so fully developed as in Ohio and New York. 

17. Helix introferens, Bland. A single specimen mingled 
with a. Mugeli, the larger specimens of which it resembles in 
form, size and color, is all I have. It has a more constricted 
aperture than Rugeli ; the umbilicus is wide at the termination 
of the last whorl, but more contracted within than in small speci- 
mens of H. fallax of about the same size. I find only a faint 
callous thickening on the pillar lip within and near the margin 
of the aperture by exploring it with a small tenaculum. Greater 
diameter (excluding the reflected lip) 12 mill. =0.46 inch. This 
is less than is given in W. G. Binney 's " Land and Fresh Water 
Shells," but much greater than I find in doubtful specimens sent 
to me by other correspondents. 



190 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

18. Helix LJEViGATA, Pfi\ A smaller species than /w%mosa, 
found in the hilly regions around Philadelphia, Monroe county, 
and somewhat more abundant than fuliginosa in other parts of 
East Tennessee. 

19. Helix lasmodon, Phillips. A rare species. 

20. Helix ligera, Say, var., (Plate 12, figs. 3, 4.) A 
few specimens, which I am now disposed to regard as a variety 
of H. ligera, were found in a dense coppice on Fork Greek. 
When first presented to my notice I was persuaded they might 
be regarded as an undescribed species, and designed to submit 
them for publication as Helix Annce, which being preoccupied, 
I thouglit to change to H. acerra. A more careful study of the 
shells made it apparent they were unusually large specimens of 
H. ligera Say, only very slightly elevated. On page 290, 
" Land and Fresh Water Shells," Mr. W. G. Binney has figured 
a shell (fig. 519) from the mountains of North Carolina, the 
form and size of which is very near the form and size of my 
shell. Mr. B. seems disposed to regard his shell as a var. of 
Zonites inornata, which it possibly may be. But I suspect that 
it is identical with the shell before me, in which case it will no 
doubt prove to be a large form of IT. ligera hitherto little known. 
My shell has seven whorls and a fraction. Greater diameter 
0.81 inch = 18 mill. Dr. Binney says of ligera — " greatest trans- 
verse diameter five-eighths of an inch (0,625), usually much 
less." My shell exceeds the maximum given by Dr. B., by 
about one-twelfth of an inch. One specimen found on Chilhowee 
Mountains, Blount county. 

21. Helix major, Binney. Miss Law's shells are character- 
istic in form and color, but are less in size than the maximum 
given by W. G. Binney, whose measurement is 87| mill. My 
largest shell is only 32 mill, excluding the lip. 

22. Helix monodon, Rackett. A rare shell in East Ten- 
nessee. Only two or three found. 

23. Helix palliata, Say. A rare species. Half a dozen 
found. 

24. Helix perspectiva. Say. An abundant species. Spec- 
imens from Monroe county are of a lighter color than those 
found in the valley of the Holston. 

25. Helix Rugeli, Shuttleworth. A somewhat abundant 
species, variable in size ; more variable in the valley of the 
Holston, Largest shell = 14| mill. Smallest shell = 7f mill, 
largest diameter, lip excluded. 



OF CONCHOLOQY. 191 

26. Helix Sayii, Binney, (Plate 12, figs. 5, 6, 7.) Two mu- 
tilated specimens of monstrous size, found on Chilhowee Moun- 
tains in Blount county, when presented to my notice seemed to 
deserve to be regarded as a distinct species bearing the same re- 
lations to H. Sayii that H. major does to II. albolahris ; or as 
H. Vaneouverensis does to H concava. It was my intention to 
propose these shells as a new species under the name Helix 
Ohilhotveensis. They diifer from typical 11. Sayii in having a 
cubic capacity more than five times as great, smaller or more 
rudimentary teeth, a wider development of the reflected lip on 
the base, and in several other less important details. The great- 
est diameter of the most perfect shell before me is about 1.40 
inches. Dr. Binney (Terr. Moll, ii., 187) says of H. Sayii — 
*' Transverse diameter commonly less than one inch ; but there 
are specimens in the Philadelphia Museum from Mr. Hyde's 
collection, measuring one inch and three-quarters." This meas- 
urement exceeds that of my shell, and very likely refers to spec- 
imens indentical with it. Possibly the example of II. major may 
afford naturalists an excuse for regarding the shell of Chilhowee 
Mountains as distinct from II. Sayii. 

27. Helix spinosa, Lea. A somewhat common, but by no 
means abundant species. 

28. Hklix stenotrema, Fer. Common, but not abundant. 

29. Helix suppressa. Say. Less abundant than the preced- 
ing. Hill sides. 

30. Helix thyroides, Say. Somewhat rare. 

31. Helix tridentata, Say. Found, not abundantly, in the 
Talley of the Holston. Largest diameter, according to W. G. 
Binney, 16 mill. My largest shell measures 21 mill, excluding 
the lip. 

32. Pupa armifera. Say. Found in the vicinity of Little 
River ? Smaller than Ohio shells. Rare. 

38. Succinea avara, Say. A small variety. Rare. 



192 AMERICAN JOURNAL 



DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW FOSSIL SHELLS OF THE UPPER 

AMAZON. 



BY T. A. CONRAD. 



Mr. Gabb has described and figured in the fourth volume of 
the American Journal of Conchology a few species of fossil shells 
from a tributary of the Upper Amazon near Pebas. A larger 
number of species from the same group, collected by Mr. Haux- 
well, has been sent to me by Professor James Orton, of Vassar 
College, to describe. 

Prof. Orton remarks, " a very few of these shells were found 
"where I first discovered the deposit, which was at Pebas, near 
the mouth of the Ambiyacu ; but the rest, comprising nearly the 
whole collection, were obtained nearly 30 miles below Pebas, on 
the south side of the Maranon, at Pichua, just west of Cocha- 
quinas. The locality is about 2200 miles up the Amazon, and 
the shells appear to be more abundant even than at Pebas, Tiiey 
occur ill that peculiar formation of fine laminated colored chiys 
which is spread over the entire valley of the great river, and 
which Prof. Agassiz had pronounced ' Drift.' Similar fossilife- 
rous beds the natives say are to be seen at Omagua, and also up 
the Ambiyacu." 

There are 7 species of the genus Pachydon, Gabb, which does 
not, so far as we know at present, have any living representative, 
and is very different from any known existing fresh water genus. 
In the collection are fragments of a singular bivalve, probably 
allied to 3IuUeria, one of which is pearly as a Unio and has a nar- 
row elongated muscular impression, very different in size and 
outline from that of llulleria. It seems to have been carried by 
a flood in some river of the time to its present position. 

It is not possible to state without doubt what the relative 
stratigraphical position of this group may be, but if all the spe- 
cies are extinct it cannot be later than the Tertiary. The spe- 
cies being all new, or at least unknown in the books and cabinet 
of the Academy of Natural Sciences, the Pleistocene origin of 
the group is at least very doubtful. It may have lived either in 
fresh or brackish water, but it is certainly not of marine origin. 



OF CONCirOLOGY, 



193 



These fossils, judging from very small specimens of the stra- 
tum, were deposited on a clay bed in vast abundance, entire bi- 
valves and univalves being mingled together among a multitude 
of fragments. It seems clear that they were not transported 
from a distance, but lived and died in the vicinity of the spot in 
which they are found, and near the shore of a large river or estu- 
ary, for the many fragments must have been washed from the shore 
among the living specimens. Most of these fossils, many of the 
small ones very delicnte, are as perfect as when living, some spe- 
cimens of Neritina and Pachydon retaining the epidermis, either 
whole or in part. When the valves of Pachydon are separated 
the shell is found to be filled with a drab colored sandy clay, 
holding minute scales of mica, and frequently ferruginous. 

Ciasteropoda. 
IS^A, Conrad. 

Subulate ; spire produced, apex slightly eroded ; last whorl 
rounded, slightly umbilicated ; aperture ovate, entire in front, 
peritome continuous, reflexed and prominent on the columella 
side. 

This I presume to be a fresh water genus closely allied to Tri- 
cula, Benson. It differs only in the great prominence of the 
inner lip, which is nearly erect, and the more acute angle of the 
aperture. I should hardly have considered the fossil generically 
distinct from Trieula if it had been found in India, where the 
latter is living. 

I. Ortoni, Gabb.— pi. 10, fig. 10, 13. 

Mesalia Ortoni, Gabb, Amer. Journ. Conch, vol. 4, p. 198. 

Mr. Gabb has given a full description of this species, but his 
specimens were not perfect enough to show the peculiar charac- 
ter of the reflexed labium. The figure is of the natural size. 
Fig. 10 is an enlarged outline of what is supposed to be the 
young shell. 

I. LINTEA, Conrad. — PI. 10, fig. 6. 

Turreted, rather widely subulate ; whorls 6, regularly convex, 
with revolving raised lines, 6 or 7 on the penultimate, and about 
8 on the last volution, with a minute intermediate line between 
some of the larger ones ; the last whorl obtusely rounded at 
base ; aperture oval. 

LIRIS, Courad. 
Elongated, subcylindrical, with convex whorls and oblique Ion- 



194 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

gitudinal ribs ; apex entire ; aperture suboval, small, peristome 
continuous, labium reflexed and prominent. 

This may be only a subgenus of the former, but the shell has 
more general resemblance to Pupa and is without an umbilicus. 
The aperture is proportionally smaller. 

L. LAQUEATA, Conrad. — PI. 10, fig. 3. 

Subcylindrical, whorls 8, rounded, with oblique, thick, rounded, 
longitudinal ribs, which on the last whorl extend to the line of 
the angle of the mouth. The first and second whorls from the 
apex entire. 

The figure is intended merely to indicate the size and propor- 
tions of the shell. 

These two shells probably belong to the family 3Ielaniidce. 

EBORA, Conrad. 

Turbinate, columella much arched ; peristome continuous, 
thickened; aperture notche<l at base. 

This small shell is solid, and four specimens umbilicated, but 
one, the largest, is closed, I presume this to be a fresh water 
genus, but have no means of proving it. 

E. CRASSILABRA, Conrad. — PI. 10, fig, 14. 

Turbinate, spire short, consisting of 4 whorls, which are 
rounded and smooth ; last whorl broad and rounded. 

Subgenus Nesis, Conrad. 

Turbinate, with prominent revolving ribs ; umbilical channel 
wide, extending to the base ; labrum not thickened, slightly re- 
flexed. 

E. BELLA, Conrad.— PI. 10, fig. 17. 

Last whorl with 7 prominent revolving ribs, the intermediate 
spaces concave ; spire consisting of 4 volutions, flat towards 
the apex, and having two ribs on each except the apicial whorl 
and the adjacent one, which are smooth ; the apicial whorl is 
well defined but minute. 

HEMISINUS, Swainson. 

H. SULCATUS, Conrad. — PL 10, fig. 2. 

Subulately turbinated, solid, polished, whorls slightly convex, 
revolving grooves or impressed lines not closely arranged, about 
six on the penultimate Avhorl, and two minute lines, one towards 
each boundary ; last whorl with about 23 lines, which reach the 
base. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 



195 



An elegant species, closely allied to H. tenellus, Reeve, but it 
has a longer last whorl and a narrower aperture. 

This shell is very interesting, as it indicates a decidedly fresh 
water genus in this fossil group ; a genus living in South Ameri- 
can rivers. 

DYRIS, Conrad. 

Subulate, with many volutions ; aperture ovate ; labium re- 
flexed. 

The mouth of this shell is similar to that in the genus Melania, 
but the form and sculpture of the shell are very different from 
those of Melania. 

D. GRACILIS, Conrad. — PI. 10, fig. 8. 

Very slender and elongated ; whorls 8, convex, revolving 
lines carinated, very regular, 4 on the penultimate and 5 on the 
last whorl ; about the sutures there is a rather wide indented 
space, whorls minutely and obliquely striated. 

The figure is a rough outline, merely indicating the natural 
size. 

NERITINA, Lara. 

N. Ortoni, Conrad.— pi. 10, fig. 5, 11. 

Thick, transversely suboval ; spire very small, of 3 whorls, 
last whorl flattened on top ; aperture expanded ; margin of inner 
lip very slightly concave, acute, densely and minutely plicated ; 
labrum summit nearly on a line with the apex, which is entire, 
colored markings generally zigzag brown longitudinal lines. 

N. pupa, Gabb (not Lin.), Amer. Journ. Conch, vol. 4, p. 197, 
pi. 16. 

This species is widely different in form and size from N. pupa. 
Mr. Gabb had only young shells to describe from, but in the 
present collection are 15 specimens of various ages, figure 11 
representing the actual size of a full grown shell. Fig. 5 repre- 
sents a variation in the pattern of colored markings. 

N. pupa is probably about one-third the size, and has not the 
flattened form of the area of the spire. 

BULIMUS, Scopoli. 

B. LINTEUS, Conrad. — PL 10, fig. 9. 

Acutely ovate, thin in substance, whorls 5, those of the spire 
slightly convex, suture impressed ; last whorl slightly carinated 
at the suture, elongated ; surface minutely reticulated with ru- 
gose lines ; columella arched, not plicated ; peristome not pre- 
served. 



196 



AMERICAN JOURNAL 



This is the only land shell in the collection, and there can be 
little doubt that it belongs to some section or subgenus of Buli- 
mus, probably Plectostylus, Beck. The sculpture is so minute 
that it requires a lens to make it visible. 

Conchifera. 

Family CORBULIBJE. 

PACHYDON, Gabb. 

The hinge of this genus is very similar to that of Corhula, 
much more so than to tiiat of Azni'a, but the spiral beaks are in 
marked contrast to those of Corhula. When the left valve of 
Corhula idoriea, Conrad, is compared with a corresponding one 
of Pacliydon tenuis^ they seem to be opposite valves, so widely 
different is their outline. 

The pallial line is entire, not slightly sinuated, as Mr. Gabb 
has defined it. The nympha is minutely rugose. 

The name Pacliydon is objectionable, in consequence of its 
derivation being the same as Pacliyodon, and I have been re- 
quested to substitute another. If naturalists object to Mr. Gabb's 
name, I would suggest Anisothyris (unequal valves) to take its 
place. Mr. Gabb referred this genus to the family Isocardiidce, 
but, except in the turn of the beaks, there is nothing to suggest 
such an arrangement. 

P. TENUIS, Gabb.— PI. 10, fig. 1. 

Subtriangular, very oblique, substance thick in adult speci- 
mens ; right valve profoundly ventricose ; umbonal slope slightly 
angulated, nearly terminal ; posterior extremity truncated ; car- 
dinal tooth broad and thick, erect, curved, with an acutely angu- 
lar margin ; this tooth is overlapped in front by a carinated and 
sulcated projection ; lunular depression profound, very large and 
broad. 

P. tenua, Gabb, Amer. Journ. of Conch, vol. 4, p. 199, pi. 16, 
fig. 6- 

This shell has a very thin, light brown polished epidermis. 
P. CARINATUS, Conrad. — PI. 10, fig, 7. 

Triangular, very inequivalved, right valve profoundly ventri- 
cose, but flattened on the disk ; posterior slope flattened, having 
an indistinct ridge in the middle, and forming nearly a right an- 
gle with the umbonal slope, which is slightly carinated ; poste- 
rior extremity acutely angular ; left valve prominently angular 
on the umbonal slope, concave anterior to it, and depressed on the 



OF CONCHOi:X)GY. 197 

posterior slope, with a fine raised line in the middle of the slope ; 
posterior ventral margin nearly rectilinear. 

This shell is covered with a very thin, pale shining epidermis, 
and varies greatly from the typical species, P. tenuis. It is in 
perfect preservation, the 4 specimens in the collection having the 
valves connected as when living, and not the least abrasion 
visible, 

P. OBLiQUis, Gabb.— PI. 10, fig. 15. 

As Mr. Gabb has fully described this shell, I have only intro- 
duced it to show the two valves in connection, of the actual size 
of the largest specimen. 

P. ERECTUM, Conrad. — PI. 10, fig. 16. 

Triangular ; both valves ventricose, not oblique ; anterior end 
oblique, truncated ; posterior side produced, cuneiform, flexuous, 
extremity angular ; ventral margin rounded ; summits very pro- 
minent ; cardinal tooth comparatively small. 

There is only one specimen of this graceful species, the largest 
of the genus known. The valves are much less unequal than 
in the preceding species, and the erect beaks give it a very dif- 
ferent contour from the other species. The character oblique 
should be omitted from the generic diagnosis. 

P. CUNEATUS, Conrad. — PI. 10, fig. 12. 

Triangular, oblique, ventricose, solid, subequivalved ; beaks 
terminal, summit very prominent and oblique ; anterior end ab- 
rupt ; posterior end subtruncated ; disk somewhat flattened me- 
dially ; umbonal slope rounded, undefined, nearly marginal ; ven- 
tral margin nearly straight posteriorly ; cardinal tooth oblique. 

P. OVATUS, Conrad. — PI. 10, fig. 4. 

Ovate, slightly ventricose, disk of right valve regularly curved, 
of the opposite valve slightly flexuous towards the posterior end ; 
beaks situated about one-fourth the shell's length from the end 
margin ; summits narrow, prominent, oblique, anterior end an- 
gulated, the margin beneath obliquely truncated ; ventral margin 
rounded ; cardinal tooth directed slightly posteriorly, very erect. 

This shell is somewhat similar in outline to Cytherea convexa, 
Say. It is white, polished and nearly equivalved, and is very 
unlike the other species in form. 

P. ALIUS, Conrad. Plate 11, fig. 1. 

Description. Cordate, inflated, nearly equivalve ; summits 
prominent, angulated on the anterior margin ; anterior sub- 
margin very oblique, slightly concave in outline, angulated, 

14 



198 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

terminal ; area slightly depressed below the submargins, exca- 
vated beneath the beaks and umbones ; posterior side subcunei- 
form ; disk convex in the middle, posteriorly sloping in a nearly 
straight line to the end margin ; extremity rounded, situated nearer 
to the summit than to the ventral margin. 

This is the largest and most ventricose species, remarkable for 
having the shell silicified. The internal mould is of indurated 
ferruginous clay. 

Plate 11, fig. 7. Outline of Dysis gracilis,^ enlarged. 
Plate 11, fig. 8. Outline of Iscea Ortoni, enlarged. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 199 



DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW TERTIARY FOSSILS, WITH NOTES 
ON TWO OENERA OP LAMELLIBRANCHIATA. 



BY T. A. CONRAD. 



MACOMA, Leach. 
M. SUBLINTEA, Conrad. PI. 11, fig. 5. 

Suboval or subtriangular, inequilateral, compressed ; anterior 
side shorter than the posterior, subcuneiform ; posterior dorsal 
margin slightly curved, oblique, regularly rounded at the ex- 
tremity ; ventral margin slightly curved ; disk with minute con- 
centric slightly impressed lines. 

Locality. Vicksburg. Oligocene. 

ABRA, Leach. 
A. PROTEXTA, Conrad. Plate 11, fig. 4. 

Elliptical, elongated, inequilateral, compressed, sinuous ; disk 
widely contracted. 

Locality. Vicksburg. Oligocene. 

Of this species one valve, the left, is all that I have seen. It 
is remarkable for its length. 

AXIN^A. 
A. BELLA, Conrad. Plate 13, fig-. 1. 

Subovate, convex, equilateral ; ornamented with fine, close, 
regular concentric lines ; ribs prominent, acute and entire on 
the umbo and thence dividing into two, and sometimes three, 
narrow ribs ; interstices with each a rib, and sometimes one or 
two lines, all which disappear on the umbo ; marginal teeth nar- 
row, numerous, closely-arranged ; hinge series in two subequal 
continuous curves. 

Locality. Day's Point, Virg. Miocene, 

Among recent species the nearest approach to the bella is A. 
parcipicta, Reeve. Monog. fig. 14. 



200 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

SPHJERELLA. 

Hinge of the right valve with three cardinal teeth, the two 
anterior teeth small, entire ; posterior tooth rather elongated, 
parallel with the hinge margin and slightly grooved. 

The above diagnoses shows a wide difference in this genus to 
Diplodoyita or Felania. The muscular impressions are larger 
than those of the allied genera and the posterior cicatrix is 
much nearer the ventral margin. The posterior tooth described 
above may be said to coalesce with the adjacent tooth at the 
base. The left valve has one small direct cardinal tooth under 
the apex and an elongated, compressed, very oblique tooth, with 
a pit between them. All the species are subsphgeroidal, and con- 
stitute a group of rounded bivalves with a profounder cavity 
than exists in any other genus. 

There is one species in the Miocene of Virginia, one in the 
Oligocene at Vicksburg, and the recent Lucina orhella, Gould, is 
a species of Sph(xrella, in which the muscular impressions are 
very large and unlike those in Diplodonta. 

S. SUBVEXA, Conrad. PI. 11, fig. 9. Hinge view. 

ANODONTA. 

A. DECURTATA, Conrad. PI. 11, fig. 8. 

Subtrapezoidal, inflated ; umbonal slope abruptly rounded or 
subangular ; posterior are depressed, wide ; disk flattened medi- 
ally ; umbo obtusely rounded ; posterior margin obliquely trun- 
cated. 

Locality. Colorado. 

This description is from a cast in a yellow arenaceous rock. 

MELAXIA, Lam. 

M. DECURSA, Conrad. PI. 13, fig. 5. 

Subulate, volutions 10 ? slightly convex, penultimate volution 
sculptured with three distant, prominent, tuberculated, revolving 
lines, and a minute line between the two lines towards the 
suture ; last volution with seven lines, two of them large and 
prominently tuberculated, ; aperture ovate. 

Locality. Accompanied the Anodonta, but the rock in which 
it occurs is a mixture of sand and shell fragments, in which 
many specimens of these shells are replaced by chalcedony. 

CARYATIS, Roemer. 
Cytherea convexa, Say. 

This Miocene species must retain Say's name convexa^ which 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 201 

I replaced bj Sat/ana, in consequence of Brongniart having 
named a shell 0. ? convexa, in " Des. Geolog. des Env. de Paris, 
par Cuv. et Brong." The figure of this shell reminds us of the 
genus Oyrena, especially as the specimens were associated with 
fresh water shells. It is certainly not a Caryatis, to which genus 
C. convexa. Say, belongs. No figure or description of the hinge 
of Brongniart's species is given. 

The recent shell known by the name of 0. convexa is distinct 
from the fossil shell of that name and was described by me under 
the name of (7. Sayana, Sillm. Journ. vol. xxiii. It is easily 
distinguished from the former, as it is larger, more elevated and 
obtuse posteriorly. The fossil species, therefore, will stand as 
Caryatis convexa, and the recent as Caryatis Sayana. This 
genus of Roemer is a distinct and very natural group among the 
Veneridae. 

C. ExmuA, Conrad. PI. 11, fig. 3. 

Subcordate, short and elevated, ventricose, thin in substance ; 
summits prominent; posterior side truncated; lunule cordate, 
indistinctly defined. 

Locality. Claiborne, Alabama. Rare. Eocene. 



202 



AMERICAN JOURNAL 



NOTES ON LINGUAL DENTITION. 



BY W. G. BINNEY AND THOMAS BLAND, 

No. 2. 

In studying the lingual membranes here described we have 
been greatly assisted by our friend Mr. Sam. Powel, of New- 
port, R. I. Many of the figures are drawn from photographs 
taken directly from the microscope by Mr. Powel. 

Glandina rosea, Fer. 

The specimen from which was extracted the lingual membrane 
here described was received from Mr.McNeil, who collected it in 
Nicaragua. 

Lingual membrane long and narrow, with 36 rows of 25 — 1 — 
25 teeth. Rows very oblique, running rapidly downwards and 
outwards from the centre for about two-thirds of their length, 
then curving upwards to the extreme margin. Centrals long, 
narrow, slightly incurved at the sides, emarginate at top, rounded 
at base, and bearing a short, blunt, stout, apical projection. 
Laterals entirely wanting. Uncini separated, thorn-shaped, 
their apices springing from a sheath which rests upon a long, 
narrow base ; this base, seen from below, has 
in shape a strong resemblance to the sole of a 
boot. The uncini increase in size as they pass 
off laterally from the central line for about 
two-thirds of the way ; they then commence 
rapidly to decrease in size ; their sharp, thorn- 
like apices, however, are larger in proportion 
to the base of the teeth as they pass towards 
the outward margin. 

The figure shows one central and one of the 
uncini as seen from below. 

Our figure was obtained in the same manner 
as that of Megalomastoma bituherculatum. See 
p. 213. 

This membrane is interesting in showing the 
presence of a well developed central line of teeth. 



Fig. 1. 




Gl. rosea. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 



203 



It has been affirmed that the genua Glandina has no central 
line. M. Crosse has shown its existence in the European spe- 
cies. Mr. Morse has detected it in Glandina truncata and G. 
Albersi. (See Land and Fresh Water Shells of North America, 
Part I.) 

LiMAX MAXIMUS, Lin. 

The specimen figured in Invertebrata of Massachusetts, second 
edition, page 408, furnished the jaw and lingual membrane here 
described. 

Jaw long, narrow, arcuate, strongly striated both vertically 
and transversely ; ends attenuated ; cutting edge with a promi- 
nent median projection. 

The lingual membrane agrees perfectly with that of the allied 
species L. Jiavus, figured in Land and Fresh Water Shells of 
North America, Part I, p. 63, fig. 105. 

Several individuals of Limax maximus, ke^t in confinement 
at this time, have been guilty of cannabalism. They devoured 
more than half of one of their kind before the crime was dig- 
covered. 

Helix tumida, Pfr. 

We have already (Annals 
N. y. Lye, vol. ix, p. 288) 
described the lingual dentition 
and the jaw of Helix tumida. 
An opportunity has since oc- 
curred to examine other speci- 
mens of the same species. 
Finding the character of the 
jaw confirmed by these later 
examinations, we have given 
here a figure of the jaw. We 
described the jaw as long, nar- 
row, slightly arched, blunt at 
ends, with a slight, broad, 
median projection; there is a long, narrow, conical projection 
springing upwards from about the centre of the anterior surface 
of the jaw, of the same color, material, and consistency as the 
jaw itself; this is not the muscular attachment which often ad- 
heres to the jaw after it has been extracted ; jaw with delicate, 
distant, longitudinal striae. To the above description we must 
add that the longitudinal striae pass uninterruptedly from the 
jaw into this projection, showing the same continuity of struc- 
ture. 

The muscular attachment often adhering to the extracted jaw 




H. tumida. 



204 



AMERICAN JOURNAL 



of land mollusks has sometimes the longitudinal striae extending 
from the jaw itself, but, as far as noticed by us, this muscular 
attachment is simply an extension of the upper margin of the 
jaw iteelf, while in Helix tumida the projection springs from a 
different part of the jaw. 

Helix aspera, Fer. 

The specimen examined was received from Jamaica. 

Jaw long, narrow, arcuate, of almost equal width throughout ; 
ends blunt, but slightly attenuate ; anterior surface with eight 
sharp, prominent, conspicuous ribs, strongly denticulating both 
margins. 

Lingual membrane long and narrow, composed of numerous 
rows of about 41 — 1 — 41 teeth each. Centrals and laterals as 
usual in the genus. The upper edge of the plate of the centrals 
is decidedly divided into two equal lobes. In the laterals the 
same edge is straight, but narrower than the centre of the tooth. 
Uncini subquadrate, with one large short denticle, with a bluntly 
tricuspid point. 

Helix acuta, Lam. 

The specimen figured was received from Jamaica. 

Jaw arched, thick, long, narrow, of almost uniform width 
throughout, ends attenuated, blunt ; anterior surface with seven 
distant, stout ribs, denticulating both margins. 

Lingual membrane long and narrow, composed of numerous 
rows of about 40 — 1 — 40 teeth each. Centrals and laterals as 
usual in the genus. Uncini with apparently only one loDg, ob- 
lique denticle. 

Helix muscarUxM, Lea. Plate 9, figs. 4 and 16. 

Jaw long, narrow, arched, delicately striated ; ends attenuated, 
bluntly rounded ; no trace of anterior ribs, and no median pro- 
jection to the cutting edge. See fig. 16. 

Lingual membrane long and narrow, composed of numerous 
rows of about 75 — 1 — 75 teeth each. These rows are arranged 
en chevron, quite as much so as in the genus Cylindrella. Cen- 
trals long, narrow, curving inwards at the sides, so as to make the 
centre of the plates the narrowest part. The upper edge of the 
plates is slightly rounded. The lower edge is trilobed. The 
cutting cusp is placed at about one-fourth the distance from the 
lower to the upper edge of the plate. It is strongly trilobed, 
each lobe extending into a long, broad, stout, blunt denticle. 
The denticles do not extend beyond the lower edge of the plate. 
They are often much more broadly expanded than in the tooth 
figured. The central teeth are symmetrical. The laterals are 



OF CONCHOLOGT. 205 

unsymmetrical, the lower edge of the plate not being developed 
on the side nearer the centrals, but thrown abruptly off towards 
the margin of the membrane ; it is rounded and not trilobed like 
the lower edge of the centrals ; the laterals are also longer, nar- 
rower, with a less expanded upper edge of the plates than in the 
centrals, in a contrary direction from which they are also thrown 
off by the irregular curving of the plates. The cusps and denti- 
cles on the laterals are the same as on the centrals. There are 
no uncini. 

In one specimen were two abnormal rows along the whole 
length of the membrane, in which the cutting edge was divided 
into four instead of three lobes. These abnormal rows were 
separated by a normal line. 

Fig. 4 shows one central and one lateral tooth. 

Helix orbiculata, Fer., (PI. 9, fig. 14.) 

Jaw striated, thick, short, broad, slightly arched ; ends 
squarely truncated, scarcely attenuated ; cutting edge irregular, 
but with no median projection. (See fig. 14.) 

Lingual membrane long and broad, composed of numerous 
rows of about 47 — 1 — 47 teeth each. Centrals and laterals as 
usual in the genus, the cusp being greatly produced. The 
uncini are long and narrow, with a very greatly developed den- 
ticle, much longer and quite as broad as the tooth, divided into 
three lobes, of which the central is the largest. These uncini 
resemble the laterals of Planorbi8 more than the usual form of 
uncini in the genus Helix. The extreme uncini are more irregu- 
larly denticulated, but the denticles still preserve the obtuse, 
rounded form. 

Helix microdonta, Deshayes. 

The specimen examined is from Nassau, New Providence, 
Bahamas. 

Jaw stout, long, broad, slightly arched ; ends but little attenu- 
ated, bluntly rounded ; with ten stout, broad ribs, crowded into 
the three inner fifths of the transverse diameter of the jaw, the 
outer fifth at each end being free from ribs ; the ribs are visible 
on both anterior and posterior surfaces, and crenulate either 
margin. 

Lingual membrane long and narrow, composed of numerous 
rows of about 20 — 1 — 20 teeth. Centrals and laterals as com- 
mon in the genus, the plates subquadrate, the cusps rather short 
and stout. Uncini long, narrow, irregularly denticulated, as in 
figure of IT. tridentata (L. and Fr. W. Sh. N. A., Part L, p. 
130, fig. 220), but with shorter denticles. 



206 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

Hblix sbptemvolva, Say. 

Jaw long, narrow, slightly arched ; ends attenuated, bluntly 
rounded ; anterior surface with seven stout, distant ribs, crenu- 
lating the cutting edge. 

Lingual membrane long and narrow. Teeth as usual in the 
genus. Centrals and laterals much longer than broad. Uncini 
long, stout, irregularly denticulated, as in the last described 
species. 

Helix Townsendiana, Lea. 

Jaw with numerous stout ribs, visible both on the anterior and 
posterior surface, and denticulating both upper and lower 
margin. 

Lingual membrane long and narrow, composed of numerous 
rows of about 40 — 1 — 40 teeth each. Centrals and laterals as 
usual in the genus. Uncini long and narrow, irregularly den- 
ticulated. . 

Helix varians. Far. 

The lingual membrane examined was extracted from a speci- 
men received from Florida by the Muaeum of Comparative 
Zoology. 

Lingual membrane with about 33 — 1 — 33 teeth in each row, ar- 
ranged as usual in the genus. Teeth also as usual in the genus, 
the uncini being irregularly denticulated, denticles long and 
blunt. 

The jaw of this species has already been figured by us, in L. 
& Fr. W. Sh., Part L, p. 185, fig. 325. 

Helix loricata, Gould. 

Jaw long, broad, slightly arched, ends blunt, but little attenu- 
ated ; with eleven broad, stout, crowded ribs, visible on both 
anterior and posterior surface, and crenulating either margin. 

Lingual membrane with teeth like those of JTelix Townsendiana 
already described. 

Helix inflecta, Say. 

Jaw thick, short, broad, arched, of almost uniform width quite 
to the blunt ends ; with fourteen stout, crowded ribs, visible 
on both anterior and posterior surface and denticulating either 
margin. 

Lingual membrane with teeth not differing essentially from 
that of Helix tridentata, as figured in L. & Fr. W. Shells of N. 
A., Part L, p. 130. 

Helix redimita, W. G. Binn., (Plate 9, fig. 11.) 

Jaw stout, strongly arched, transversely striate in parts ; ends 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 



207 



blunt, scarcely attenuated ; -with six prominent, sharp ribs, 
equally visible on both anterior and posterior surface, their ends 
strongly pectinating both margins. (See fig. 11.) 

Lingual membrane long and narrow, with numerous rows of 
about 45 — 1 — 45 teeth each. Teeth as usual in the genus. (See 
fig. 308 on p. 176 of Land k Fr. Water Shells of N. A., Part 
I.) The bicuspid denticle on the uncini is still more developed 
than in that figure. 

Helix fidelis, Gray, (Plate 9, fig. 1, 9.) 

Jaw short, broad, thick, rough, strongly arched, ends attenu- 
ated, blunt, cutting edge with a well developed blunt median 
projection, marked with decided longitudinal striae, which crenu- 
late its margin. (See fig. 1.) 

Lingual membrane long and narrow, composed of numerous 
rows of about 48 — 1 — 48 teeth each. Centrals long, expanded at 
base, narrowed rapidly towards the apex, which is recurved and 
prolonged into a short, stout, conically j^ointed denticle, without 
decided lateral denticles. Laterals a"l5out 24 in number, much 
resembling the centrals in shape, but with decided lateral ex- 
pansions or denticles to the recurved apex, that nearer the 
central line being the larger. Uncini about 24 in number, ir- 
regularly denticulated, usually with one large bifid or tricuspid 
denticle and two small denticles. The figure shows one central 
and one lateral tooth. (See pi. 9, fig. 9.) 

Heltx Hemphilli, Newcomb, (Plate 9, fig. 3.) 

Jaw thick, very much arched, of almost uniform breadth 
throughout ; striate transversely and vertically ; ends not atten- 
uated, squarely truncated; cutting edge with a blunt, prominent, 
median projection. 

Lingual membrane with about 20 — 1 — 20 teeth in each row. 
Centrals and laterals as usual in the genus. Uncini long, nar- 
row, with one long blunt denticle and a second quite small one 
at its side. 

Helix Coopbri, W. G. Binn. 

Jaw thick, slightly arched, ends attenuated, blunt ; cutting 
edge with no median projection, but regularly crenulated by the 
ends of numerous broad, subobsolete ribs : these slightly devel- 
oped ribs extend but a short distance from the cutting edge. 

Helix stenotrema, Fer. 

Jaw long, rather broad, arched, ends not much attenuated, 
squarely truncated ; anterior surface with eight stout ribs, den- 
ticulating both margins. 



208 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

Lingual membrane with about 21 — 1 — 21 teeth in each row. 
Teeth not essentially differing from those of H. tridentata. (See 
Land and Fr. W. Shells of N. A. Part I., p. 130.) 

Helix tudiculata, Binnej, (PI. 9, fig. 7.) 

Jaw thick, long, narrow, slightly arched ; ends but slightly 
attenuated, blunt ; anterior and posterior surface equally show- 
ing six stout, broad ribs, denticulating either margin. 

Lingual membrane long and narrow, composed of numerous 
rows of about 50 — 1 — 50 teeth each. Centrals and laterals as 
usual in the genus. (See pi. 9, fig. 7.) Uncini as in Helix facta. 
(See Land and Fr. Water Shells of N. A., Part I., p. 176.) 

One central and one lateral are given in the plate. 

BULIMUS MULTICOLOR, Rang. 

The sj'ecimen examined was preserved in the Museum of 
Comparative Zooology at Cambridge. 

Jaw thick, greatly arched, ends attenuated, bluntly rounded ; 
striate, but with no signs of ribs on the anterior surface, nor of 
median projection to the cutting edge. 

Lingual membrane long and narrow, composed of numerous 
rows of about 40 — 1 — iO teeth each. Centrals and laterals as 
usual in the genus. (See Bidimulus siifflatus, below.) Uncini 
small, subquadrate, with one long, stout, blunt denticle and one 
shorter one at its side. 

BuLiMUS Hanleyi, Pfr. 

The specimen examined was collected in Brazil, by Mr. J. G. 
Anthony. 

Jaw strongly arched, stout, striate transversely, of almost 
equal width throughout ; ends but slightly attenuated, blunt ; 
cutting edge with a broad, stout, striate median projection. 

Lingual membrane long and narrow, composed of numerous 
rows of about 50 — 1 — 50 teeth each. Centrals, laterals and 
uncini as usual in the genus. (See Bulimulus pallidior, in Ann. 
N. Y. Lye. vol. ix, p. 282). 

BULIMUS MAGNIFICUS, Grat. 

The specimen examined was received from Brazil, by the Mu- 
seum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge. 

Jaw stout, long, slightly arched, narrow, of almost uniform 
width throughout ; ends slightly attenuated, blunt ; entire ante- 
rior surface covered with numerous stout blunt ribs, breaking 
the regularity of both upper and lower margins, but scarcely 
denticulating them. 

Lingual membrane long, rather broad, composed of about 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 209 

30 — 1 — 30 rows of teeth each. Centrals and laterals as in the 
last species. In the single membrane examined there appear no 
true uncini, the extreme teeth on the edge of the membrane 
being more nearly the same as the centrals than is usual in the 
genus. 

BULIMUS ODONTOSTOMUS, Sowb. 

The specimen examined was collected in Brazil, by Mr. J. G. 
Anthony. 

Jaw long, narrow, slightly arched, smooth. 

Lingual membrane broad, composed of numerous rows of 
about 3-1 — 1 — o4 teeth each. Centrals and laterals as usual in 
the genus. The uncini are long and narrow, with a long, ob- 
lique, stout, blunt denticle. The usual smaller denticle of the 
uncini does not appear to exist on the single membrane examined 
by us. 

BULIMULUS SUFFLATUS, Gould. Plate 9, figs. 8, 13. 

Jaw thin, long, narrow, slightly arched, composed of twenty- 
one separate plates ; ends somewhat attenuated, blunt. (Fig. 8). 

Lingual membrane long and narrow, with about 45 — 1 — 45 
teeth in each row. Centrals, laterals and uncini essentially the 
same as in B. pallidior. (See Ann. N. Y. Lye. vol. ix, p. 282). 
One central and one lateral are given in our figure 13. 

BuLiMULUS Marielinus, Poey. 

The specimen examined was received from Florida. 

Jaw short, broad, strongly arched above, moderately so below ; 
ends attenuated, blunt ; anterior surface with coarse longitudi- 
nal striae, and with rib-like processes, scarcely elevated, but den- 
ticulating the cutting edge. 

ACHATINA VIRGINEA, Lin. 

The individual from which was extracted the lingual mem- 
brane here described was received from Aux Cayes, Hayti, by 
Mr. Robt. Swift. 

Lingual membrane long and broad, rounded at the anterior 
extremity, consisting of about two hundred transverse rows of 
teeth, each row containing at the widest point of the membrane 
about 40 — 1 — 40 teeth. Down the centre of the membrane is 
a well defined strip plainly visible to the naked eye, distinct 
from the balance of the membrane. This conspicuous strip con- 
consists of the central and lateral teeth, which are arranged in 
rectilinear rows, showing collectively in contrast to the uncini, 
which are in curving transverse rows for a small portion of their 




210 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

length, then run diagonally to the outer edge of the mem- 
brane. 

The narrowing of the membrane towards its extremity renders 
any enumeration of the number of teeth in any transverse row 
more than usually unsatisfactory. 

The central teeth are on long, narrow plates, squarely trun- 
cated above and also below, 

where they are somewhat Fig. 3. 

widened. These plates are 
delicately fringed or crimp- 
ed, both at the upper and 
lower edge of attachment, 
as are also the plates of the 
laterals and uncini ; but, as 
this fringing or crimping is 
very delicate, we have not 
attempted to show it in the 
figures. The plates of the 
central teeth bear upon their Achaiina virginea. 

whole length a stout, broad 

denticle, wide as the plate itself at its upper edge, thence very 
gradually narrowing towards its base, from beyond which it pro- 
jects into a long, blunt, stout, lance shaped point. 

The laterals are but two in number on each side of the centrals. 
They are of the same shape as the centrals, but are slightly 
wider, and the lance-like projections are shorter. They are al- 
most equally symmetrical as the centrals, still the points of the 
projections are decidedly thrown towards the centrals, and the 
lower termination of the plates are more widely expanded on the 
side farther from the centrals. By these slight differences the 
laterals are made to bear the usual unsymmetrical appearance* 
in relation to the centrals. 

There are two distinct forms of teeth among the uncini. The 
first form is borne by only the three teeth next the laterals. The 
plates of these are much broader than those of the laterals. The 
lance-like point of the laterals is replaced by two irregularly- 
shaped denticles, the outer one larger than the other. These are 
very variable in shape, and are smaller on the outer of the three 
uncini which bear them. In their most highly developed state 
they bear some rude resemblance to a mitten. 

* In most of the Geophila the laterals on either side of tlie median line 
differ from the centrals by the suppression of a part of the centrals oa 
their respective inner sides. Where the centrals are tricuspid, the late- 
rals are either bicuspid or the third cusp of the centrals is suppressed 
wholly or in part on the side nearer the centrals. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 



211 




The other form of teeth among the uncini prevails on the bal- 
ance of the lingual membrane. The same long, pjg 4 
broad plate is present, with its truncated upper 
edge, but its base is more produced and is 
widely rounded at the corners. The lance-like 
projection of the centrals and laterals, and the 
mitten-like process of the first three uncini, are 
entirely wanting. There is, indeed, a thumb- 
like projection on the side, but this bears no 
resemblance to that of the first three laterals ; 
it is on the outer instead of inner side of the ^chatma viigmea. 
tooth, and is not a projecting point to the tooth. It is between 
the upper edge of attachment and the cusp, and is rather a 
spur thrown ofi" from the last named process. This cusp is 
present in all the uncini except the first three. It is placed on 
the lower third of the tooth, from which it rises diagonally, ex- 
panding at the sides in keeping with the expansion of the plate, 
beyond which it projects considerably. It extends across the 
whole breadth of the tooth, and is best described as gouge- 
shaped. The spur mentioned above is somewhat spoon-shaped. 

All the plates on the membrane are well defined and distinctly 
separated. 

Figure 3 gives the lower portion of one central, of the two 
adjoining laterals, and two of the first three uncini. Figure 4 
gives one of the balance of the uncini, with sufficient portions of 
the adjoining ones to show their diagonal arrangement on the 
membrane. It is of great interest to compare with this mem- 
brane that of the allied species Achatina fasciata, which is given 
below. A recent opportunity of examining the lingual mem- 
brane of A. fasciata, shows that in that species there is great 
uniformity in all the teeth, the centrals and first three laterals 
do not in any way resemble those of A. virginea. 

Figs. 3 and 4 are drawn from photographs taken directly from 
the microscope by our friend Mr. Sam. Powel. We have already 
(Land & Freshwater Shells, Part I., 312, fig. 364), figured the 
jaw of Achatina virginea. It is slightly arched, is attenuated 
at the ends. It is composed of separate plates, fourteen in 
the only specimen we have examined. 

Achatina fasciata, Mull, (PI. 9, fig. 6.) 

A specimen received from Cuba furnished the lingual mem- 
brane here described. 

Teeth about 69 — 1 — 69 in each row. Transverse rows ar- 
ranged en chevron. Teeth almost uniform, the centrals hardly 
difi"ering from the laterals except in being symmetrical, and in 



212 



AMERICAN JOURNAL 



having less expanded and produced cutting edges. Lower edge 
of base of attachment fringed. Our figure on plate 9, gives one 
central and one lateral tooth. 




Achatina fasciata. 



The figure here given was drawn by Dr. Leidj for the " Ter- 
restrial Mollusks." (Vol. II., p. 270.) It represents the ex- 
treme laterals. There are no true uncini, or, judged by the 
lingual membrane of A. virginea, it is more correct to say there 
are no laterals. 

It will be seen that Achatina fasciata resembles in its lingual 
dentition more nearly Orthalicus zebra, given below, than 
Achatina virginea given above. 

Orthalicus zebra, Mlill, (PL 9, fig. 2.) 

The lingual membranes examined are from specimens received 
by the Smithsonian Institution from the Sierra Madre, (See 
Land and Fr. W. Shells of N. A., Part I., p. 217, fig. 371.) 

Central teeth long and narrow, the lower edge strongly cor- 
rugated ; about three-fourths of the distance from the upper to 
the lower edge of attachment springs a gouge-shaped cusp, with 
convex cutting edge projecting considerably beyond the tooth. 
Laterals similar in shape, but unsymmetrical to che centrals, also 
rather broader, with more expanded cusps, whose cutting edge is 
convex. There seems no distinct uncini, but as the laterals 
become removed from the central line they are more distinctly 
separated, and bear the side spurs described in the membrane of 
Achatina virginea and A. fasciata, above. 

There are about 50 — 1 — 50 teeth in each row, arranged en 
chevron. 

The jaw of this species has been figured by us (in Land and 
Fr. Water Sh. of North Am., Part I., p. 215, fig. 367.) 

The lingual membrane very nearly resembles that of Achatina 
fasciata, described above. 

We have said there are no true uncini, but studied in the light 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 213 

thrown on the subject by the lingual of Achatina virginea (see 
above) it may bo that wiiat we have called laterals are really 
uncini. 

Our figure gives one central and one lateral tooth, and one 
detached extreme lateral from the other side of the lingual- 
membrane. 

Orthalicus undatus, (Plate 9, fig. 10, 12.) 

A specimen received from Pear Island furnished the lingual 
membrane here described. 

Teeth arranged as described in Orthalicus zeb7'a, and about as 
numerous, one line counting 53 — 1 — 53 teeth. 

Teeth in all essential points resembling those of 0. zebra, (see 
above.) The centrals are broader than in that species and the 
uncini have a more expanded cusp. 

Jaw strongly arched, ends attenuated, bluntly pointed, com- 
posed of twelve separate plates. 

Figure 10 gives one central and one lateral tooth ; fig. 12 
gives one extreme lateral. 

SucciNEA EFFUSA, Shuttleworth, (Plate 9, fig. 15.) 

A specimen from Florida preserved in the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology at Cambridge, furnished the jaw and lingual 
membrane here described. 

Jaw strongly arched ; ends blunt, attenuated ; cutting edge 
deeply concave and furnished with a prominent pointed beak ; 
anterior surface with vertical and horizontal strife, but no grooves 
or rib-like processes ; accessory plate large, subquadrate. 

The lingual membrane resembles that of jS. avara, figured in 
Land and Fr. W. Sh., I., p. 263. There appear to be about 
15 — 1 — 15 teeth in each row. Our figure gives one central and 
one lateral tooth. 

Megalomastoma bituberculatum, Sowb. 

The specimen from which were extracted the jaw and lingual 
membrane here described, was received from Seilor D. Rafael 
Arango, of Havana. 

Jaw consisting of two subtriangular symmetrical plates, thick- 
ened towards the inner and lower edges, thinning outward and 
upward ; with a decided thickened rim running parallel to the 
inner edge, and extending above and below the body of the 
plates ; surface closely covered with oblique rows of small quad- 
rate scales. Generally resembling the jaw of 31. cylindraceum, 
figured in American Journal of Conchology, I., pi. 5, f. 2. 

Lingual membrane long and narrow. Teeth 3 — 1 — 3, arranged 
in numerous chevron-shaped transverse rows. Centrals upright, 



214 



AMERICAN JOURNAL 




long, subquadrate, with incurving sides and base : apex brond, 

recurved, tricuspid, the median cusp prolonged into a benk-like 
Fig:. C. point. First lateral long, 

narrow, irregular, oblique, 
with a recnivod, tricuspid 
apex :is in the central. 
Second hiteral somewhat 
the shape of the first lat- 
eral, but shorter, less ob- 
lique and less irregular, 
its recurved apex produced 
into longer and more del- 
icate beaks. Third lat- 
eral shorter, stouter, ir- 
regular, jaw-shaped, bear- 
M. bitubeivuiatuai. ing OH its inner or lower 

edge one median stout, and two terminal more slender beaks. 
Figure 6 is drawn from a photiigraph taken directly from the 

lingual membrane by our friend Mr. Sam. Powel, of Newport, 

to whom we are indebted for much assistance in studying lingual 

membranes. 

In our figure the teeth are separated from eacli other to clearly 

show their characters. Ou the membrane they are much more 

closely united. 

Helicina orbiculata, Say. (Phite 0, fig. 5.) 

An opportunity of examining the lingual membrane of this 
species has lately been given us by Dr. E. R. Schowalter, of 
IJniontown, Alabama. We have exaujined numerous individuals 
received from him, and find several points of interest in them. 
The figure copied from Troschel in Land and Freshwater Shells 
of N. A., Part III., p. 108. does not give clearly the outline of 
the fifth lateral tooth. 

We give a figure of this lateral as it appeared to us, (Plate 
9, fig. 0.) There is considerable variation in the shape of these 
teeth, the basal expansion being often longer than in the one 
figured. 

The uncini have long fringe-like points to the cusps of their 
recurved apices. The outer uncini have more than three cusps; 
•we have counted distinctly four and six on some. 

The uncini are very numerous, more than fifty on each side of 
the membrane. 



of conchology. 215 

Reference to Plate. ^ "^ ' 

Fig. 1. Helix fidelis. Jaw. 

2. Orthalicus zebra. One central with its adjacent lat- 

eral, and one detached extreme lateral from the other 
side of the membrane. 

3. Helix Hemphilli. Jaw. 

4. Helix muscarum. One central and one lateral tooth. 

5. Helicina orbiculata. The fifth lateral tooth. 

6. Achatina fasciata. One central and one lateral tooth. 

7. Helix tudioidata. One central and one lateral tooth. 

8. Bulimulus sicfflatus. Jaw. 

9. Helix fidelis. One central and one lateral tooth. 

10. Orthalicus undatus. One central and one lateral tooth. 

11. Helix redimita. Jaw. . 

12. Orthalicus undatus. One extreme lateral tooth. 

13. Bulimulus sufflatus. One central and one lateral 

tooth. 

14. Helix orbiculata. Jaw. 

15. Succinea effusa. One central and one lateral tooth. 

16. Helix muscarum. Jaw. 



216 AMERICAN JOURNAL 



ON THE SHELLS OF THE HOLBTON RIVER. 



BY JAMES LEWIS, M. D. 

The Holston River rises in the mountainous regions of the 
western parts of Virginia and North Carolina. Flowing in a 
south-westerly direction through Eastern Tennessee, it receives 
numerous tributaries, one of which, the Clinch River, is a stream 
of nearly equal magnitude with the Holston, and at its junction 
with the Little Tennessee River (a stream of some size, rising in 
the south-western part of North Carolina), merges into the Ten- 
nessee River, which is properly but a continuation of the Hol- 
Bton under another name. In all the considerable streams which 
are united in this system of drainnge, is a common fauna, varied 
locally by species which are not common to the whole system. 

During two years past, a portion of the Holston River, ex- 
tending from Little River Shoals to Chota Shoals, a distance of 
about 20 miles, has been explored by Miss Annie E. Law, of 
Concord, East Tennessee, and the various species of mollusca 
collected by her are the principal subject of the following notes, 
to which is appended a supplementary list of shells quoted by 
•writers as found in the Holston River and at Knoxville. This, 
it is presumed, embraces all or nearly all that can be profitably 
suggested respecting the shells of the Holston from the knowl- 
edge we have of them at the present time. Before entering upon 
the consideration of species, it may be proper to remark that 
certain shells which heretofore have been quoted as found in the 
Holston have not so occurred in Miss Law's explorations. In 
reply to inquiry, Miss Law remarks, in a recent letter, " I have 
never found Goniohasis in the Holston. . . It seems to be- 
long exclusively to small streams. Neither have I detected any 
among the shells found in Indian Mounds, nor among the vast 
beds of fossil shells washed up by the great freshet three years 
ago." 

A small bivalve shell, described by Mr. Lea under the name 
Margaritana Hohtonia, and referred to the Holston, has not 
been found by Miss Law in the Holston, but is somewhat abun- 
dant in some of the small streams of Monroe County. 



OP CONCHOLOGY. 217 

Possibly conditions may have changed within a few years ; 
but it seems to me more reasonable to surmise that localities 
have not always been accurately stated by collectors, and the de- 
scriptive naturalist has often located his species by conjectures 
based upon their association in a package, rather than from posi- 
tive statements, which correspondents sometimes forget to fur- 
nish. 

I have endeavored, through Miss Law's assistance, to obtain 
such information as would serve to render our knowledge of dis- 
tribution reasonably accurate. But it may be presumptuous to 
suppose that a perfect series of notes on the species of so large 
a stream as the Holston might be the result of explorations 
made in so short a time as two years. 

In the following notes I have been governed mostly by my 
own convictions. In a few instances I have deferred to the 
opinions of others whose more extended acquaintance with spe- 
cies entitle their views to consideration. 

UNIONID^.— [Catalogue and Notes.] 

1. JJnio ^ so pus, Green. 

2. " alatus, Say. 

3. " areceformis, Lea. 

4. " Barnesianus ? Lea. Two specimens, hardly mature, 

are all that have been seen. Mr. Wheatley sug- 
gested the species might be U. G-reenii, Con. That 
species, however, belongs to a different system of 
drainage (Alabama River). The shells under con- 
sideration agreeing very nearly with Mr. Lea's de- 
scription of U. Barnesianus, I have provisionally 
adopted that name for them. 

5. " hiangulatus, Lea. 

6. " hrevidens, Lea. 

7. " ccelatus, Con. On the authority of Mr. Wheatley. 

8. " caperatiis, Lea. Regarded sometimes as a variety of 

U. dromas, Lea ; it seems to me to be a good spe- 
cies. 

9. " capsceforniis, Lea. 

10. " circulus, Lea. 

11. " Clinchensis, Lea. My determination of this some- 

what common species may be questioned. 

12. " Oonradicus, Lea. Two young specimens, supposed to 

be Oonradicus, may prove to be subtentus, Say. 

13. " Cooperianus, Lea. 

14. " cornutus, Barnes. 

15. " crassidens, Lamarck. 



218 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

16. Unio cuneolus, Lea. Shells regarded as cuneolus are at 

present somewhat uncertain. 

17. " cylindricus, Say. 

18. " dolabelloides, Lea. Mr. Lea changes the orthography 

in recent references to this species. 

19. " dromas, Lea. 

20. " ebenus, Lea.'^ Among Miss Law's earlier shells were 

specimens regarded as ebenus, which at a later date 
were identified as Lesueurianus, Lea, no doubt 
synonymous. 

21. " Edgarianus, Lea. Not abundant. 

22. " elegans, Lea. 

23. " fabalis, Lea. 

24. " foUatus, Hildreth. Three specimens found at Little 

River Shoals at various times. 

25. " glaber, Lea, A rare species. 

26. " glans, Lea. " " 

27. " gibbosus, Barnes. Common. 

28. " gracilis^ Barnes. 

29. " Haysianus^ Lea. U. Sotverbyanus, Lea, is^ no doubt, 

a sexual counterpart. 
'60. " Hohtonensis, Lea. A single specimen, apparently 
this species, is all that has been found. 

31. " intermedius, Con. A common species in the Holston 

and Clinch Rivers. Besides the common form, I 
have a single specimen which varies notably, and 
which, if not abnormal, may prove to be a distinct 
species. 

32. " iris, Lea. Two specimens, only, have been seen; 

doubtfully identified. 

33. " irroratus, Lea. 

34. " Lesleyi, Lea. Not abundant. 

35. " ligamentinus, Lam. 

36. " metanever, Raf. 

37. " monodontus, Say. 

38. " Mooresianus, Lea. 

39. " multiradiatus, Lea. This, I think, includes U. per- 

radiatus, Lea. 

40. " mytiloides, Raf. Fide C. M. Wheatley. 

41. " ovatus, Say. 

42. " patidus, Lea. A single specimen. 

.^w * Many of the species common in Ohio and other Western States are 
s^Jialler in the Holston River. This remark does not apparently apply 
with more force to ehemis than to several other species. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 219 

43. Unio pernodosuf!, hoa.. Two specimens. It is apparently a 

good species. 

44. " pcrplexus, Lea. 

45. " perradiatus, Lea. Retained in deference to Mr. 

Wheatley. (See multiradiatus). 

46. " phaseohis, Hildreth. 

47. " plenus, Lea. 

48. " propinquus, Lea. Abundant. 

40. " pudicus, Lea. The young shells appear to me to be 
pudicus ; the mature ones bear a strong resemblance 
to U. Lyonii^ Lea. My determination is question- 
able 

50. *' pusfulosus, Lea. 

51. " PyhasiL Lea. Occurs also in small streams, 

52. " Ravenelianus, Lea. A single specimen. May not be 

correctly determined. 

53. " rectus, Liim. 

54. " securis. Lea. 

55. " sparsus, Lea A single well chai-acterized specimen. 

56. " Stetvardsofiii, Lea. 

57. " siibtentiis, Say. 

58. " tenici'ssimus, Lea. 

59. " tesserulce Lea. A single immature shell ; determina- 

tion questionable. 

60. " triangularis, Barnes. 

61. " tuberosus, Lea. Occurs in the Holston, Clinch and 

Tennessee Rivers with a more inflated form than ia 
seen in typical specimens. 

62. " midalatus, Barnes. 

63. " varicosus, Lea. 

64. " verrucosus, Barnes. 

65. Margaritana dehiscens, Say. Rare. 
QQ. "' marginata, Say. 

67. " rugosa, Bar. Rare. 

68. Anodonta ohlita ? Lea. A single small specimen. Deter- 

mination doubtful. 

Univalves, (in alphabetical order). 

69. Anculosa Cincinnatiensis, Lea. In presenting my opin- 
ions on the species I am now considering, it may be well to pre- 
mise that I began the study of the Strepomatidse of the Holston 
River strongly impressed with the correctness of Mr. Tryon's 
determinations and synonymy, and with a desire to profit by his 
then unquestioned advantages. After a very thorough study of 
an immense number of specimens, of different ages and varieties, 
I arrived at results which are as follow : 



220 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

In 1838 Mr. Lea described and figured a shell from the Ohio 
River, under the name of Melania Cincinnatiensis. I have spe- 
cimens from the Holston River that exactly conform to the terms 
of his description, and among them are specimens that might be 
substituted for the specimen that was the original of his figure. 
At a later date Mr. Lea described the mature shell as Anculosa 
tintinnahulum. In the series of specimens bj which I unite 
Cinminatiensis and tintinnabidum,'^ the smallest is less than 
0-08 inches in diameter, being about half as large as the origi- 
nal " illgZ. Oincinnatiensis.'" The series progresses through a 
large number of individual specimens to the largest adult tin- 
tinnabulurn. I feel assured that identification was never more 
complete. 

Mr. Tr jon in his synonymy and elsewhere expresses the. opin- 
ion that Mel. Oincintiatienm, Lea, is the young of Anculosa 
prcerosa, Say. Some of the varieties (so called) of Anculosa 
prcerosa, have bicarinate young, but their forms are such that 
when of the dimensions of Mr. Lea's typical Cincinnatiensis 
(diameter 0'16 inch) they do not exactly, but only aj^proxiinately, 
correspond thereto, and therefore must yield to the claims of 
tintinnahulum. 

Having conclusively ascertained that the y OM^ag oi Ancidosa 
iintinnabulum are bicarinate and exactly correspond to Mr. Lea's 
figure o'i Mel. Cincinnatiensis, it remains now to compare these 
young specimens with the young of Anculosa subglobosa of cor- 
responding size ; if there is perfect agreement, Mr. Tryon's 
synonymy of subglobosa (which includes tintinnabulum) may be 
allowed to pass unquestioned. If there are very conspicuous and 
constant differences it seems to me that these, considered in con- 
nection with the constant differences I observe in the adults, im- 
ply they are distinct species. My specimens of A. subglobosa 
embrace numerous specimens from ^ inch diameter to the full 
grown adult, none of which are carinate, nor can I find any evi- 
dence by which I might identify subglobosa with tintinnabulum. 

70. Ancidosa prcerosa, Say. There are clearly as many as ten 
or twelve well marked and constant varieties (?) referable to this 
species. The differences in some of these are remarkable, and 
are not confined to the adult specimens. Of some of these va- 
rieties I have very small specimens. In one variety carinas are 
scarcely discernible in the smallest specimens. In others there 
are traces of carinae upon shells of nearly or quite \ inch in 

* With reference to my position in this matter, I will remark that Mr. 
U. P. James, of Cincinnati, finds A. tintinnabulum in the Ohio River. I 
have a single specimen from the Ohio River, labeled '' -proirosa" by Mr. 
Wheatley. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 221 

diann'tcr. Possibly in some of the most marked instances these 
differences might be regarded as specific. From all I can learn, 
I infer some of the varieties of A. prcerosa occupy isolated sta- 
tions, not being mingled together indiscriminately. This infer- 
ence seems to be confirmed by the occurrence of a very well 
characterized variety at a point on the Tennessee River from 
which Mr. Wheatley has numerous specimens. 

71. Anculosa suhglohosa, Say. This species is somewhat rare in 
the HoLston, but occurs in considerable numbers in Little River. 
The young are smooth, shining, depressed, subglobose, with a 
somewhat pointed, elevated apex. The outer lip differs con- 
stantly from that of Oincimiatiensis {= iintinnabulum, Lea). 
The young shells also very decidedly differ from those of Ancu- 
losa (Mel.) virgata, Lea, which Mr. Tryon has placed in the 
synonymy of subglobosa. 

72. Anculosa Tryoni, Lewis. Plate , fig. . Shell pear- 
shaped, with the apex somewhat broadly and regularly rounded ; 
wider and subconstricted below ; suture slightly impressed on 
the apicial whorls, more conspicuously impressed below ; apex, 
in very young shells, a minute, elevated, dark point, which at 
later stages of growth is lost by erosion, usually leaving a mi- 
nute axial pit ; whorls 3 (to 4 ?)* rapidly enlarging ; aperture 
outwardly somewhat regularly rounded from the slight constric- 
tion below the suture to the base — acutely angular above, suban- 
gular below ; outer lip sharp, thicker within ; pillar much thick- 
ened, having a subtubercular calcareous deposit near the supe- 
rior angle of the aperture; plane of the aperture nearly regular, 
and obliquely inclined to the axis. Color variable — yellow, 
orange, olivaceous, purple or brownish. Bands many, two or 
none ; sometimes visible within when obsolete without. Length 
0-90 inch. Width 0-60 inch. Aperture nearly f the length of 
the shell. 

In Conch. Jour. vol. ii, page 133, figures 101, 102, Mr. Tryon 
presents varieties of this species, as Anculosa fa^jiiata, Con. 
A. taniiata is, perhaps, a smaller species than A. Tryoni, less va- 
ried in form, color and bands, and also exhibits peculiarities in the 
arrangement and modification of the bands not observable in A. 
Tryoni. The suture and also the form of the whorls are differ- 
ent. Occasional specimens of A. tcvruata are somewhat disposed 
to exhibit broad, slightly elevated, revolving lines on their sur- 
faces. This feature is absent in A. Tryoni, which may be char- 
racterized as a smooth species. A. tceniata also belongs to a dif- 
ferent system of drainage, viz., the Alabama River and its trib- 

* The apex of the adult specimens is usually censiderably eroded. 



222 



AMERICAN JOURNAL 



utaries. There are small shells (a variety of A. Tryoni) in the 
Holston which likewise differ from the Alabama River shells. A^ 
Tryoni is found abundantly near Concord. 

73. Anculosa virgata, Lea. I have no difficulty in identifying: 
certain small shells of the Holston by Mr. Lea's figure and de- 
8criy>tion of Melania virgata. Mr. Wheatley has the same spe- 
cies from the Tennessee River, Avhich he calls '■^Anculosa vittata, 
Lea," his specimens being possibly a little larger and less perfect 
than those found in the Holston. In my Catalogue of the Shells 
of the Coosa River I included Anculosa vittata. Lea, quoting 
from Mr. Lea's "Observations." Later, I have from Dr. Scho- 
walter (who furnished Mr. Lea original specimens of A. vittata) 
a statement of error of locality, which he corrects by stating 
that A. vittata. was not found in the Coosa, but in a smaller 
stream, a tributary of the Coosa. I am persuaded that A. vit- 
tata can scarcely occur in two systems of drainage so distinct. 
If, however, such is found to be the case, vittata vfill unquestion- 
ably yield priority to virgata. Miss Law informs me that A. 
virgata is found on one of the dams at Little River Shoals, and 
is attainable only under difficulties. She has found it in no other 
locality. It differs in habit from Anculosa subglobosa, Say, with 
which Mr. Tryon has united it in his Synonymy and elsewhere.. 

74. Ancylus 1 An abundant species on the 
rocks in the Holston. I have not been able to identify the spe- 
cies, but have no doubt so common a species may long since have 
been described. 

75. Angitrema verrucosa, Raf. A common and somewhat 
variable species in the Holston, Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. 
Immature specimens that agree with Mr. Lea's figure of 3Ielania 
Holstonia are not rare. Smooth specimens sent to Mr. Wheat- 
ley were returned by him as Lithasia fuliginosa, Lea. I am not 
acquainted with that species, but by a comparison of Mr. Lea's 
figure of it I am unable to identify my shells with it. 

76. Uurycoelon Anthonyi, Redf. Found somewhat abun- 
dantly on Chota Shoals, but is quite rare in other portions of 
the Holston examined by Miss Law. I have a single specimen 
of this variable species that sufficiently resembles Mr. Lea's fig- 
ure of Lithasia Tuomeyi. Others resemble his figure of Ancu- 
losa turbinata. This species grows larger in portions of the Ten- 
nessee River reached by Mr. Wheatley's correspondents. Miss 
Law has found very large specimens of this species in Indian 
Mounds, showing that in former times it probably attained a 
much greater development than at the present day. 

77. lo brevis, Anth. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 223 

78. lo spinosa, Lea. 

- 79. lo turrita, Anth. Mr. Lea, in a letter relative to Jo, 
expressed a doubt if there were more than one species of spinous 
lo. I infer he would include all the spinous species under Jiuvi- 
alis, Say. In this opinion I am disposed to coincide with him, 
considering the varieties of Anculosa prcerosa, Say (which afford 
a parallel), a good precedent. I observe in Miss Law's sheila 
some peculiarities which I think have not been noted, lo bj-evis 
has the first four whorls of perfect specimens smooth. lo spi- 
nosa has tubercles on all the upper whorls. lo turrita has undu- 
lations terminating in tubercles, on the upper whorls. I quote 
from Miss Law's letters the following interesting remarks : " The 
muscular power of lo is astonishing. I frequently find one 
adhering to a rock half as large as my head, and when I take up 
the shell it brings the rock with it, and requires much force to 
separate it." lo is not confined to the Holston, as might be 
inferred from the recorded statements of its habitat. Miss 
Law has sent me specimens from the ClinQh River. Mr. Wheat- 
ley has specimens from the Tennessee River. I have no doubt 
it will also be found in the Little Tennessee River, and possibly 
in other considerable streams that form part of the same system 
of druinage. 

80. Melantho ponderosus, Say. I change the adjective ter- 
mination for grammatical reasons. This species does not attain 
as great size in the Holston, nor is it as abundant as in the Ten- 
nessee River. 

81. Physa Saffordii, Lea. Possibly not correctly determined. 
The shells collected by Miss Law are probably quite abundant. 

82. Somatogyrus Currierianus, Lea. I have from Miss Law 
numerous shells identical with Somatogyrus jjarvulus, Tryon, 
found, at very low stages of water, in little pools left by the 
receding water along swift, shallow, gravelly portions of the 
Holston. Less abundantly, a somewhat larger shell agreeing 
with S. aureus, Tryon. Also larger shells identical with "^w- 
nicola Currieriana, Lea," found in still water, along muddy 
portions of the Holston, near the shore. They are, without 
doubt, different ages of one species. Mr. Lea's name for the 
species takes precedence. 

83. ^'■iStrephobasis Clarkii," Lea. Near Concord, somewhat 
abundant. Varieties approximate ^'3fel. plena, Anth.,'' and sug- 
gest a doubt whether S. Spillmanii, Lea, should be regarded as 
a synonym o^ plena. I have a specimen of S. corj^ulenta, Anth., 
to which the same remark will apply. 



224 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

84. Strepliohasis corpulenta, Anthony.* Little River Shoals. 
Rare. I have young specimens of this species that closely 
resemble Mr. Lea's figure of Trypanostoyna napoideum. 

85. Strepliohasis Lyonii^ Lea. Little River Shoals. Abun- 
dant. 

86. Trypanostoma affine, Lea. I admit this species in defer- 
ence to Mr. Wheatley. 

87. Trypanostoma canaliculatum, Say. 

88. Trypanostoma curtum^ Hald. Recorded by Mr. Try on as 
Strepliohasis curta, Hald. Dr. Hartman, basing an opinion on 
the form of the opercle, and its connection with the proligerous 
lobe, is disposed to regard this species as a Trypanostoma. The 
species is remarkable for its numerous varieties, many of which 
appear to be entirely local, as has been remarked of Anculosa 
pra^rosa, Say. 

I venture to suggest the following synonymy, not as being 
entirely conclusive, but as being in many particulars deserving 
of inquiry : 

Trypanostoma curta, Hald, Dr. Hartman's MSS. 

3Ielania carta, I{;i\(\. Date? Locality? 

t [H.] Mela.nia turgida, Lea. June 18, IS-IL Young short 
and wide ; apex entire. (L.)J 

[H.] Melania picta. Lea. June 18, 1841. Banded variety. (L.) 

Melania solida. Lea. May 2, 1845. Adult, wide and solid ; 
apex eroded. (L.) 

Strephobasis solida, Lea. April 16, 1861. 3Iel. solida, Lea, 
redescribed. (L.) 

Trypanostoma simplex. Lea. i\.pril 15, 1862. Young shells ; 
no bands. (C. M. W.) 

Trypanostoma minor. Lea. April 15, 1862. Young shells ; 
no bands; var. (C. M. W.) 

§ Trypanostoma pumilum, Lea. April 15, 1862. Banded, 
slender var. ; Ohio River. (L.) 

Trypanostoma bivittatum, Lea. April 15, 1862. Two banded, 
young. (C. M. W.) 

[H.] Trypanostoma trochulus, Lea. April 15, 1862. Wide, 
young; apex entire. (L.) 

* Recent specimens raise grave doubts if the shells here referred to are 
satisfactorily determined. 

t Species credited to the Holston are preceded by the letter H. 

J L. = Lewis, C. M, W. = Wheatley. 

? I have specimens from the Holston River, labeled Try. pumilum, 
Lea, by Mr. Lea, 



OF CONCHOLOQY. 225 

Trypanostoma moriforme. Lea. April 15, 1862. Constricted 
on middle of Avliorl. (C. M. W. & L.) (Two species confounded?) 

* Strephohasis oUvaria, Lea. June 3, 1863. Adult ; slender 
variety, (L.) 

Strephobasis Ilartmaniana, Lea. [1870, MSS.] Slender, 
solid variety; Tenn. R. (C. M. W. & L.) 

If the above synonymy should be verified, the question of pri- 
ority lies between 3Iel. curta, Hald., and 3IeL turgida, Lea. 

89. Trypanostoma filutn, Lea. Not very abundant. 

90. Trypanostoma gradatum ? Anthony. A beautiful light 
yellowish brown shell of 7 or more whorls, with a remarkably 
twisted columella. The young shells have been confounded with 
Strephohasis corpulenta, Anth., from which they differ principally 
by the prolongation of the anterior portion of the outer lip. The 
shell at all ages has much the aspect of a Strephohasis, but the 
form of the lip is that of Trypanostoma. My specimens are 
much larger than the recorded dimensions, and may be unde- 
scribed. Found on Little River Shoals. Rare. Identification 
not entirely satisfactory. 

91. Trypanostoma ligatum ? Lea. A few specimens only have 
been seen, from Little River Shoals. Not authoritatively deter- 
mined. 

92. Trypanostoma moniliferum f Lea. Not many. 

93. Trypanostoma parvum, Lea. Little River Shoals and 
Little River. More numerous in Little River. Specimens pre- 
sented to Mr. Lea were pronounced by him larger than his origi- 
nal specimens. 

94. Trypanostoma ponderosutn, Anth. I follow Mr. Wheat- 
ley in adopting Mr. Tryon's synonymy of this species. Fine 
specimens, identical with Mr. Lea's figure of Try. dux, are not 
uncommon, 

95. Trypanostoma undulatum, Say. With some hesitation I 
admit this species among the Holston River shells, confessing 
my inability to recognize it. 

The following notes relative to habits and distribution, taken 
from Miss Law's letters, are of interest, and refer principally to 
Little River Shoals : 

'"'' Anculosa [A. proerosa and ^1. ^ tintinnabulum,' Lea] and 
Angitrema \^A. verrucosa, Raf.] are everywhere tolerably abun- 
dant in swift, shallow water. Anculosa virgata, Lea, I have seen 
nowhere but on the dam in the south part of the Holston [at 
Little River Shoals] ; Strephohases are scattered throughout the 

* I have an original specimen from Mr, Lea. 



226 AMERICAN JOUKNAly 

shoals. Trypanostoma, in still water, near the banks, and lo 
only where the water is very rapid. Eurycoelon is scarce here, 
and affects sheltered crevices among the rocks, eschewing mud 
entirely." 



Supplementary List of Species quoted from printed records 
as "found in the Holston," not yet received from Miss Law as 
being found in that stream : 

Unio amoenus, Lea; U. arc/enteus, Lea; * U. compressissi- 
mus, Lea; U. C'ope/, Lea ; I7.'fassinans,Jjea,; U. mcestus, Lea; 
U. perjncfus. Lea ; U. jnlaris, Lea ; U. piiniceus, Hald. ; f 3/a?'- 
garitana Jlolstonia, ,Jje-A; \ G-oniohasis simplex, Say ; % Gionio- 
basis, glabra, Lea ; G-on. strigosa. Lea ( Try. strigosum, Tryon) ; 
lo jiuvialis, Say ; lo inermis, Anth. ; Trypanostoma Roanense, 
Lea ; Trypanostoyna suhro stratum, Lea. 

Species quoted from printed records as found at Knoxville, 
not yet received from Miss Law as being found in the Holston : 

G-oniohasis Steivardsoniana, Lea ; 1| Gon. Estahrookii, Lea ; 
Trypanostoma Knoxvilliana, Lea ; Try. prasinatum. Con. ; 
\ Try. subulceforme, Lea. 

At Chota Shoals Miss Law found specimens of a variety of Aii- 
culosa, which Mr. Lea refers to '■^ tintinnabuhun." The shells have 
nearly the form of that species, but are remarkable for a beauti- 
ful greenish mottled appearance, unlike that of any other shells 
I have seen from any portions of the Tennessee system of drain- 
age. They also have a remarkably thin and tender epidermis, 
which is readily removed in cleaning by treatment that does not 
similarly affect other shells of the Holston. Until more infor- 
mation can be obtained respecting them, it is scarcely proper to 
present them with the expectation that they will be received as a 
new species. 

3Iohaivk, N. Y., Oct. 24, 1870. 

* The habits of U. compi'essissimus, as stated by Mr. Lea in describing 
this species, may have kept it from Miss Law's observation. 

t Marg. Holstonia, Lea, occurs in small streams in Monroe and possi- 
bly also n\ Blount Co. 

X Shells that I have regarded as Gon. Saffordii, Lea, very like Mr. 
Tryon's figures of G. simplex, occur in Turkey Creek, near Concord. 

§ Gon. glabra occurs in small streams in Monroe Co. ? 

II The ferruginous coating mentioned by Mr. Lea in his remarks on this 
species is common to shells from creeks in East Tennessee. 

T[ Try. subulwforme, Lea, occurs in Turkey Creek, near Concord. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 



2-27 



ON THE LIMPETS; WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE 
SPECIES OF THE WEST COAST OF AMERICA, AND TO A 
MORE NATURAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE GROUP. 

BY W. H. DALL, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 

Malacologists have long felt the need of a revision of the Cy- 
clohrancJiiata of Cuvier. In this paper the results of a careful 
examination of a large number of species are detailed, and an 
approximation to a more natural classification of the Limpets 
has been attempted. The task has been bj no means easy, yet 
it is hoped that some light has been thrown upon the subject, 
and the way made easier for the application of information 
which may be gleaned in the same field by other authors. 

Historical Notes on the Nomenclature. 

Throwing out the more incongruous forms which were in- 
cluded in the genus Patella of Linnseus, we find the majority of 
the patelliform shells included by Cuvier (1817) in his order Cy- 
clohrancldata. Lamarck (1818) placed them among his Phylli- 
diens. Ferussac (1819) with a clearer perception of their char- 
acters, adopting Cyclohrancliiata as the name of an order, formed 
for the Patellidae a suborder, Scliismohrancliia,'^ placing the 
chitons in another, which he called, after Blainville, Polyplaxi- 
p'hora.'\ 

Latreille (1825) divided the Cyclohrancliiata into two families, 
[Scutiformes and LameUes) corresponding to the sub-orders of 
Ferussac, except that in the former he unwisely included with 
the Patellae, the genus Umbraculum, Schum. ( Umbrella, Lam.) 

Blainville, in the same year, used the terms Schismohranchia- 
ta and Cyclohrancliiata, to include heterogeneous and unnatural 
groups of other mollusks, while he formed an order, Cervicohran- 

* Not Schismobranclna, Blainv., Schismobranchiata, Blainville, Risso ; 
aor Schismatohranchia, Gray. 

t Afterwards corrected by Gray to Polyplacophord. 



228 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

chiata, including two families ; (1.) Retifera for the Patellidoiy 
and (2.), Branchifera for Fissurella, Parmaphorus and Emar- 
ginula. He also unfortunately transferred the chitons to his 
"Sub-type" Malentozociria, which last was composed of the 
Cirriped crustaceans [Nematopoda] and the Chitons {Polyplaxi- 
phora). 

Rang in 1829 considered the Patellidce and Chitonidce as form- 
ing an order, for which he adopted Cuvier's name Cyclohranchi- 
ata. 

Later, Gray (Guide to the MoUusca, 1857), placed the Lim- 
pets in two sub-orders — Cervico- and CyclohrancJdata forming^ 
part of his order, Scutihranchiata^ sub- division Heteroglossa. 
The CervicobrancMata, however, contains two families, the 
Gadiniidce and the Lepetidce, which cannot be affiliated with the 
typical members of the group. 

The Messrs. Adams (Gen. Rec. Moll. 1858) however, must 
receive the palm for combining under one sub-order [Edriopthal- 
ma, but x\ol^=^Edriopthalma, Grray) of the ScutibrancJdata, a more 
heterogeneous collection of families, including the Limpets, than 
any other author (except their copyist, Chenu) hns dreamed of 
doing. It cannot be said that any of these classifications were 
an improvement upon that of Ferussac. 

In 1861 (Wieg. Arch. II) Dr. F. H. Troschel proposed for 
the group of which the Limpets are the typical examples, the 
term Pocoglossa, or plate-toothed. This was more fully defined 
by him in 1866, in the first part of the second volume of the 
" Gebiss der Schnecken," page 10. Though what would appear 
to be a want of appreciation of other and equally important cha- 
racters, however, the Chitons and l)entalia were included in the 
same order, as by some previous authors. The same group was 
adopted by Moerch under the name of Heteroglossata and di- 
yided into the Cyclohr and data i. e. Patella, Chiton; and the 
Cirrihranchiata viz., Dentaliwn. 

In the present state of our knowledge in regard to the embry- 
ology and anatomy of Dentalium and Chiton, these views can 
no longer be maintained, and the two groups indicated by these 
names in their widest sense, will take rank henceforth as dis- 
tinct orders. 

The order Pocoglossa, as here restricted, was first recognized 
by me in a " Revision of the Classification of the Mollusca of 
Massachusetts," (Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xiii, p. 245, March, 
1870), at which time only the characters of the sub-order Abran- 
chiata had been fully worked out. Since that time I have inves- 
tigated the characters of the sub-order Proteobranchiata as here 
restricted, and, in a paper read before the Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 



OF CONCIIOLOGY. 229 

at the Troy uicetiiifr, Sept., 1870, (of which a synopsis Avas pub- 
lished in the Am. Naturalist, Nov., 1870, p. 561), I restricted 
the whole order within its present limits from the researches 
above mentioned. Among the fruits of these investigations was 
the definite exclusion of the G-adiniidce from the order, (see Am. 
Jour. Conch, vi. p. 8, 1870). It is proper to state that, on 
general considerations, Prof. Theodore Gill, in his unpublished 
manuscripts, had adopted similar limits for the order, though the 
conclusions to which I have been led were the results of entirely 
independent investigations. 

A brief synopsis of the order and its subdivisions as here 
adopted, was, for the sake of insuring priority, presented to the 
Boston Society of Natural History in September, 1870, and pub- 
lished in advance of the Proceedings, February 7th, 1871. 

Formulatini/ the Dentition. 

Attempts have frequently been made, with greater or less 
success, to devise a method of formulating, mathematically, the 
different styles of dentition. Having used several methods, and 
finding them all more or less deficient in some particulars, I 
would propose the following as an improvement upon any now 
in use, and likely to meet any demands that can reasonably be 
made upon it. For greater compactness the formula may be 
written in the form of a fraction, with the rhachidian tooth as a 
numerator ; the lateral teeth enclosed in brackets and the uncini 
outside of the brackets, as a denominator. The median line in 
the latter maybe indicated by a period and the teeth of the 
lateral and uncinal series severally connected by a plus sign. 
Each separate tooth may be denoted by a fraction, the denomi- 
nator representing the number of cusps, and if there is more than 
one tooth similarly formed, the numerator of the fraction will 
serve to indicate the number. For instance, suppose we have 
a radula with a median tooth possessing five cusps, this tooth 
would be indicated by a fraction thus ; — I. If there were six 
inner laterals each with three cusps they would be formulated 
by the fraction, | ; another lateral tooth outside of them with 
one cusp or entirely simple would be written j, and connect- 
ed with the other six with a plus sign. Ten simple uncini on 
ea/ch side would form a fraction -j^', and the whole formula 

would be i 

LOd-f^.l+D'y". The absence of teeth in either series 

might be indicated by a cipher, thus q 

i_0M4-6 6_|_i)ij) or I 

0.0. 

16 



230 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

This supposes that all the teeth are in one transverse lino, but 
■when, as in many patellae, some of the laterals are in a series in 
advance of the rest, a minus sign would serve to indicate their rela- 
tive position in substitution for the p/?(s sign ; ns, 

would signify a radula without a metli;in tootli, in which the two 
simple inner lateral teeth on each side are in advance of the 
three cusped third lateral, and which was provided with three 
uncini. The advantage of the system is evident, from the small 
space in which a large amount of information can be compressed 
and yet remain perfectly comprehensible. It is true that it is 
slightly more complicated thr.ri that in use at present, but hardly 
so to an objectionable (^'xtiMir. When the cusps are quite simple 
the fractional form of the formula for each tooth may be dis- 
pensed with. The method thus indicated will be used through- 
out this paper. 

General Remarks. 

The dentitioTi of the Bocoglosm vera, has certain well marked 
characteristics not common to other groups. The radula is 
usually jointed, or rather divided by impressed transverse lines 
between each series of teeth and its neia;hbors. This fiat section 
I shall term, for convenience, the area. The area is bounded 
on each side by a narrow smooth pleura, upon which the uncini 
are situated, if any exist. Upon the area are certain solid, 
more or less thickened, plates or bosses, of intricate form ; gen- 
erally, but not always, bearing teeth. These bosses are some- 
times translucent, but are usually more deeply colored than the 
area, upon which they are solidly fixed. Upon the bosses are 
found strong, recurved, hooked teeth, almost invariably black 
and opaque. The teeth are readily detached from the bosses ; 
in fact, with specimens long preserved in alcohol, it is difficult 
to obtain any part of the ribbon with the cusps undisturbed, 
while the bosses cannot be detached from the area by any means 
short of the destruction of both. The radulre of this group are 
apparently less purely chitinous than those of the Pubnonata, 
MhacMglossa, &c., as they cannot be boiled in potash for an in- 
stant without detaching all the cusps from the bosses, and in a 
very short time the greater portion of the radula itself will be 
destroyed. Even soakiug in a weak potash solution, quite cold, 
in order to cleanse the structure, must not be long protracted, 
or the latter will become disorganized. All the species are fur- 
nished with a more or less cartilaginous jaw, which is also de- 
structible in potash. 

The Docoglossa, as a group, manifest what may be termed a 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 231 

peculiar persistency of immaturity, -when compared Avitli other 
groups of Gasteropods. The embryonic shell is dish-shaped, ac- 
cording to Carpenter and Fischer, and this form is persis- 
tent in the adult. The dentition is characterized by a want 
of solidification of the chitine, especially in the PateJUdce, 
and the teeth of some forms are represented by mere unde- 
veloped bosses in others, and even these are absent in a third 
series. In no group are the fundamental outlines of the bases 
of the teeth so dithcult to make out or represent by figures. 
Their variation, within certain limits, is noticeable, and a ten- 
dency to melt one into another,, so to speak, may frequently be 
observed. The teeth can be clearly separated into three series, 
median oi' rhachidian, lateral and uncinal. The lateral teeth 
iire distinguished from the uncini by being situated upon the 
area^ while the uncini are invariably upon \\\e 'pleiirce. 

The order is obviously separable by the dentition into two 
groups, viz., those with lateral teeth and those Avithout them. 
The first is almost invariably destitute of a rhachidian tooth ; in 
one form [Acmcea as restricted) we find no uncini or median 
teeth; in another {^Ancistromesus^ n. g.) we find all of the series 
represented ; but, throughout the group the lateral teeth are 
persistent and three in number. The second group is furnished 
with a large and prominent rhachidian tooth and several uncini. 

These diff'eiences are coordinated by others in the soft parts. 
Those possessing lateral teeth are also furnished with eyes and 
brancliiEe. Those without laterals are also destitute of the above 
mentioned organs. 

The latter comprise the family Lepetidce, and will take the 
subordinal name of Abranehiata. 

As the examinations detailed in this paper show that the sub- 
orders Cyclo- and Cervico-hrancldata are not separable from each 
other by any characters whatever, being combined in some in- 
stances in a single individual ; and as the terms above mentioned 
convey an error, inter se, and have also been applied to other 
groups, I shall propose for the group formed by their consolida- 
tion the subordinal name of Proteohranchiata. 

The Proteo-hrancliiata are divisible into two groups, by ana- 
tomical characters as well as the dentition ; though the shells 
afford no high diagnostic characters. These comprise, 1st, those 
posses'sing a distinct cervical branchia and without a median 
tooth, and not more than two uncini. 2d, those without a cer- 
vical branchia, with or without a median tooth, and with three 
uncini on each side. 

The first group will form the restricted family A<miceidce, and 
the second the Patellidce. Both groups are furnished with three 



232 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

latei'a] teeth variously disposed upon tlie area, on each side of 
the median line. 

The following synopsis will indicate the various groups and 
their characters with special reference to the species of the 
north-west coast of America. With regard to the species .men- 
tioned their synonymy, when not given, will be found at length 
in the excellent pnpers of Dr. Carpenter, and the other works 
alluded to in the foot notes. The generic synonymy, which was 
not given in full by Dr. Carpenter, is here worked out, as far as 
the materials at hand will allow. The absence of a number of 
species of which the soft piirts are unattainable at present, will 
be noted by the student. These gaps are to be regretted, but 
will doubtless be made good in time. Meanwhile, sufficient in- 
formation has been obtained to render our knowledge of a num- 
ber of groups moderately complete, and while it is possible that 
the examination of the soft parts of the many species ye' unknown 
except by the shell, may add several groups to those already 
eliminated, still it is probable that a very large proportion will 
fall naturally into the genera here indicated. 

The materials upon which the following approximation to an 
arrangement of the limpets is based are as follows.: For the 
species of the north-west coast of America, upon my own rather 
considerable collections in that quarter, and those of the Scien- 
tific Corps of the W. U. Telegraph Expedition, under my charge; 
comprising many thousand specimens, both in a dry and an al- 
coholic condition, and obtained in a range extending from San 
Juan del Sud, on the west coast of Nicaragua to Bering Strait ; 
the large collections of the Smithsonian Institution, named by 
Dr. P. P. Carpenter, whose knowledge and careful consideration 
of the subject is excelled by none ; and specimens collected by 
Messrs. Stearns, Cooper, Rowell, Swan and others in the same 
collection. For the PateUidce and most of the species not from 
the north-west coast I am indebted to Dr. Wm. Stimpson, the 
Boston Society of Natural History, the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology at Cambridge, Mass., and to the collections of the 
Wilkes Exploring Expedition in the Smithsonian Cabinet, for 
examples. In this group my alcoholic materials have been more 
limited than among the Acfjiceidce, yet they have been sufficient 
to establish the existence of several well marked groups not 
hitherto restricted. The notes on the colors and external ap- 
pearance of the animals when not taken from my own notes, 
those of Mr. Couthouy, or some other author mentioned, are 
from the alcoholic specimens and, in some instances, perhaps 
may describe the general appearance of a few individual speci- 
mens rather than that of a whole race ; any errors due to this 



OF CONCnOLOGY. 233 

•cause may, however, be corrected in time and with larger ma- 
terial. Great care has been taken, repetition has been made 
frequently in the description of minute characters common to- 
several species in preference to leaving an opportunity for doubt 
as to»the characters in each, by silence or cross references. 

A certain geographical agreement in regard to generic char- 
acters has been observed, which, as far as it offers any grounds 
for speculation, rather favors the hypothesis of a development 
of the various forms from a few more simple and more closely 
allied ancestors. Thus, most of the species from the Straits of 
Magellan are provided with lateral frills on the foot, and also 
agree in having the laterals 2 — 1-1 — 2 {Patinella, Nacella) ; 
those of the British Seas on the other hand have the foot smooth 
and the teeth 1 — 2 • 2 — 1 [Patella, Patina) ; the Amboynese spe- 
cies of Acmceidoi agree in possessing two minute uncini instead 
of one, as in the west coast forms ; the subgenus Collisella at- 
tains an extraordinary development upon the West American 
coast, and nowhere else, comparatively few species being known 
from other seas. On the other hand, certain sporadic forms, 
like the species of Acmcea occur in widely separated districts. 
These results, unquestionably due to some law, of which we have 
as yet only the vaguest intimations, I cannot attribute to the 
very plausible but highly unsatisfactory doctrine of " natural 
selection." No doubt the latter has had much to do in the vast 
field of nature, especially among plants, insects and birds, but 
there is no reason, except our own natural desire for a theory 
of some kind, for believing that it has had any appreciable effect 
on the development of the mollusca. I am impressed with the 
belief that there will ultimately be found to exist some law or 
laws far more profound and incisive, and as general and- deep- 
seated as that elucidated by Mr. Darwin, governing without es- 
sential exception, the phenomena of evolution all over the globe. 

Anatomical investigations from alcoholic specimens alone are 
very liable to error, from the rigidity of the parts, and this is 
especially true in regard to the finer details of the nervous and 
circulatory system. I have therefore attempted only a general 
outline of the anatomy of any of the species. The most notice- 
able differences between the two families Acm?eidge and Patei- 
lidse are, that in the former a cervical branchia is present, the 
muzzle is provided with a frill,* there appears (in some species, 
at least) to be but a single renal organ, the crop is inconspicu- 
ous and the radula lies in a long double loop on the upper pos- 

* Produced, in the subgenus Acmcea alone, into a lappet or tubercle at 
each side of the muzzle. 



234 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

terior surface of the liver ; in the latter there is no cervical 
branchia, the muzzle has no frili, there are two renal organs 
(according to Mr. Lankester), the crop is frequently large and 
prominent, and the radula is coiled on the anterior under surface 
of the liver. The branchice are subject in this suborder to the 
most extraordinary variations. 

It will be noticed that the accompanying figures of Collisella 
testudinalis and Patella vuhjata differ from those of Gray and 
Loven. The reason of this is that in the first case the long cusps 
of Gray's figure are due to the fact that they are broken down 
upon the cusps of the other laterals, instead of being represented 
in their natural positiom In the case of Patella vulgata, strange 
as it may appear, though it has been often figured, I have not 
been able to find a single figure which expresses all the charac- 
ters distinctly. Wilton's, in Woodward's Manual, is in some 
respects the best, but the tri dentate cusp of the third lateral is 
so rendered that it appears as if it belonged to two teeth, and 
the uncini are poorly shown. Loven's figure is worse, but his 
figure of the teeth of Acmoia virginea is very good, and bears 
comparison with the object itself. 

Care should be taken in figuring the dentition of any of the 
Docoglossa not to break down or crush the long slender cusps, 
or to confound the bosses which ornament the area with true 
cusped teeth. Bosses often occur, even on the pleura, without 
any tooth or cusp at all, and this should be carefully noted, but 
not incoi'porated into the formula. The central line is frequently 
indicated by an elongated narrow boss between the inner late- 
rals, which is however barely perceptible and never carries a 
cusp. It is undoubtably the homologue of the rhachidian tooth, 
which only appears in this family in the single genus Ancistro- 
mesus. A sharp lookout should be kept for the minute uncini 
figured in Collisella, which are as readily overlooked. 

The reader will notice a wholesale consolidation of generic 
names founded on trivial, inconstant and imaginary characters; 
yet, whenever practicable, the old and familiar names have been 
retained. In many cases, however, they have become so involved 
in a tissue of errors and confusion that it has been no easy mat- 
ter to extricate the types and decide on their several claims. For 
the old and new generic names adopted in this paper, tangible, 
and it is to be hoped sufficient, characters have been given, in 
most cases, for the first time. 

I have regarded as at least of subgeneric value decided differ- 
ences in the branchiae, in the dental formula, and, when accom- 
panied by other characters, such a difference in the shell as for 
instance exists between Patella vulgata and Patina pellucida ; 



OF CONCIIOLOGY. 235 

the difference of the shell alone, however, is of minor inipor- 
tance, and without other characters affords no safe ground for 
classification, and is utterly unreliable in determining aflBnities. 

In one case only am I in doubt as to the status of a name 
which I have here provisionally adopted. I refer to the sub- 
genus JTelciom'scus, which may require eventually to be merged 
in the genus Helcion. The dentition differs essentially from that 
of Patina, and the shells of both are widely removed from that 
of the typical Helcion pectinatus, of the Mediterranean, the only 
species of th&t genus as far as known ; yet one or the other may 
prove eventually congeneric. 

Unfortunately the dentition of the type o^ Helcion is unknown. 
When it shall be worked out the question can be satisfactorily 
settled. Meanwhile, rather than lose sight of the characters 
which are known, in Patina and Helcinnella^ I prefer to retain 
the three subgroups until we can unite or definitely separate 
them by actual knowledge of their relations. 

I find, by wide comparison of specimens, that the forms indi- 
cated by the names Cjiinbida, Scutelladra, and even Olana, are 
due to habitat rather than specific characters, and merge imper- 
ceptibly one into another, in different and even in the same spe- 
cies ; hence I feel justified in referring them to Patella as syno- 
nyms. ScutelUna, again, dt)ubtless contains species which should 
be referred to several groups already described, and very possi- 
bly some which may stand as distinct; yet the animal of the 
only species which has been described does not seem to differ at 
all from Acmoia, as far as we know its characters, and hence I 
prefer to omit the name in the series ; giving it, with its own 
exclusive synonyms under it, as a probable synonym o1 Acma^a, 
Esch., in part, and for the remainder suspending judgment until 
we obtain more information. 

With regard to the synonymy, no opportunity has been omit- 
ted of consulting the original descriptions, rather than the unre- 
liable and often erroneous references of authors who have not 
taken the trouble of verifying their opinions. It is believed to 
be essentially accurate, and only liable to change from a more 
thorough examination of the characters of the type of Helcion. 

Trusting that the result of my labor may be to throw some 
light upon an interesting and very complex subject, I would :isk 
the cooperation of other students in extending these researches 
still further, and in correcting any of the almost inevitable 
errors which may be found in this as well as almost all similar 
work. 



236 



AMERICAN JOURNAL 



Class GASTEROPODA. 

Order DOCOGLOSSA, Dall ex Troschel. 

Suborder ABRANCHIATA (Gill) Dall. 

Animal destitute of eyes or branchiae, furnished with a rhachi- 
dian tooth and uncini, but without lateral teeth upon the radula. 

Family LEPETID^.* 

Shell with apex anteriorly directed, patelliform ; muzzle pro- 
longed below in two tentacular appendages; teeth, -zay^yi- 

Genus LEPETA, Dall ex Gray. 

Subgenus Lepeta, Dall. 

Rhachidian tooth tricuspid, concave in front. Central cusp 
much the largest, simple ; lateral cusps small, emarginate. Base 
very broad. Uncini with simple cusps. 

Subgenus Cryptobranchia, Dall ex Midd. 

Rhachidian tooth with three short cusps, equal and parallel 
before and behind, not pointed. Base more or less ornate be- 
hind, moderately broad. Uncini with simple cusps. 

Subgenus PiLiDiUM,t Forbes. 

Rhachidian tooth tricuspid, convex before, central cusp much 
the largest, lateral cusps simply pointed ; base very narrow. 
Uncini with cusps obliquely twisted. 

Suborder PROTEOBRANCHIATA, Dall. 

Animal branchiferous, oculiferous. Rhachidian tooth rarely 
present. Lateral teeth invariably present ; three in number. 

* For synonymy, &c., see "Materials for a Monograph of the Family 
Lepetidse," by W. H. Dall, Am. Journ. Conch, v, pp. 140 — 150. 

f Although Forbes and Hanley were acquainted with the Lepeta cceca 
of Muller, it would appear that they erected the Patella fulva into a dis- 
tinct genus upon the erroneous supposition that the apex of Lepeta was 
directed posteriorly. The genus Lepeta is Atlantic, and Cryptobranchia 
is Pacific, in its distribution. I have seen no true Lepeta cceca from the 
Pacific, though it has been frequently reported from Japan and else- 
where. All the Pacific specimens sent by Dr. Carpenter under that 
name, and those in the Smithsonian collection dredged by Mr. A. Adams 
in Japan, and so denominated, upon inspection and actual comparison 
are undoubtedly different, and probably conspecific with Cryptobranchia 
concentrica, Midd. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 237 

Family ACM^ID^, Cpr. 

< Phyllidimm. Lam., Phil. Zool. 1809. GUI., Inv. Mass. Ed. 

1, p. 146, 1841. 

•< Patelladce, Guilding, Zool. Journal, iii, p. 535, 1828. 

< FateUacece, Mke., Syn. Ed. 1828, oUm. Hinds, Voy. Sulph. 

Zool. p. 53. 

< Patellacea. Mke., Syn. Ed. 1830, p. 90. Forbes, Mai. Men. 

p. 35, 1838. 

< Fatellce, Fer., Tab. Syst. p. xxxvii, 1821. Hang, Man. p. 

251, 1829. Desh., Enc Mt^th. iii, 1830. 

< PateUidce, D'Orb., Moll. Can. 1837'. Binn., Inv. Mass. Ed. 

ii, p. 267, 1870. Woodw., Man. p. 153. Cpr., Rep. 
Br. Assoc. J 856, p. 318. Jeffreys, Brit. Conch, iii, p. 
229 (in Pectinibrancliiata). 

< FissureUidce, D'Orb., Voy. Am. Mer. v, p. 470, 1840. Rve., 

Conch. Syst. ii, p. 17. C. B. Ad., Pan. Sh. p. 241. 

< Fissurellina. Macgill, Moll. Aberdeen, p. 65, 1843. 

< Patellina, Wiegm., Handb. der Zool. p. 546, 1832. Milne- 

Edw. Conch. Textb. Ed. vi, p. 197. 

< Fatelloidea, Risso, Hist, iv, p. 260, 1826 (not of Ferussac, 

Rang and Menke). 
= Lottiadce, Gray, Syn. Brit. Mus. 1840. Rev. Zool. p. 355, 

1844 (in Tectibranchiata). 
— Lottidce, D'Orb., Moll. Cub. i, p. 93, 1841 (in Scutibran- 

chiata.) ' 
= Tecturidw, Gray, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 158. Mrs. Gray's Moll. 

iv, p. 92, 158, 1850. H. and A. Adams, Genera Rec. 

Moll, i, p. 458. DalL, Rev. of the Classification of the 

Mass. Moll. Proc. B. S. Nat. Hist. 1870, p. 245. 

< Tecturidce, Gray, Guide Moll. 1857, p. 169. 

< iScutelHidce, Chenu, Man. de Conchyl. i, p. 374. 

= Ac7noeidce, Cpr., Maz. Shells, p. 202, 1856. Sup. Rep. Br. 
Assoc. 1863, p. 650. Am. Journ. Conch, ii, p. 332. 
Lect. on Moll. p. 71 (in ScutibrancJiiata). 
Shell patclliform, subsymmetrical ; animal with a free bran- 
chial plume above the left side of the neck. Radula with, or 
without uncini on each side, no median tooth, and often desti- 
tute of uncini ; disk of the muzzle surrounded by a narrow frill 
of integument. 

Genus ACM^A, Esch., 1828. 

Acmcea, Eschscholtz in App. Kotzebue's New Voyage round 
the World, &c. Dorpat, 1828. Colburn & Bentley's 
London translation, 1830, p. 350, vol. ii (no type or spe- 
cies named). Eschscholtz, Zool. Atlas, pt. 5, Ed. Rathke, 



238 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

1833, p. 16, pi. xxiii and xxiv. (Type Acmcea mitra^ 

Esch.) Forbes and Hanley, Brit. Moll, ii, p. 433. 

( Woodward, Man. p. 155.) Phiilppi, Handb..p. 199. 

Carpenter, Mazatlan Catalogue, p. 202. Lect. p. 71, 

Ed. ii. Sup. Rep. 1863, p. 650. Am. Jonrn. Conch. 

vol. ii, p. 332. 
Tecture, Aud. and Milne-Edw. in Rep. of Cuvier on their 

three Memoirs. An. Sci. Nat. vol. xxi, p. 326, Nov. 

1830. (Type Patella parva ?) 
Patelloida, Quoj and Gaim., Voy. Astrolabe, iii, 1833. 

(Type P. 7-ugosa, Quoy fide Gray.) Encvc. Meth. iii, p. 

704, 1832. 
Patella'''', Loven, Ofv. af. K. Vetensk. Ak. For. June, 1847, 

p. 198. (P. testudinalis, L.) 
Patelloidea, Cantraine, Diagnoses or descr. of some new sp. 

of Moll. Bull., Ac. Sci. Bruxelles, 1835. Also, Gue- 
' rin, Bull. Zool. 1835, Livr. 7 & 8, Sect. 2, p. 129. 
Lottia, Gray, Phil. Trans. 123, 1833, p. 800, note. (No 

type or species mentioned.) lb. 125, 1835, p. 302. P. 

Z. S. 1847, p. 158. 
Lottia, Gray, Syn. Moll. Br. Mus. 1840. Revue Zool. p. 

355, ]844. Forbes, Mai. Monensis, p. 34, 1838. Moll. 

^gean Sea, p. 135, 1844. Reeve, Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 

75, 1841. Reeve and Catlow, Conch. Nora. p. 99, 1845. 

Moller, Index Moll. Groenl. p. 16, 1842. Alder, Ann. 

and Mag. Nat. Hist, viii, p. 405, 1842. Macgillivray, 

Moll. Aberdeen, p. 65, 1843. Morris, Brit. Foss. p. 

149, 1843. Gld., Otia Conch, pp. 9, 242. Moll. U. S. 

Exploring Exp. p. 349. 
Patelloidea, Couthouy, Bost. Journ. N. H. ii, p. 171, 1839. 

[P. amoena, Say, == testudinalis) D'Orb., olim. Voy. Am. 

Mer. V. Chenu,.M»n. de Conchyl. i, p. 374. 
lothia, Forbes (err. typog.), Lond. Athen. Oct. 6, 1849, p. 

1018) not = lothia, Gray, Adams, Catlow). 
Tectum, Gray, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 158, No. 275. Guide to 

Moll. p. 169. Mrs. Gray^s Moll, iv, p. 92. II. and A. 

Ad., Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 458. xMeek, Check List Cret. 

Inv. 1864, p. 17. Dall, Rev. Class. Mass. Moll. Proc. 

B. S. N. H. 1870, p. 245. 
< Tectura, Jeffreys, Brit. Conch, iii, p. 245. Mocrch, Cat. 

Yoldi, p. 143, 1852. 
Helicon, Keferstein, Bronn. Klass. u. Ord. des Thier. iii, 

Mai. ceph. in reference to pi. 75, f. 6. 
Scurria, sp. Gray, Adams, Cpr., op. cit. 
Pileojpsis, sp. Eichwald. 



OF CONCHOLOGT. 



239 



Eelcion, sp. D'Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer. v, p. 478 ; not 

Moiitfort. 
Ancylus, sp. Costa. 

Also, (to a greater or less extent, as yet undetermined) : 

Scutellina, Gray, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 168. (Type .S'. crenulata, 
Brod. sp.) 'Gld. Otia Conch, p. 242. Woodw., Man. 
Rec. and Foss. Shells, p. 155. Cpr., Lect. Moll. p. 71. 
Scuiella, Brod. (not Lam.), P. Z. S. 1834, p. 47. Mull., 
Svn. Test. Viv. p. 161, 1836. {8. crenulata, Brod.) 
Sijy., Conch. Man. Ed. ii, pp. 225, 254. 
ScuteUma, H. and A. Ad., Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 460. 

Chenu, Man. de Conchyl. i, p. 375 (part). 
Crepidula, sp. C. B. Ad., Pan. Shells, p. 234, No, 352. 
The Latin designation of Eschscholtz (accompanied by a defi- 
nite description) has two years' precedence of the trivial French 
name of Audouin and Milne Edwards, as mentioned by Cuvier. 
The MScherchts pour servir a I'liistoire naturelle dn Littoral de la 
France, was published in 1832. It consisted of two volumes, the 
first being a general introduction, with some account of the 
fisheries, and the second is devoted to the Annelides. On page 
144 of the first volume the authors state that they propose to 
create a new genus for some little rosy Patellas found on the 
coast of La Mancbe, on account of the peculiar cervical branchia, 
and that this genus is constituted in a resume of their investiga- 
tions oifered to the Academy in November, 1829. No name of 
genus or type is mentioned. 

Turning to the Annales des Sciences Naturelhs (vol. x?:i, p. 326) 
for November, 1830 (not 1829, as stated above), we find a report 
by Cuvier on three memoirs by the naturalists alluded to, in 
which he mentions " leur genre Tecture," but without giving any 
Latin name to it, and referring with doubt to Patella j^arva (= 
virginea Mlill.) as the type. 

Gray, in 1847 (P. Z. S.), appears to have been the first to give 
the name Tecture a Latin form; at least a very careful search 
has failed to reveal its publication anywhere previously. 

LTnder the circumstances it seems extraordinary that the name 
should have been adopted by naturalists, and especially that we 
should find such allusions to it as those of Mr. Jeff"reys in the 
British Conchology, vol. iii, p. 244-5. No one, we think, will 
hold that a Latin name should give place to a vernacular desig- 
nation, even if the latter has priorit}'', which it has not in the 
present case. 

The animal of the typical species of Scutelliyia has not been 
examined, but that of a closely allied species, S. ferruginea, 



240 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

from the drawing of Mr. A. Adams in the Gen. Rec. Moll., 
appears to agree in all essential particulars with Acjncea. Still 
it is not improbable that some of the species may prove to differ 
sufficiently from the Acmaeas to retain a separate generic name. 
The anterior margin of some of them is almost straight, and one 
of these was described as a Orepidula by Prof. C. B. Adams. 

The statement made by Forbes, and copied by Gray, Jeffreys 
and other authors, that the free branchial plume of Acmcea is 
equivalent to the circle of leaflets around the mantle of Patella, 
is manifestly erroneous. No one can examine the latter without 
perceiving that the two organs are not homologous ; the lappets 
of Patella rise in a different place from the cervical branchia of 
Acmam, they are supplied by different veins and nerves, and in 
those forms where the circle is interrupted before the head the 
ends of the cordon are far removed from the point of insertion 
of the cervical branchia. Nothino- more is needed to show the 
erroneous nature of such a comparison after the discovery of 
species in which both the cordon and the cervical plume are 
found, as in Scurria mesoleuea. On the other hand, it is equally 
true that the cordon of Patella is not to be homologized with 
the respiratory organs of the Chitons. An examination of any 
species of CJiiton will show that the branchiae are, each in itself, 
of a radically different construction from those of Patella, each 
representing a plume furnished with transverse laminge, analo- 
gous to the single ^\\xmQ oi Acmcea. This conclusion is irresist- 
ible upon a careful examination of the branchiae by any one 
possessed of a slight knowledge of comparative anatomy, and is 
fully confirmed by Dr. Williams in his admirable paper on the 
mechanism of aquatic respiration in invertebrate animals. 
(Ann. Nat. Hist. 1855, p. 413.) The branchial system of the 
Fissurellidcie, according to that author, differs widely from that 
of the Bocoglossa, and the dentition and other anatomical details 
confirm his conclusions from the study of the branchiae. The 
gills of Emaryinula and Propilidium offer closer analogies with 
the Acmasidsie, but other characters show that their strongest 
affinities lie with the true Scutibranchs, though the dentition of 
Propilidium remains to be examined. 

Blainville supposed that the function of respiration in Patella 
was carried on especially by a net work of vessels in the thin 
and delicate area of the mantle over the head, which I have 
termed the "hood." It is by no means improbable that this is 
the case in the Abranehiata, and to some extent the branchia in 
the Patellida^ may also be assisted by the mantle, though this is 
not yet proven. I have noticed in many species a most beauti- 
ful net work of vessels in this locality, which cannot be without 
an office of some kind. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 



241 



The preceding synonymy refers to the genus Acmcea, Esch- 
scholtz, as a whole, the following to the subgenus as now restricted. 

Subgenus AcM^A, {sensu stricto) Esch. Philippi., 1846. 

Ge7i. char. Animal unprovided with a branchial cordon of 
lamelUx; or any similar appendages between the mantle and the 
foot. Radula provided with three, subequal, similar, simple 
lateral teeth on each side, arranged in a line which forms 
an angle with the rhachis, each tooth being laterally and trans- 
versely parallel with the corresponding tooth in the opposite side, 
and the longitudinal axes of all the cusps being nearly or quite 
parallel with the median line of the radula which is destitute of 
uncini. Muzzle frill produced at the lower anterior corners 
into two lappets or tubercles. Shell solid, with an erect or an- 
teriorly inclined apex. 

Type AcM^A mitra, Esch. Plate, 14, fig. 1. 

Syn. Acnuea mitra., (Esch.) Rathke. Zool. Atlas, part v. p. 
18, No. 1, pi, xxiii, fig. 4. 

Acmcea mammillata, Esch., ib., p. 18, No. 2. 

Acmo'a marmorea Esch., ib., p. 19, No. 3. 

Scurria mitra, Gray, Adams, Cpr., &c., (pars.) 

Lottia conica, Gld., Moll. U. S. Expl. Exp. p, 346, (maxima 
pars.) 

Scurria f mitra, Dall, Am. J. Conch, v. p. 149, pi. xv, 1869. 

Not Scurria mitra, Alcock (MSS.) Am. J. Conch, ii, p. 345 
=Scurria scurra Less., nor 

Scurria scurra, Lesson as aver Gray, Adams, D'Orbigny, 
and others. 

Soft parts of a waxen white. Foot short, subcircular, smooth 
below and on the sides. Thickened portion of the mantle edge 
narrow, perfectly smooth all round, thinner portion ditto. Head 
short, stout ; muzzle broad, transversely oval, furnished with a 
narrow, granulose frill which extends entirely around it, and at 
the lower corner on each side is produced into a sort of tuber- 
cle. Between these tubercles, below, the frill is very narrow. 
Disk of the muzzle granulose, radiately grooved. Mouth horse- 
shoe shaped. Tentacles in the adult moderately long, cylindrical, 
very little swollen at the base, which is constricted without any 
tubercle on the inner side as in most of the Patellce ; tips bluntly 
rounded. The very young have the tentacles more swollen and 
pointed, proportionately. Eyes small, black, on the upper pos- 
terior bases of the tentacles. Gill stout, attached to the mantle 
a little to the left above the head ; pointing forward a little to 



242 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

the right ; on the left side is a border formed by an impressed 
line which extends from the base to the apex of the organ ; a 
large vessel sends forth branches to the lamellae from this side. 
The laminffi are very prominent, so that the gill appears very 
thick and stout. Clo?e to the adductor on the extreme right are 
(1) the anal tubercle, small, conical, pointing to the right, and (2) 
the infra anal * papilla, smaller than the other and to the right 
of it. The renal orifice is probably very minute and situated to 
the left of the anal tubercle, but a thorough searcli failed to de- 
tect it. Intestine regularly and repeatedly constricted toward 
its termination, expelling the faeces in cylindrical pellets. In 
all the specimens examined it was full of white calcarenus re- 
mains of nullipore. 

Shell dull white, aperture nearly circular, wider behind, in 
some young examples somewhat elongated oval ; form conical, 
apex erect, nearly central, blunt, smooth ; posterior surface 
usually straight but occasionally a little convex, exterior smooth, 
marked with very faint concentric lines of growth ; devoid of 
epidermis ; margin entire, polished, with a narrow semi-pellucid 
rim inside. Internally smooth or furnished with grooves radia- 
ting from the apex more or less strongly marked. , Muscular im- 
pressions deep, strong, horseshoe- shaped, with the marks of the 
anterior ends of the adductors rounded and broader than the 
rest, connected by a slender impressed line marking the attach- 
ment of the mantle. Young shells are often furnished with ir- 
regular riblets more or less strong, many or few in number, 
radiating from the apex but stronger towards the margin. Color, 
dead white inside and out, often livid, or tinged a fine pink or 
pea green from nullipore, but never wax yellow or horny pellu- 
cid as in the normal state of Seurria scurra. Formula 



0(1—1—1.1—1—1)0. 

I have been thus explicit because, by almost every author ex- 
cept Dr. Carpenter, this shell has been confounded with the South 
American species above mentioned ; which, however, belongs to a 
different genus. Taken together, the most conservative concholo- 
gist would hardly think of uniting them ; short descriptions and 
poor figures are mostly to blame for the confusion. The striated 
variety [tenuisculpta, Cpr.,) appears very distinct from the smooth 
form; but every gradation may be found in a very large series. 
The unique type of Seurria ? funiculata, Cpr., now before me, dif- 
fers from the smallest specimen of tenuisculpta, only in having the 
riblets even more prominent, close, and rounded, and being 

* Infra-anal orifice of Lankester; see remarks under Patella vulgata. 



OF C'0NCH0LO(4Y. 243 

tliinnor and smaller. It appears to me to be only a very marked, 
and probably individual, variation. It may, however, eventually 
prove conspecific with " Patella'' Lamanonii, Schrenck, (Amurl. 
moll.) which is with little doubt the same as '"'• Patella" pallida, 
Ghl. (Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 1859.) 

This species lives below low water mark, on stones ; it ranges 
from the Aleutian Islands to San Diego, California. It is very 
abundant where Eschscholtz procured it, at Sitka, and equally 
so at Monreri'V. It is generally overgrown with nullip^re which 
oovers it with a regular series of nodules, and tinges the shell 
green or pink. Frequently a tuft of calcareous algae waves from 
the apex, and the unconscious limpet literally bears a "feather 
in his cap." It feeds principally upon nullipore, and the en- 
crusted variety seems to have constituted Eschscholtz' second 
species (A Acmcm {A. mammillata.) 

His first species is the one under consideration, and even if 
congeneric the name Scurria would have to make way for that 
ol x\.cmcea, as the latter has eighteen years priority, and this 
species is the type *, including as it does the first three nomi- 
nal species of Eschscholtz. Gray (1847) appears to have taken 
A. soutwn (=pat{7ia) as the type, because on the plate the fig- 
ure of scutum is numbered " 1" ; but it is really the sixth species 
of the list. The peculiar form and arrangement of the teeth, 
and the mouth-tubercles separate it from the rest of the Acmgeids 
except, curiously enough, the type of the quondam genus Tectu- 
ra, which is thus rendered an exact synonym of Acmcea. A 
pretty full account of the anatomy is given by Rathke, who pub- 
lished the last portion of Eschscholtz' Atlas, after the death of 
the latter naturalist. 

AcM^A viRGiNEA, Mlill. sp. Plate 14, fig. 2. 

Patella virginea, Miill., Prod. p. 237, Zool. Dan. pi. 12, f. 4, 5. 
Patella parv a ^ Da Costa, Brit. Conch, p. 7, pi. 8, f. 11. 
Patella pulchella, Fbs., Mag. Nat. Hist, viii, p. 591, f. 61. 
Lottia pulchella, Brown 111. Conch. Gt. Brit, ii, p. 480. 
Tectura virginea, S. Wood, Crag. Moll, i, p. 161. 
Acmcea virginea, Hanlev, Brit. Marine Conch, p. xxxii. Fbs. 

and Hani. Br. Moll. ii. p. 487. 
Tectura virginea, Jeffr., Brit. Conch, iii, p. 248. 

Soft parts mostly whitish, faintly sufi'used with pink ; mantle 
edge thickened, fringed with unequal filaments a little within the 

*This is the only species mentioned by Rathke in the generic diagno 
Bis, and it was also adopted by Philippias the type, in his review of the 
west coast limpets, in 1846. 



244 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

margin. Foot oval, thin, sides smooth ; head rosy, short, broad 
and semicircular ; muzzle very short, frill produced into two lap- 
pets, as in the last species. Tentacles rather long, slender, 
pointed. Gill very long, drab, extensile and contractile, narroAv 
and situated on the left side of the head, base a little forward of 
the junction of the neck and hood and springing from the un- 
der surface of the mantle, pointing from left to right across the 
neck and composed of a thin membrane bearing a series of la- 
mellag above, and another somewhat larger series below, as in 
most Acmgeids. Anal and infra-anal papillae as in the last, renal 
not detected. Formula 

0( T— T— l7l^=i^T]0. 

The specimens from which the above notes were taken were 
dredged by- Dr. Stimpson near Oban, Scotland. It ranges from 
Iceland to the Azores (Jeffreys.) It has not the slightest resem- 
blance whatever to Acmcea asmi of Middendorf, as suggested by 
Jeffreys (1. c.) 

The shell has been well described by Forbes and Hanlej^ and 
Jeffreys, op. cit. 

The statement of Clark in regard to the uidification of the ova, 
is too widely different from the habits of the other species to be 
taken without further confirmation ; it is probably a misappre- 
hension caused by the entanglement of some loose ova in the 
mucus of the foot. 

AcM^A INSESSA, Hinds. PI. 14, fig. 3. 

Patella insessa, Hds., An. Nat. Hist, x, p. 82, pi. vi, f. 3. 

Nacella incessa, Cpr., Sup. Kep. Br. As. 1863, p. G50. 

Soft parts slitty green, upper edge of mantle dark brown. 
I\Iantle and sides of foot smooth ; tentacles cylindrical, stout, 
moderately long ; eyes black, small on the upper posterior ten- 
tacle-bases, foot smooth, subovate ; gill small, broad, triangular ; 
muzzle frilled, disk granulose or nearly smooth, frill .produced 
at each outer lower corner into two bluntly rounded lappets. 
Radula narrow, cusps reddish brown, rather more slender than 

in the last species. Formula 

0(1— 1— il^^^P-^T)0. The speci- 
men which affords the above notes was obtained from a Lamina- 
ria frond at Monterey. Range from Sitka (rare) to Monterey 
(common) and San Diego (scarce.) 

In the young and perfect condition this shell has some very 
peculiar brilliant white marks on the apex which appear to con- 
sist, in a shell '2 of an inch long, of a band in front of the apex, 
one just behind it, and a V-shaped mark still more posterior. 
These are, however, confined to the first and thinnest layer of the 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 245 

shell and are soon worn, so as to present the appearance of six 
white dots radiating from the apex, and in all adult shells they 
are wanting. This strongly reminds one of S'curn'a, which has 
a white ti'p, sometimes marked with brown in a similar manner. 
The peculiar waxen, or semi-translucent, brown outer layer, also 
resembles the type of Sourria, which is also furnished with simi- 
lar, radiating, fine strise. I have a thin, long, compressed speci- 
men exactly intermediate between the typical form and A. pa- 
leacea. 

ACM.EA (?) INSTABILIS, Gld. 

Patella insfabilis, Gld., Proc. B. S. N. Hist, ii, 150, 1846, 

Exp. Shells 9. 
Nacella instabilis, Cpr., Sup. Rep. Br. As. 1863, p. 650. 

I have seen a large series of this species, but none with a per- 
fect apex. It much resembles the last species, but ap'pears to 
be specifically distinct. The principal difference is in the sculp- 
ture, which is in rather distant grooves instead of striae, and in 
the size of the adult, which is much larger than the last species. 
The differences of form are probably due to a peculiar habitat. 
The place of this species would seem, from the close resemblance 
of the shell, to be probably in this division of the genus, but all 
classification (other than provisioniil) from the shells alone is time 
and work wasted. Neither this species nor the last, as far as we 
know, have any relations with Nacella, as restricted. 

The species is rare at Sitka and Monterey and very common 
at Vancouver. 

Subgenus Collisblla *, Dall. 

Lottia, Acma'a, Tectura,, and Patella, sp. auct. 

Animal without any vestige of a branchial cordon. Muzzle- 
frill simple, entire, not produced into lappets or tubercles. 
Radula with the two inner laterals anterior, approximate, simple, 
with long cusps ; next two posterior, with large, broad usually 
simple cusps ; outer laterals minute, closely appressed and op- 
posed to the cusps of the second pair ; pleurie provided with one 
or two very minute uncini close to the posterior corner of the 
area. Formula 

2 or 1(2—1.1—2)1 or 2. 

This subgenus differs from Acmcea in the simple muzzle-frill, 
the relative position and unequal size of the lateral teeth, and 
in the very minute uncinus, which from its small size, is very 
liable to be overlooked. The fact that the type of the genua 

*Froin Collis, a mound ; in allusion to their shape. 
17 ■ 



246 AMERICAN JOURKAL 

Tectui'a belongs to the restricted genus Aemcea^ prevents the 
use of that name for this group for which it might have been 
advantageously employed. 

The majority of the Acmmda' of the West American coast 
belong to this section of the genus. 

Sectivn A, with one uncinus. [Typica.) 
Type CoLLiSELLA PELTA, Esch, sp. Plate 14, fig. 6. 

Acmcea ijelta, Esch. Rathke Zool. Atlas, V. p. 19, No. 5. 

+ (?) Acmcea cassis, Esch., ib. p. 19, No. 4, PI. 24, fig. 3. 

= Patella Jimbriata, Gld., + leucophca, Rve. 4- monticola, 
Nutt. MSS. (pars.) -f- strigillata, Nutt. MSS. (pars.) fide 
Cpr. 

Soft parts : foot large, long, usually hiding the head when 
viewed from below ; sides of foot smooth, blackish ; mantle rather 
narrow, with a dark, broad, thick edge, furnished v/ith a single 
row of minute beards or filamentous papillae ; head short and 
broad ; tentacles stout, bluntly pointed, much swollen just above 
the somewhat constricted base, with a large tubercle at the inner 
base of each. Frill smooth, slightly crumpled, disk radiately 
striate with a granuhir border ; mouth transversely oval. Gill 
short, acutely pointed with strongly marked borders, left margin 
conspicuously crenate. Inferior iamellge larger than the upper 
ones, and the posterior laminae below much more produced than 
the anterior ones. Anal papilla prominent, oblique, with a T- 
shaped orifice, pointing to the right. Infra-anal do. smaller, 
subcircular, deeply bifid. Renal orifice not elevated, situated 
some distance to the left of the anal papilla. 

Liver small, linguiform. Radula short, forming a double loop 
on the upper surface of the liver. Crop medium in size, not 
laminated internally. Generative capsule divided by a deeply 
impressed transverse sulcus, from below, into two lobes. Formula 



\(2 — 1.1 — 2)1. Female examples had the- sac full of ova in 
difi'erent stages of development, but afforded no special evidences 
of complexity of structure. On the other hand, the same organ 
in the males was a gland, composed of innumerable small tubes 
parallel with each other, perpendicular to the wall of the sac at 
their bases, where they were thick and frequently bifurcated, 
their internal extremity conical, pointed, and emptying into a 
central, irregularly-shaped cavity. 

The whole structure recalled that of the kidney in vertebrates, 
but was coarser. The tubes separated readily from one another, 
•were nearly smooth or lightly longitudinally striate ; their sheaths 



OF t'ONCHOLOGY. 



247 



appeared to be composed of fine transversely striate fibres, 
disposed in wavy bands. They contained a smooth greenish 
substance, resembling coagulated mucus, and without any trace 
of organization, under a. /^ Smith and Beck (55°) objective. 
The specimens here described were obtained at Black Point, 
San Francisco, in February. 

Var. nacelloides, Dall, (MSS. 1865). PI. 17, fig. 36 a-c. 

A very distinct variety of this species has exactly the aspect 
of " Nacella " instabilis externally. It is of a blackish brown, 
with sharp, radiating grooves sometimes obsolete near the apex. 
Several shells beginning in this way have a margin with the 
normal characters of C. pelta. It is quite distinct from the var. 
monticola, Nutt., as described by Dr. Carpenter in the Amer, 
Journ. Conch., Vol. II, p. 33, and might readily be taken for a 
distinct species, as the sculpture differs entirely from that of 
the normal pelta, which is sparsely furnished with prominent 
bulging ribs. I am disposed to agree with Dr. Carpenter (Sup. 
Rep. p. 533,) in referring A. pileolus, Midd., to "probably the 
young of A. pelta ;" although I believe it impossible to determine 
exactly wlvdt pileolus really was. 

CoLLiSELLA PATINA, Esch. sp. Plate 14, fig. 4. 

Aemoia patina, Esch., Zool. Atlas, V, p. 19, No. 7, pi. xxiv, 

f. 7 — 8. Cpr. Am. Journ. Conch, ii, p. 332. 
Var. normalis, sive pintadma, (Gld.) 

Shell depressed, rounded, with a wide tessellated border, and 
with the color in stripes or spots more or less tessellated ; sculp- 
ture of sharp strisa. Soft parts : foot, mantle-edge and muzzle 
dusky. Top of head, neck and thin part of mantle whitish. 
Foot oval, thick, stout, sides quite smooth ; mantle smooth, with 
a narrow thickened edge, ciliated, and with fine crenulations 
corresponding to the striae of the shell ; head short, broad, 
prominently bulging above. Tentacles moderate, pointed, stout, 
greatly swelled at the base, with a prominent tubercle at the 
inner corner of each. Muzzle transversely oval with an even, 
puckered, scalloped frill ; disk entire, radiately striate, mouth 
transversely oval. Eyes minute, on outer posterior bases of the 
tentacles. Gill moderately long, subtriangular, with a strong 
impressed line, forming a border on each side ; slightly attached 
by posterior edges to the mantle above ; inserted on the under 
surface of the hood, above the left side of the head and some 
distance in front of the commissure between the mantle and neck. 
Anal tubercle smooth, not very prominent, pointing to the right, 
close to the right anterior end of the adductor; orifice internally 



248 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

papillose, infra-anal orifice bifid, to right of anal, on a l)ro:ul, 
not prominent swelling. Renal orifice round, minute, hardly 
elevated, some distance to the left of the anal papilla. Tiie 
length and stoutness of tentacles differ in different individuals. 
Some varieties approach very closely to the black variety of 
(J. scahra. 

Var. Cummgii, (Rve.) 

Shell elevated, compressed, with a narrow black or slightly 
spotted border; externally black, with small bluish white spots 
radiating from the apex and becoming elongated into stripes 
near the margin, in some individuals ; quite or almost destitute 
of radiating strige. 

Soft parts : foot oval, elongated, smooth, light yellowish, sides 
a little brown, extreme edge thin, crenate (in alcohol). Thick- 
ened mantle-edge smooth, broad, very finely crennlate on ex- 
treme edge, with a single row of very fine white cilia ; hood 
longer than in normal variety, very varicose ; head prominent, 
light brownish, stout; muzzle stout, transversely rounded; fringe 
broad, striate, even, somewhat crumpled ; disk radiately striate, 
bordered with a double row of granulose tubercles, the inner 
row most prominent; mouth subcircular, somewhat pointed be- 
low ; tentacles as in normal variety. In most specimens, in 
alcohol, of this and other species, several impressed longitudinal 
lines may be noticed, perhaps due to the contraction caused by 
the preservative ; gill moderate, rather longer and narrower 
than in normal variety ; anal and infra-anal papillje close to- 
gether at the extreme right, less prominent, but otherwise as in 
variety normalis. Renal orifice minute, rounded, inconspicuous, 
midway between the gill on the left hand side and the anal 
tubercle on the right. Radula, as usual in the Acmmdcf, in two 
long double loops on the upper surface of the liver. Formula 
as in the last. 

This variety, if it were not so closely connected by hybrids 
and intermediate forms with the other, would undoubtably rank 
as a distinct species. It is a northern form and the northern 
specimens are uniform and remarkably distinct from the southern 
pintadina. They become inextricably mingled, however, about 
Sitka, and puzzle the student beyond description. It seems as 
if several distinct local forms had spread, and at the points of 
meeting had hybridized until the hybrids and varieties equalled 
or outnumbered those wliich adhered to the original types ; 
rather than that all had a common origin in one type. Further 
researches among the Aleutian Islands and on the east coast of 
Asia, are necessary, before we can trace the development of 
these forms, with any satisfaction. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 249 

Var. ocTiracea, Dall. Plate 17, fig. 35. 

There is another very well marked and pretty variety which 
I should refer to this species, and as it does not appear to have 
been described, I would propose for it the name of ochracea ; 
externally it is of a very light yellowish brown, without spots or 
rays ; internally white with the characteristic dark brown stain 
of patina in tlie visceral area. The exterior is covered with fine, 
regularly radiating, close, equal, thread-like riblets, which pass 
from apex to margin without bifurcation, imbrication or asperities 
of any kind. These riblets will serve to distinguish it from any 
of the other limpets of the coast ; otherwise it approaches very 
close to some varieties of scabra, and can be traced right into 
varieties of patina. The variation of these limpets appears to 
be absolutely without limits ; you may describe seven hundred 
forms as easily as seven. The only guide to specific identity is 
a certain habit of growth, easier seen than described, and very 
easy to overlo(»k. 

The home of the normal form may be said to be the Van- 
couver district, whence it extends northward to Cape Spencer, 
and southward to San Diego. The centre of radiation of the 
variety Oiimingii is about Kadiak, whence it extends west and 
north to the Pribylof group in Bering Sea and the Aleutian chain, 
and south to Vancouver, straggling specimens even occurring 
about San Francisco. I have dredged it at six fathoms in Unga, 
North harbor, but they are usuall^'^ found about tide marks. 

COLLISELLA TESTUDINALIS, Mull. Sp. Plate 14, fig. 13. 

Patella testudinalis, Mull., Prodr. Zool. Dan. p. 237, 1766. 

Mantle with very fine papilhie around the edge which is col- 
ored in accordance with the margin of the shell, variable in dif- 
ferent individuals. Tentacles long, slender, sharply pointed; 
eyes small on the upper posterior bases of the tentacles, which 
are rather swollen, with a strono; tubercle on the inner side of 
each tentacle. Head large, rounded ; muzzle short, with a wide 
thin puckered frill, not produced into lappets as in Actncea ; 
central disk granulose, mouth subcircular. Gill free all its 
length, situated in the commissure, between the mantle and neck 
on the left side, slender, elongate-triangular, pointing toward 
the right over the head, extensile beyond the edge of the mantle, 
whitish. Anal papilla obliquely truncate, situated close to the 
adductor on the right side, orifice internally papillose ; infra. 
anal tubercle close, to the right of anal, minute, somewhat elon. 
gated. Renal orifice not detected, probably extremely minute 
and to the left of the anal tubercle. Formula ^ , , . , ", . „, ., 



250 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

The minute uncinus is very hard to find and quite variable in 
form in this species. With care it may be| detected, however. 
This species comes as far south, on the west coast, as Sitka. 
Here I found it, as well as the variety alveiis, in great plenty, 
but of small size. It can pretty readily be distinguished from 
C. patina and, at Sitka, occupies a totally different station. 
There all the other limpets are found alive only in the vicinity 
of tide marks, but the testucUnalis is to be found only in from 
six to fourteen fms. (south-west of the fish house on the point), 
on a weedy, gravelly bottom, overgrown with Zostera and Lami- 
naria. Here all the conditions of ice cold water, stones for the 
normal form, and weeds for the variety alveus abound ; while 
not another species is found in the vicinity except Lepetida' and 
other deep water forms. Every gradation from the typical 
alveus to the typical testudinalis may be obtained. The animals, 
dentition and shells agree in every particular with those from 
Grand Manan (Stm.), New Bedford (J. H, Thomson), and 
Beverly, Mass. (Dall), with which I have compared them. 

To the north it may be found in deep water among the Aleu- 
tian Islands. I obtained dead ones on the beach of St. George's 
(Pribylofi' Ids) Bering Sea, and on Norton Sound and northward 
it is the only species. It is best known from the North Atlantic, 
where it abounds, but no specimens have been obtained, so far as 
I know, from the Ai'ctic Sea between Lon. 75° and 160° E. of 
Greenwich. Some interesting facts in regard to migrations of this 
species are given by Forbes and others. 

The position of the gill was not Avell understood by Williams 
and Jeffreys. It is situated on the left side of and above the 
head, and extends across to the right; most figures give an 
erroneous idea of its construction. The uncinus is very small, 
and sometimes abortive on some parts of the radula. I have 
clearly distinguished it, however, in many instances, and it can 
almost always be found with a high power. 

CoLLiSBLLA PERSONA, Esch. sp. Plate 14, fig. 8. 

Acmoia persona, Esch., Zool. Atlas, v, p. 20, No. 9, pi. xxiv, 

f. 1 and 2. + A. radiafa, Esch., ib. No. 8. + A. an- 

c7/his, Esch., ib. No. 10, pi. xxiv, f. 4—6. + A. digi- 

talis, Esch., ib. No. 11, pi. xxiii, f. 7, 8. 

Acnuea umbonata, Nutt., + Oregona, Nutt., + textilis, Gld. 

Soft parts entirely cream color, except upper part of mantle 

edge. Foot oval, longer than the body, hiding the head ; sides 

smooth ; mantle edge narrow, thickened, upper surface with a 

few faint maculse of color like the margin of the shell; smooth, 

finely ciliated. Head small, wide; tentacles short, thick, stout; 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 251 

muzzle short, transversely oval ; frill very narrow, granulose ; 
disk radiately granulose ; mouth semicircular ; gill triangular, 
short, stout, small and wide. Anal papilla large, cylindrical ; 
infra-anal smaller, bifid. Renal orifice to the left of anal tuber- 
cle very small, subcircular. Fseces expelled in sausage-shaped 
pellets. Formula, '^ 

^ ' 1(2— 1-1— 2)1- 

There is a small smooth variety of this species, with tesselated 
yellowisli brown markings and a dark apex, which seems (with- 
out a connecting series) very far removed from the typical rib- 
bed form. 

The home of this species is in the Vancouver district. A very 
few were obtained at Sitka, and it may be considered pretty 
certain that Cape Spencer is its northern limit; it is plenty as 
far south as Monterey, and extends to San Diego. Habitat be- 
tween tide marks. 

COLLISELLA SPECTRUM, Rve. sp. Plate 14, fig. 10. 

Patella spectrum, Rve., Conch. Icon. pi. xxix, f. 76 a, b. 
Lottia scabra, Gld. (pars). 

Soft parts : foot oval, sides whitish, smooth, darker toward 
the edge, sprinkled with black dots and streaks. Mantle whitish 
with dark patches, and irregular prolongations corresponding to 
the rays of color and ribs of the shell, edge smooth, ciliated. 
Gill small, short, triangular, thick, sharply pointed with a 
strongly crenate border on the left side ; head small, anteriorly 
blackish, behind white ; tentacles short, stout, pointed, tips black- 
ish, bases nearly white ; muzzle small, produced; disk striate; 
mouth. rounded ; frill granulose, narrow ; hood rather large; renal 
orifice not detected ; anal papilla small, conical, pointing 
to the right ; infra-anal bifid, larger than and to the right of the 
anal tubercle. Formula as in the last. 

This is a more southern species than most of those previously 
mentioned. The northern limit of its authentic habitat is Bo- 
dega Bay (Stearns), but it extends southward into Lower Califor- 
nia, and is sufiiciently common at Black Point, San Francisco 
Bay, and Monterey. It is a very sedentary species, invariably 
assuming the form of the rough crystalline surface of the rocks 
upon which it lives. It is also more confined in its station, keep- 
ing nearer low water mark than most of the other species. 

CoLLiSELLA SCABRA, Rve. Plate 14, fig, 12, 12a. 

Patella scabra, Rve., Conch. Icon. pi. xxxvii, f. 119 a, b, (not 
scabra, Gld.) 

Soft parts : foot oval, sole light yellowish or ashy, sides almost 



252 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

black ; mantle with a narrow, brown, thickened border, with mi- 
nute serrations corresponding to the strice, and dots to the rays 
of color, of the shell ; furnished with minute cilia on the extreme 
edge. Tentacles short, rnther slender, almost black, tips under 
side and swollen base, whitish. Eyes very small, on outer bases 
of tentaculoe ; head small, very dark slate color or blackish ; 
muzzle short, dark ; frill light yellowish white, crenate ; disk 
dark, granulose, with a few papillse on the upper anterior edge ; 
mouth rounded. Gill very long, narrow and slender, attached 
to the under surface of the hood on the left side before the com- 
missure of the neck and mantle ; pointing toward the right. 
Anal papilla prominent, infra-anal smaller ; renal orifice exceed- 
ingly minute, circular. Formula as in the last. 

The color of this shell varies from almost black to light yellow 
brown ; there is a variety of ■patina which closely approaches 
the dark variety. 

It is also one of the more southern forms ; two or three of the 
dark colored form were obtained at Victoria, Vancouver's Island, 
by Robert Kcnnicott. I have others from Port Orford, W. T. 
(Capt. E. E. Smith), and Stearns reports it from Bodega and 
Baulinas Bays. It is common near the heads of San Francisco 
Bay, and abundant at Monterey ; yet in all these localities it is 
less plentiful than C pelta or patina. It ranges southward to 
Lower California, and possibly to Mazatlan. 

CoLLiSELLA ASMi, Midd. sp. Plate 14, fig. 7. 

Patella asmi, Midd., Mai. Ross, ii, p. 39, No. 13, pi. 1, fig. 5. 

Soft parts dark green. Mantle with a narrow thickened edge. 

Foot small, oval. Head very small. Formula, 1 

•^ . _ 34(2-1 •a-2)i^- 

The above notes were taken from a dry specimen kindly com- 
municated by Dr. Carpenter, from which the radula was ob- 
tained. 

This species has long been a puzzle to conchologists. Most of 
them have regarded it as a variety, caused by a peculiar habitat, 
of some other species.* I am inclined to regard it as distinct, 
as the teeth show differences in detail from any of the other 
species. I have seen a few specimens of pelta and patina in 
which the apex was elevated, conical and black, which were sup- 
posed to be proof that asmi was only a form of one of 
them ; but I confess I was unable to see that the malformed 
pelta or jjatina had anything more than a slight resemblance to 

* Mr. Jeffreys suggests (Brit. Conch, iii, p. 249) that it is a variety of 
Acviiea virginea, but it has hardly a character ic common with it. 



OF CONCIIOI.OGY. 253 

C. asmi^ and none of the specimens alluded to approached the 
latter in solidity, were as roundly conical, or were^as smooth as 
the typical ashii. Very perfect specimens of the latter show 
under a strong magnifier exceedingly fine, close grooves, which 
are usually invisible to the naked eye, and are different from the 
sculpture of either pelta or patina. Mr. Stearns found numbers 
of specimens attached to Chlorostoma funebrale, and it has not 
been found alive anywhere else. Its range, as far as known, is 
from Sitka to Santa Barbara Island, and it is rare everywhere, 
but perhaps most common at Monterey. 

COLLISELLA MITELLA, Mke. sp. Plate 14, fig. 9. 

Aancea mitella, Mke., Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1847, p. 187, No. 43. 
Patella navicula, Rve., Conch. Ic. pi. 40, f. 130 a, b. 1854. 

The dentition of this species was obtained from a very small 
dry specimen. Dr. Carpenter describes the shell, (Maz. Cat. 
p. 210). It has, as far as I am able to discover, been reported 
only from Mazatlan and the Gulf of California. 

COLLISELLA STRIGATBLLA, Cpr. Sp. Plate 14, fig. 5. 

Acmcea strigatella, Cpr., Ann. and Mag. N. Hist. 3d ser. xiii, 

1864, p. 474. 
A. sirigillata, Cpr., Sup. Rep. 1863, p. 618, No. 17. 

The dentition of this species was also worked out from a small 
dry specimen, which afforded no details in regard to the animal. 
It is reported from Cape St. Lucas, where it was collected by 
Xantus. 

COLLISELLA FASCICULARIS, Mke. sp. Plate 14, fig. 11. 

Acmcea faseicidaris, Mke., Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1851, p. 38, No. 

134. 
Patella opea, Rve., 4- A. mutabiUs, Mke. (pars). 

A similar remark will apply to this species. It has been ob- 
tained from Cape St. Lucas, Margarita Bay, Mazatlan, and the 
Gulf of California generally. In this species and 0. mitella the 
specimens from which the teeth were obtained were so very mi- 
nute that the accessory uncinus could not be clearly made out, 
and hence is omitted in the figure. An examination of the adult 
radula would doubtless disclose them, as in the allied species. 

CoLLISELLA PALEACEA, Gld. Sp. 

Aemcea paleacea, Gld., Mex. and Cal. Shells, p. 3, pi. 14, fig. 

5. Cpr., P. Z. S. 1856, No, 40. 
Some specimens of the animal of this species, which I owe to 



254 AMERICAIs JOURNAL 

the kindness of Mr. R. E, C. Stearns, came too late to be figured, 
but the radula, as I suspected, is that of a typical ColliseUa. 
The uneinus is straight, slender and exceedingly small. The 
animal appears to have been pellucid, with a black spot on the 
front of the head. The tentacles are rather short, the eyes very 
black and large, and the mantle edge smooth. The whole crea- 
ture is extremely compressed laterally, from its habitat. 
Collected at Monterey, Santa Barbara and San Diego. 

COLLISELLA (?) DEPICTA, Hinds. 

Patelloida dejncta, Hinds, An. N. Hist, x, 1842, p. 82, pi. vi, 
fig. 4. 

This species and the last are certainly very different from the 
true JVacelhv, and should not be referred to that genus. They 
owe their elongated and compressed form to their restricted hab- 
itat (on a Zostera-frond), but, unlike (7. alveus, cannot be referred 
to any species now known, of the usual oval form. It is proba- 
ble that this species also will be found to belong to this genus. 
It is quite likely that thorough dredging would result in procur- 
ing non-compressed specimens, which might have grown on peb- 
bles, &c., as in the case of C. testudinaUs, var. alveus (Couth.), 
which I obtained of all forms at Sitka, and also the next species. 
Habitat from Santa Barbara to San Diego. 

COLLISELLA (?) TRIANGULARIS, Cpr. 

JSfacella {f paleacea var. ) triangularis, Cpr., Proc. Cal. Ac. Sci. 
iii, p. 213, 1866. 

Compare Patella jjygrncea, Dunker, Moll. Jap. p. 24, pi. iii, 
f. 20, 1861. 

The soft parts of a single live specimen, examined at Mon- 
terey, appeared to resemble the other species of this genus ; 
unfortunately, it was afterwards lost, and the opportunity of 
examining the dentition with it. Some twenty specimens were 
obtained at the same locality. These were exceedingly interest- 
ing, as they presented every variation in form, from wide, oval 
and nearly flat, to narrow, triangular, high and very compressed. 
The extreme apex is almost always black. It is usually fur- 
nished with a few dark brown stripes, radiating from near the 
apex but seldom reaching the margin in adult specimens ; these, 
however, are wanting in some specimens. In all its forms it is 
a well marked species, and, while resembling Dunker's species, 
cannot be united with any now known from the California coast. 
It is known from Monterey and Baulinas Bay ; I obtained a 
single dead specimen at Sitka. Dr. Carpenter proposes to re- 
name this form specifically ^^ casta" and to apply the term " tn- 



OF CONCHOLOGY, 255 

angnlaris" to the compressed variety only; it^ is doubtful, 
however, if such a course would be admissible, as every transition 
in form can be observed in a very few specimens. 

COLLISELLA ATRATA, Cpr. Plate 14, fig. 15, 15a. 

Acmrm (? var.) atrata, Cpr., An. Nat. Hist. 3d ser. xiii, p. 
474, 1864. 

Mantle edge nearly smooth, narrow ; head small ; tentacles 
very short and stout ; gill small, broad and short; muzzle small, 
somewhat produced. General hue yellowish. Intermediate 
between discors, Phil., and Jloccata, Rve. (Cpr. loc. cit. ), all being 
probable varieties of one species. Cape St. Lucas, Acapulco. 

COLLISELLA PEDICULUS, Phil. Plate 15, fig. 16. 

Patella pedicuhis, Phil., Zeitschr. fur Mai. 1846, p. 21, No. 8. 

Cpr., Maz. Cat. p. 200, No. 260. 
Patella eorrugata, Rve., Conch. Icon. pi. 40, f. 132. 

Animal small in proportion to the size of the shell; mantle 
margin nearly smooth, puckered to fit the angles of the ribs; 
head small, short; muzzle moderate; tentacles very short, stout, 
pointf^d. Gill wider than long, triangular, short ; hood large 
and produced. 

It was Avith some surprise that I observed the well marked 
gill on tiic neck of this species, as the shell characters were 
essentially those which have been usually regarded as patelloid. 
But the present case and that of many other species, afford good 
evidence of the worthlessness of the shell characters in this group 
as indications of affinity. 

The young of this species is indistinguishable from " Patella" 
disoors, jun. In the adult discors, however, the ribs become 
evanescent and usually disappear entirely. The sculpture is 
identical in both, barring the ribs, as is the apex in most cases. 
Still the aspect of the adult is generally sufiiciently distinct to 
be readily recognizable, so that we can well afibrd, in the ab- 
sence of any knowledge of the animal of discors, to consider the 
two forms distinct. The shells of pediculus, according to Dr. 
Carpenter, are much like young Ancistroynesus 3Iexicanus ; the 
animals, however, belong in different families. The habitat of 
the present species is on the Mexican coast from Acapulco to 
Mazatlan. 

CoLLiSELLA SUBRUGOSA, D'Orb. Plate 14, fig. 14. 

Acmcea subrugosa, D'Orb., Voy. Amer. Merid. vol. v, p. 479, 
No. 442, 1847. 



256 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

Lottia onychina^ Gld., Moll. U. S. Ex. Ex. p. 355, fig. 461, 
461a, and b, 1852. 

Animal yellowish ; mantle greenish, Avith brown markings 
upon the border, ciliated ; head and tentacles rosy. Hab. Rio 
Janeiro, Brazil. 

The soft parts of this unpretending little shell agree in all 
essential particulars with the west coast species. 

COLLISELLA (?) KOSACEA, Cpr. 

Aemcea if pileoliis YviY.) rosacea, Cpr., Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci> 
iii, p. 213, 1866. 

Common at Monterey (50 sp. Dall), and reported from San 
Diego. 

The type specimen of this species is now before me. After a 
careful study of it, I would add to Dr. Carpenter's diagnosis the 
following remarks : 

The shell is small, obtusely conical with an erect, sub- 
central apex. The ground color of the surface is a trans- 
lucent white, suffused with rose toward the margin, where 
several indistinct rays of rose color appear. These are more 
evident on the inside. The extreme nucleus is usually 
white. The apex is profusely dotted with minute dark brown 
and opaque white specks of color, which are not rays, nor are 
they often arranged with any regularity ; these are more nu- 
merous on the posterior portion of the shell, but vary exceed- 
ingly, from a dark reticulated brown network of lines to wavy 
irregular pencillings or sparse brown dots, usually most plenty 
on the interspaces of the ribs. The surface is smooth, especially 
in front, but from the apex radiate (especially on the posterior 
half of the shell) a number of very marked riblets which appear 
as if indented from below, and do not materially interrupt the 
smoothness of the surface, though the margin is rendered 
slightly crenulate by them. They are also of a more opaque 
white than the remainder of the shell, and sometimes form con- 
spicuous white rays. 

This species is a southern form and has not been found north 
of Monterey as far as recorded. It is somewhat confused, on 
account of having been confounded with small dead specimens 
of Liriola peltoides, (Cpr.) Dall, which have a general resem- 
blance to it in form and color, though otherwise very distinct. 

The latter much more nearly resembles Aciiuva virginea than 
does the true rosacea, which is a very different shell. 

On comparison, we find that rosacea wants entirely the char- 
acteristic brown rays of virginea, the apex of rosacea is much 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 257 

inore central, blunt and erect; the shell is less convex, polished 
and delicato, though smaller than virginea ; and if the two were 
found in the same locality they would both be recognized by 
most conchologists as distinct species. A shell which is more 
nearly allied to, though very distinct from, rosacea, is Patella 
puncturaia, (Lam.) Rve., Icon. No. 122, from Honduras and 
Aspinwall. Still closer is Acmcea {Collisella?) a'qualis, Cpr. 
MSS. from the Gulf, yet it seems to be distinct, from the single 
dearl specimen known to me. 

I have doubts as to the genus of this species, which may be a 
patellid. 

" Acnura pileolus," Midd., I believe to be a variety of pelta, 
as Dr. Carpenter suggests ; at all events the figure and diag- 
nosis do not give any characters common to this or any other of 
the southern species. Dr. Carpenter says that the types (in 
Mus. Cuming) of Middendorf's species are rosacea, yet I believe 
with him, that some mistake has certainly occurred ; as rosacea 
is not to be found at Sitka, the locality of pileolus, and the de- 
scription and fi;gures cannot be reconciled. 

This name of Middendorf's had better be dropped entirely, 
as it is impossible to determine, Avith certainty, what his shell 
was, and its retention can only create confusion. 

Collisella araucana, D'Orb. 

Patella araucana, D'Orb., Voy. Am. Mer. v, p. 482, No. 448, 
ix, pi. Ixv, fig. 4 — (5. 

The animal of this variable species is brownish, and agrees in 
every essential particular with the other known species of this 
section. The uncinus is short and somewhat notched or bifid at 
the extremity. The specimen examined came from the Chilian 
coast near Valparaiso. 

Collisella (?) sybaritica, n. sp. Plate 17, fig. 34. 

Shell depressed, thin ; apex subcentral, more anterior in the 
young. General shape rounded oval, hardly more narrow before 
than behind. Surface nearly smooth, with rounded concentric 
lines of growth ; in young specimens a few faint, hardly notice- 
able elevated radiating lines or riblets may be observed near the 
margin, which is entire. Internally smooth, border polished and 
also the cavity of the apex above the muscular impressions. 
Color a clear rose pink, varying from quite deep and a little livid 
in some specimens, especially the young, to a very faint pink. 
Apex white, even in very young specimens entirely uneroded, 
rather blunt and inconspicuous ; sides of the shell ornamented with 
rays of a darker shade of pink, more or less gathered in groups, and 



258 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

more or less evident, according to the shade of the remainder of 
the shell. Internally, the visceral area is bluish white, usually 
washed with a faint yellowish brown, often hardly eyident ; in 
which case the area is whitish ; the successive layers of brown 
sometimes appear externally around the apex when eroded. The 
inner margin, and to some extent the whole interior, exhibit the 
external markings or rays, through the somewhat pellucid shell. 
Texture hard and brittle. Epidermis exceedingly thin, usually 
evanescent ; translucent brownish. Soft parts unknown. 

Long, of largest specimen "(3 in. Lat., 1*46 in. Elevation, 
•2 in. 

This is a deep water species, at least in Bering Sea. I found 
an abundance of beach specimens at St. George's Island, of the 
PribyloflF group. Capt. E. E. Smith obtained two specimens on 
the beach of False Pass, Aliaska Peninsula, near Mt. Isanotsky. 
Dr. Carpenter writes that he had obtained young individuals, 
probably of this species, from Japan. 

The pattern of coloration is entirely different from Collisella{?) 
rosacea, Cpr., both inside and outside ; it is more depressed, and 
grows much larger than that species, which is subtropical, while 
this is sub-boreal. From Acmwa virginea, Mull., it differs in 
form, texture, color and pattern of coloration. I know of no 
other species with which it can be compared. 

Cab. Dall, Carpenter, Smithsonian Institution, and Academy 
of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 

AcM.EA (?Collisella) hieroglyphica, n. s. Plate 17, fig. 37. 

Shell small, stout, rugged, with a subcentral, more or less 
eroded, apex ; moderately elevated. Muscular impression pyri- 
form, shape of shell ovate ; exterior with rather strong white 
ribs, 14 — 20 in number, with riblets between them ; interspaces 
brown. Striae of growth somewhat imbricated, less prominent 
on the ribs. Internally white, with brown maculse on the margin 
corresponding to the brown interspaces of the exterior. Margin 
strongly crenulated. Spectrum pyriform, with the smaller end 
anterior, consisting of a sharp black line forming a pyriform fig- 
ure, with three longitudinal black lines inside of it. In the 
larger specimen these have a faint bluish halo about them, but 
in the smaller they are simply black on a white ground. The 
same figure of less size is conspicuous on the outside of the 
eroded apex. Soft parts unknown. Lon. '4, lat. -3 in. 

Hah. China. Cab. Dall and Acad. Nat. Sciences of Phila. 

This very peculiar and characteristic little shell was found in 
one of those boxes of Chinese shells sold in the tea-shops of San 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 259 

Francisco. It is unlike any species figured or described in the 
works at my command, and I know of no species with which it 
might be compared. It belongs to the same group as C. spec- 
trum, Reeve, as far as the shell goes, but resembles it very 
slightly. The peculiar spectrum resembles a Chinese character 
or hieroglyphic, from which I have taken the specific name. 

/Section B ; tvitli two uncini. {? CoUiseUma). 
CoLLiSELLA SACCHARINA, Linne. Plate 15, fig. 18. 

Patella saccharina, Lin., Syst. Nat. Ed. xii, p. 1258. Ed. 
Gmel. p. 3695. Lam., An. sans Vert. Ed. Desh. p. 
527, No. 7. Adams, Chenu, &c. 

Astrolepas, Argenville, Conch, t. 2, fig. M. 

Acmcea saccharina^ Hanley, Wood's Ind. Test. 2d ed. 1856, 
p. 185, No. 17. 

Patella lanx, Rve., Conch. Icon. pi. xxx, f. 82, 1855. 

? Patelloida stellaris, Quoy and Gaim. (non Rve). 

Mantle edge smooth, narrow, puckered to fit the ribs of the 
shell. Head small ; muzzle short ; tentacles very small, rapidly 
tapering to a very sharp point ; hood much produced ; gill stout, 
moderately large, broad and pointed ; foot oval, thin. Colors 
yellowish ; sides of foot dark, muzzle blackish, back of head 
and tentacles nearly white, mantle edge with a mottled dark 
border. Formula, ^ 

' 2(2~1'1— 2)2' 

llab. Indo-Pacific, Amboyna, Japan. 

My surprise was great when I found this well-known species, 
which is tabulated as a "■Patella" by the most recent authors, to 
belong to the Acmseidse ; but it was still further increased when, 
accidentally referring to that excellent and very accurate work, 
Hanley's edition of the Index Testaceologicus, I found that Mr. 
Hanley had anticipated me in the discovery, and it was there 
referred to the genus Acma^a. 

This and the following species exhibit a peculiarity worthy of 
notice, in the duplication of the uncinus. For a long time I 
thought that my eyes were deceived, and that there was but one, 
which was folded or twisted so as to give the effect of a double 
cusp, but I found the uncini separated, and lying side by side, 
after handling the radula, so that I could no longer doubt it. ^ 

CoLLiSELLA BoRNBENSis, Rve. Plate 15, fig. 17, and pi. 17, 
fig. 38, a, b, c. 

Patella Borneensis, Reeve, Conch. Icon. pi. xxxvi, f. 113, a, b. 

(bad). Identified from specimens. Borneo. 
Acmoia Bickmorei, Dall, MSS. Amboyna. 



260 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

Mantle edge tliick, with a single row of rather stout papillae 
interspersed with smaller ones irregularly disposed ; sides of foot 
smooth; foot oval, thin, rather small; muzzle and edges of foot 
dusky ; back of head, bases of tentacles and mantle edge yellow- 
ish. Head stout, short, rounded ; tentacles short, small, rapidly 
tapering to a sharp point ; in the alcoholic specimens invariably 
hooked, or with the tips recurved. Muzzle rather transvel-se, 
surface radiately papillose, frill conspicuous, smooth and even. 
Gill very large and long, usually protruded across the neck nearly 
to the mantle edge. Anal and infra-anal apertures on a promi- 
nent pointed tubercle ; renal not observed. Uncini larger than 
usual. Formula, ^- 

' 2(2— 1-1— 2)2- 

This species was obtained it abundance at Amboyna, by Mr. 
Bickmore. 

The muscles which retract the radula are transversely striated. 
See Silliman's Am. Journ. Sci. and Arts, Feb., 1871, p. 123. 
Since that time a similar state of things has been observed in 
ColUsella paleacea, Gld. These are the first instances of such 
fiber noticed in the class Crasteropoda. 

Genus LOTTIA, Cpr. ex Sby. 

Lottia (Gray MSS.), Sby., Gen. Shell, part 42, fig. 1. Reeve, 

Conch. Syst. f. 1, 1842. 
Tecturella, Cpr., Smithsonian Check List, W. C. Shells, I860, 

p. 3, No. 176. Rep. Br. Assoc. 1861, p. 137. 
Tecturina, Cpr., Smiths. Rep. ,1860, p. 219. Lect. Moll. Ind. 

Ed. p. 71 ^ err. typog. for Tecturella ? 
Lecania, Cpr. MSS. 

Lottia, Cpr., Journ. de Conchyl. vol. xiii, p. 140, 1865. Am. 

Journ. Conch, vol. ii, p. 342, 1866. Sup. Rep. Brit. 

Assoc. 1863, p. 650, No. 249. 

Animal with a single cervical branchia ; also furnished with a 

branchial cordon of laminte between the mantle edge and the 

foot, extending as far forward as the adductor muscle on each 

side, and continuous behind. Teeth and muzzle frill as in Colli- 

sella. ^ 

1(2— 1-1— 2)1 ■ 

Type Lottia gigantea. Plate 15, fig. 20. 

Lottia gigantea, Sby. ajjud Gray. Gen. Sh. pt. 42, f. 1. 
Acma'a scutum, auct. non Esch. nee D'Orb. 
Tecturella grandis (Gray) Cpr. 

The shell of this species has been fully described by Dr. Car- 
penter in his admirable paper on the Acmosidse, before cited ; it 
only remains to give a few additional notes on the animal. I 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 261 

obtained more than a hundi-ed specimens on the rocks, between 
tides, at Mimterey, California, in the month of January, 1866. 
At this time they were well filled with ova, and all the speci- 
mens obtained contained ova; not a single male came to hand. 

The foot is oval, thin, dull waxen below ; sides of foot smooth, 
black, the extreme edge pellucid white or yellowish ; the whole 
nearly as long as the shell. Mantle thin, extending little be- 
yond the foot on the sides, but some distance beyond the head 
in front ; edge thickened, smooth, whitish, with a crowded row 
of fine blackish papillae on the extreme edge; another of larger 
and more distant papillae inside ; and lastly a row of still larger 
ones inside of the last, placed opposite the spaces between 
the papillae of the second row, and somewhat further apart. 
The branchial lamellae exactly resemble those of Patella vul- 
gata^ as described by Dr. Williams, but are somewhat less crowded 
and of a pellucid wax color. They are equal on the sides and 
behind, but diminish in size on each side of the head, and are 
interrupted in front for a space as wide as the head. The 
gill is elongate-triangular, quite large, attached by both edges 
for a short distance to the mantle above it, forming a shallow 
bag-shaped cavity ; it is curved a little to the right and is in- 
serted to the left of the neck, in the commissure between the 
neck and the mantle. In structure it is a flat plate, with 
rounded, striated edges, bounded by an impressed line, which 
is stronger on the under side. Inside of this line, above and 
below, extend a series of equal tranverse laminae, less strongly 
marked toward the apex of the gill, which is smooth and pro- 
duced at the tip. A nerve and blood-vessel pass along the 
left edge of the gill ; the laminae are hollow and profusely 
furnished with blood-vessels. The hood above the gill is also 
extremely vascular. 

On the right side of the neck is a smooth subcylindrical 
anal papilla, obliquely truncate, so that the foramen opens 
toward the right side of the animal. From the foramen project 
forty or fifty long, slender, cylindrical, white papillae or tenta- 
culate processes, but they originate inside of the edge of the 
aperture, which is entire and closed by a subspherical process of 
the integument. The renal organ opens to the left, outside of 
this papilla, through a very minute non-elevated orifice, in which 
It diS"ers from Patella vulgata. To the right of the anal papilla 
is a rounded tubercle, with a semilunar orifice. There are no 
other papillae or tubercles in the vicinity, nor could any " capito- 
pedal orifices" be detected as described in Patella by Lankester. 
The head and tentacles are whitish below and black above, but 
the black color does not extend behind a line drawn from the 

18 



262 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

inner corner of one tentacle to the other. Behind that line both 
head and tentacles are whitish. 

The tentacles are short, stout, acutely pointed, and somewhat 
granulosa. The eyes are very small on the outer edges of the 
tentacles, which have a prominent tubercle on the inner edge of 
each. 

The muzzle is short, stout, and transversely oval. Its outer 
edge is somewhat striate and produced into a frill. Inside of 
this, around the circular mouth, the disk is granulose and deeply 
radiately furrowed. Just inside the mouth, the edge of the jaw 
is perceptible, and arches over the lateral lips of the buccal 
mass. 

The viscera are small in proportion to the size of the animal. 
The ova were of a greenish color. The renal organ extended 
over a fourth of the area of the back between the muscles. 

The range of this species is from the vicinity of San Francisco 
to Central America. It is especially abundant and fine at Mon- 
terey. Some of the specimens which I obtained there were 
nearly three inches long. Put into a pitcher half full of sea 
water, with a number of other mollusks, the majority of this 
species crawled out during the night and were found on the out- 
side of the pitcher, and even on the wooden floor, in the 
morning. 

Genus SCURRIA, Gray. 

Scurria, Gray, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 158. Guide, Moll. p. 171. 
Chenu, Man. de Conchyl. i, p. 375. 

< Scurria, Moerch, Cat. Yoldi, p. 145, 1852. Cpr., Lect. p. 

71. H. and A. Ad., Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 460. 

< Aemcea^ Woodw., Man. p. 155. 

Scurra, Gld., Expl. Exp. Moll. p. 357, 7wn Esch. 
Acmcea, sp. D'Orb., Voy. Am. Merid, v, p. 478, 1846. 
Helcioii^ sp. ib., p. 703 ! 
Lottia, sp. ib., pi. 64, vol. ix ! ! 
Not Scurria^ Cpr., Am. Journ. Conch, ii, p. 345 = Acm(£a sp. 
Animal with an accessory branchial cordon extending entirely 
around the body between the mantle and the foot. Teeth re- 
sembling Collisella A. Formula yj^^^-J^v 

In this genus the cordon is complete as in Patella, while the 
dentition and branchial plume show its true place to be in the 
Acmceidce. There does not appear to be any grounds for the 
distinction drawn by Dr. Gray between the cordon in this genus 
and that of other Patellae. In Scurria mesoleuca they are ab- 
solutely identical in form and arrangement with those of Lottia, 
excepting that they are not interrupted in front as in that genus. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 263 

Type ScuRRiA scurra, Lesson sp. 

Patella scurra, Lesson, Voy. Coq. Zool. p. 421, No. 189, 1830. 
Acmcea scurra, D'Orb., Voy. Amer. Merid. v, p. 478, pL 

Ixiv, fig. 11 — 14. 
Scurria scurra, Gray, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 158. Guide Moll. p. 

171. Chenu, Man. de Conchyl. i, p. 375, fig. 2812. 

H. and A. Ad., Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 460, iii, pi. lii, 

fig. 4, a, b. 
Lottia pallida, Sby., Moll. Beechey's Voy. p. 147, pi. xxxix, 

f. 1, 1839. Not Fatella pallida, Gould. 
Lottia €07iica, Gld., Moll. U. S. Expl. Exp. p. 346, (pars). 
Not Acma^a mitra, Esch., (Zool. Atlas, ed. Rathke v, p. 18,) 

as aver Gray and Adams. 
Acmcea mitra, Alcock, (MSS.), in Am. J. Conch, ii, p. 345 

not Eschscboltz. 
Lottia scurra ? Gld., Expl. Exp. Moll. p. 356. 

Soft parts yellowish white for the most part ; foot large, sub- 
oval, smooth ; mantle edge thickened, smooth, finely fringed with 
short marginal cirri ; head very large, of a rosy tint ; muzzle 
short, frilled ; tentacles large and slender, faintly roseate, with 
very minute black eyes at their lateral and posterior bases. 
Branchial lamellae resembling those of Patella, but rather more 
distant, erectile ; gill very stout, thick, with a rather broad 
border formed by an impressed line on each side ; lamellae 
prominent, apex pointed. 

Shell buff, outer layer of a waxen translucency, inner layer 
porcellanous white, with narrow margin resembling the external 
layer. Form conical ; apex usually minute, sharply pointed, 
anteriorly directed, (not blunt and erect, as in Acmcea mitra) ; 
anterior and posterior slopes convex (seldom or never concave, 
as is frequent in A. mitra) ; aperture roundly oval, slightly 
narrower in front, external surface covered with fine, regular, 
even striae, like threads radiating from the apex (very diiferent 
from the rough, irregular, bifurcating riblets of the varieties of 
A. mitra) ; internal surface of a peculiarly glossy white, scored 
with more or less strongly marked radiations from the apex ; 
margin obsoletely crenulate inside ; apex often white, but not 
uncommonly marked with brown streaks on a white ground, 
radiating from a dark brown nucleus and divaricating ; apex of 
this young fry strongly recurved, nearly marginal, without any 
trace of a spiral nucleus. The concentric lines of growth are 
more or less strongly marked but usually rounded and obsolete. 

Habitat from 12° to 41° s. lat. on the west coast of South 
America. It lives on the roots and stalks of fuci [Macro cystis), 



264 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

and excavates a shallow cavity therein. According to D'Orbigny, 
it is not uncommon. 

I have not been able to examine the soft parts of this species 
and rely on Gould, Couthouy and D'Orbigny. 

SCURRIA (?) ZEBRINA, LeSSOn Sp. 

Patella zebrina, Less., Zool. Coq. 1830, p. 417, No. 180. 
Patella coneepcionensis, Less., loc. cit. p. 418, No. 182. 
Lottia zehrina, Gld., Moll. Expl. Exp. p. 352, pi. 30, fig. 460, 

460a. 
Lottia variabilis, Gray, Moll. Beechey's Voy. p. 147, pi. 39, 

fig. 3—5, 1839. ^ 
Patella zebrina, D'Orb., Voy. Amer. Merid. v, p. 480, No. 

445, pi. Ixv, f. 1—3. 
Tectura zebrina, Gray, Guide p. 171. 

D'Orbigny describes and figures this species as having a com- 
plete cordon of strongly marked branchial lamellae ; Couthouy 
speaks of "an encircling series of slight protuberances, which 
appear to communicate with the cirri, and at first look like bran- 
chial lamellae; at times very apparent, at others hardly visible," 
while calling attention to the long and large gill. Gray speaks 
of them as "fleshy beards " inside of the mantle, rather distant 
and continuous over the head. On the whole, the evidence is 
sufficiently full to justify us in placing the species in this genus, 
at least provisionally. 

ScURRIA MESOLEUCA, Mke. sp. Plate 15, fig. 19. 

Acmcea mesoleuca, Menke, Zeit. far Mai. p. 38, No. 135, 
1851. Cpr., Maz. Cat. p. 203, No. 263. 

Soft parts mostly of a greenish tinge ; foot oval, thin, smooth ; 
sides of foot quite smooth, edge thin, somewhat produced ; 
mantle edge thickened, narrow, marked with dark brownish 
spots or streaks corresponding with the rays of color on the 
shell, irregularly bearded with a few papillose projections. 
Branchial lamellne forming a complete cordon just inside of the 
mantle edge. Laminae close, crowded, equal all around, in 
structure exactly agreeing with those of Patella and Lottia, a 
little more puckered at the edges, perhaps from the eflfects of the 
alcohol. Head small ; muzzle short, transversely oval, with an 
equal, narrow, somewhat puckered frill all around. Disk radi- 
ately striate, mouth circular, entire. Tentacles very short, 
stout, bluntly pointed ; bases slightly swelled, not tuberculate ; 
eyes small, on the superior part of the bases of the tentacles. 
Gill like that of Lottia, but smaller, shorter, and relatively 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 265 

broader. Anal papilla small, resembling thut o^ Lotti a ; infra- 
anal papilla broader, bifid ; renal orifice small, subcircular, not 

elevated, some distance to the left of the anal. Formula 



1 (2—1 • 1— ^T'l* 

The shell has been well described by Menke and by Dr. Car- 
penter in the Mazatlan Catalogue, with copious synonymy. 
From the latter, however, Ac7n(ea pe7^so7ioides, Mid., should be 
eliminated, as it came from Cook's Inlet where S. mesoleuca is 
unknown. The former is probably only a variety of patina. 

The range of this species is from Central America to Lower 
California. It is plenty in the Gulf, and I collected several 
hundred specimens at San Juan del Sud in Nicaragua, in the 
course of half an hour. It inhabits the rocks between tide 
marks. 

Family PATELLID^. 

PateUina, McGillivray, Moll. Aberdeen p. 66, 1843. 

< Patellidce, Woodw., Man. p. 153. Cpr., Rep. Br. Assoc. 

1856, p. 318. Jeffreys Brit. Conch, iii, p. 229 (in Pec- 
tinibranchiata !) Binn. Inv., Mass. Ed. ii, p. 267. 
D'Orb., Moll. Can. 1837. 

< Fatelloidea, Risso, Hist, iv, p. 260, 1826. (Not Fer., Rang 

or Mke.) 

< FateUina, Wiegm., Handb. der Zool. p. 546, 1832. Milne- 

Edwards, Conch. Textb. Ed. vi, p. 197. 
<C Patellar, Fer., Tab. Syst. p. xxxvii, 1821. Rang, Man. p. 
251, 1829. Desh.", Enc. Meth. iii, 1830. 

< Fatellacea, Mke., Syn. Ed. ii, p. 90, 1830. Forbes, Mai. 

Monensis, p. 35, 1838. 

< Fatellacea', Menke, Syn. 1828, olim. Hinds, Voy. Sulph. 

Zool. p. 53. 

< Fatelladoi, Guild., Zool. Journ. iii, p. 535, 1828. 

< Fhyllidiana, Lam., Phil. Zool. 1809. Gld., Inv. Mass. Ed. 

i, p. 146. 
> Fatellidoi, Gray, Guide Moll. p. 173. Chenu, Man. de Con- 
chy!, i, p. 376. 
Fatellidai, Cpr., Maz. Shells, p.' 199. H. and A. Ad., Gen. 
Rec. Moll, i, p. 463. Cpr., Sm. Rep. 1860, p. 219. 
Lect., Moll. 2d ed. p. 71. D'Orb., Voy. Am. Mer. v, p. 
480, 1842. 

Animal destitute of a cervical branchia but provided with a 
more or less complete cordon of branchiae in the form of laminae 
attached to the mantle between its thickened edge and the sides 
of the foot. Radula provided with three lateral teeth on each 



266 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

side and three uncini. Rhachidian tooth rarely present. Muz- 
zle without a frill. 

Genus ANCISTROMESUS,* Dall. 
Patella sp., Auct. 

Animal with a complete branchial cordon, the lamelh^ long 
and slender, subequal ; sides of foot smooth ; radula furnished 
with a simple rhachidian tooth ; the two inner laterals on each 
side anterior to the third pair, which are large and quadriden- 
tate. Uncini simple. Shell very large in the adult. 

Type Ancistromesus mexicanus, Dall ex Brod. PI. 15, fig. 21. 

Patella mexicana, Brod. and Sby., Zool. Journ. vol. iv, p. 
369. Bve., Conch. Icon. Patella, pi. i, f. 1. 

Animal generally blackish, more or less marbled and streaked 
with white. Head, mantle edge and branchial lamellte black. 
Head very long, not large in proportion ; muzzle small. Ten- 
tacles short, slender, pointed. Branchial lamellse not semicir- 
cular, as in most Patellie, but produced, twisted, and elongated, 
having, upon a superficial examination, an arborescent appear- 
ance. They are very slightly smaller in front. Radula with a 
well developed median tooth. Cusps of the teeth fawn color, 
with chestnut brown bosses and an orange ring at the point of 
insertion of the cusp. Formula, 1 

^ 3(i/^_-2-2-i4)3- 

Shell white, inside and out, sometimes with a rusty or green- 
ish stain here and there, and furnished with obsolete radiating 
ribs. Often attaining a length of from eight to fourteen inches. 

This magnificent limpet, the largest non-spiral gasteropod now 
iving, proved, as might have been anticipated, to differ essen- 
tially from its smaller cousins. It is found in Central America. 
The radula figured was from an Acapulco specimen. It is some- 
what singular that the animal of a nearly white shell should be 
almost bhick, especially as the shell is an external one. I have 
seen the latter frequently used as a wash-basin, in Central 
America. 

Genus PATELLA, Liune. 

Patella, Auct. omn. binom. P. vulgata, type. 
Patella, Lam., Prodr. 1799. P. granularls, type. Syst. 
An. s. Vert. ed. 1801. P. testudinaria, type. 
< Patella, Lin., Syst. Nat. 1758, ed. x. H. and A. Ad., Gen. 
Rec. Moll, i, p. 464. Cpr., Lect. Moll. p. 71. Gray, 
Guide, p. 174. P. Z. S. 1847, p. 168. Woodw., Man. 
p. 154. Schum., Essai, 1817. 

* From AyKia-Tfov, a hook or claw, aud Mfcr»jif, middle. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 267 

Scutellastra, H. and A. Ad., Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 466. 

Chenu, Man. de Conchjl. i, p. 377. 
Cymhida, H. and A. Ad., Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 466, 1854. 

Chenu, Man. de Conchyl. i, p. 378. 
Olana (?), H. and A. Ad., Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 466. (P. 

cochlear^ Gmel., type.) Chenu, Man. de Conchyl. i, p. 

378. Gray, Guide, p. 175. Cpr., Lect. Moll. p. 72. 
Eruca, Tournefort, Gualteri, Index, 1742 (not Swains.) 

< Patellites sp., Walch., Naturg. d. Verst. ii, p. 168, 1768. 

Schrot., Naturfors. v, p. 102, 1775. Waller, Syst. Min. 
ii, p. 468. Schrot., Lith. Lex. v, p. 112. Schloth., 
Petrefactenkunde, p. 113, 1820 {= Patella^ fossil sp.) 

< Patellaria, Llhwyd, 1698. Schrot., Lith. Lex. v, p. 112. 

? GfonicUs, Rafinesque, Journ. de Phys. 1819, t. 88, p. 426. 
Mke., Syn. Ed. ii, p. 90 (not G-oniclis, Raf., Sup. Mon. 
Biv. Phila. 1831). 
Lepas sp., Adanson, Voy. Sen. 1757. 
Lepadites sip., D'Argenville, &c, (foss. sp.) 
PateUus, Mont., Conch. Syst. ii, p, 66, 1810. 
Lottia sp., Gray, fide D'Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer. 
? PateUarius, Dum. 
? Cellana, H. Adams, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 274.* 

If we take as the type that which (according to the rule 
adopted by Linn?eus) was the most common species known to 
him, we shall undoubtedly select the Patella vulgata, of the 
northern European seas. The type most commonly cited is that 
of Lamarck, in 1801 (P. testudinaria), but his first type and 
only species mentioned in 1799 was the P. granidaris. The 
former, however, is probably an Acma'a. There are two verv 
distinct types of dentition among the true PatelhB, and one 
of them must be separated by name. As objections might be 
raised to proposing a new generic name for Patella vulgata^f 
from which I suspect Patella granulans may differ considerably, 
I shall regard the former as the type of the genus, and the posi- 
tion of the latter species will remain to be fixed whenever the 
animal shall have been examined. 

Animal with a complete, uninterrupted branchial cordon be 
tween the mantle and the foot ; destitute of side lappets on the 
foot ; radula with the first two inner laterals on each side simi- 
lar, in the same transverse line, parallel ; third lateral largest, 

* The diagnosis includes no characters of more than specific value. 
The true place of the species can only be determined when the animal is 
known. 

t I am indebted to Dr. Wm. Stimpson for the opportunity of examin- 
ing the soft parts of this species. 



268 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

denticulate, posterior ; uncini distinct, similar, three on each side. 
Formula, °- 

3(1— 2-2— 1)3' 

Type Patella vulgata, Lin. Plate 15, fig. 23. 

Patella vulgata^ Linne, Syst. Nat. Ed. 12, p. 1258. Forbes 
and Hanley, Brit. Moll, ii, p. 421. Jetfreys, Brit. Conch, 
iii, p. 236. 
Soft parts : foot slate colored, sides smooth, yellowish, some- 
what dusky with a pale border ; mantle yellowish, edge thick- 
ened, furnished with tentacular filaments, varying in length and 
corresponding in position to the ribs and strige of the shell, ex- 
treme edge sometimes dusky ; brancbial cordon uninterrupted, 
laminae rather smaller in front of the head, of a pellucid yellow- 
ish color ; head short, stout ; tentacles moderate, pointed, yel- 
lowish, darker at the tips ; muzzle indented below, bordered 
with granulose papillne, especially below ; disk radiately striate ; 
eyes small, on superior bases of the tentacles ; not raised above 
the swollen base, which has a prominent tubercle on the inner 
edge ; anal orifice on the right side at the junction of the man- 
tle with the neck, prominent, inclined to the right, but not ob- 
liquely truncate as in some species, orifice rounded, internally 
papillose ; renal orifice on a small yellowish tubercle to the left 
of the anal ; infra-anal papilla similar, inconspicuous, to the ex- 
treme right. Formula, - 

Habitat. British and North European seas from the Loffoden 
Isles to the Mediterranean. 

The minute anatomy of this species still stands in need of 
much elucidation ; and, as one of tlie best known species of the 
order, a synopsis of what is known and what is undetermined 
will give a good idea of the extent of our knowledge of the 
anatomy of the group. 

It does not speak well for English naturalists, that for infor- 
mation in regard to one of the most common of their littoral 
animals, many points of which have been matters of doubt for 
many years, we should be obliged to turn to Russian and French 
publications for the little that has been made known, except in 
regard to the branchiae. A few scattered and very short arti- 
cles by Gray, Lankcster, and Patterson, beside the work of Dr. 
Williams, are about all that English works afford us ; while 
Brandt, Fischer, Milne-Edwards, Lebert, Cuvier and others have 
done far more, though much remains to be done. 

The branchite have been thoroughly described by Dr. Williams 
in the paper before referred to, though a careful dissection of 
the gill of ^cmcea is still a desideratum. In Patella vulgata 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 269 

thej consist of a row of alternately large and small laminiie, of 
a suboval shape, flattened or slightly concave on one side, and 
rather prominently convex on the other ; each composed of two 
walls of very thin vascular membrane united by a somewhat 
denser layer at the outer border, and filled with fluid (whether 
water or natural serous fluid being yet undetermined) while they 
they are still further strengthened by a series of internal fibres 
which cross each other like the braced timbers of a worked-out 
mine. The external surface of the branchiae is ciliated, and the 
whole mechanism presents analogies with the gills of Lamelli- 
branchs. It is probable that the lamellae of the gill in Acmcea, 
though differently placed, are of essentially similar construction, 
while dift'ering in form. The blood is transparent and the cor- 
puscles are very small. 

According to Dr. Williams, the lining membrane of the bran- 
chias is continuous, and it is highly improbable that water pene- 
trates into the system as in some other mollusca. Lankester 
(An. Nat. Hist. 3d ser. xx, p. 334, 1867) describes two orifices, 
(capito-pedal), " one on each side of the head, in the angle formed 
by its junction with the muscular foot, and opening into the 
blood sinus surrounding the pharyngeal viscera." He also de- 
scribes a communication which he supposes to exist between the 
"pericardium and the supra-anal articulated sac," or accessory 
renal organ. 

My opportunities for examination of the present species hav- 
ing been confined to alcoholic and very limited material, I do 
not assume to speak positively in this matter, but can only say 
that the most careful search, assisted by injections from within, 
and the most thorough scrutiny of all the external anterior sur- 
face of the animal with a high power, failed to disclose either of 
the orifices alluded to. Moreover the search was not confined to 
this species, but was made in every species, and even specimen, 
examined, with a like result. In Oollisella patina the heart is 
situated behind the left side of the head, very far to the left, and 
entirely away from the renal sac, which last is much smaller than 
in Patella vulgata ; hence it appears highly improbable that any 
communication whatever exists between them ; and if this be the 
casein a species closely allied, it adds to the improbability of the 
existence of such a communication in the present species. Mr, 
Lankester's paper is so exceedingly brief that it is not easy to 
follow his dissections, and it is greatly to be desired that a fuller 
account, with figures, which he promises, should be published. 
There is a bare possibility that the contraction of the specimens 
may have entirely obscured and closed up the openings of the 
supposed "capito-pedal orifices," or they may not exist in the 



270 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

Acm£eid[E ; but, after the examination of a large multitude of 
specimens, I regret that I cannot confirm his observations in 
these two particulars. 

The nervous system has been examined by Garner, Rhymer 
Jones and Anderson, and, later and much more thoroughly and 
correctly, by Brandt (Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg, Nov. 2-1, 
1868). The whole system is naturally arranged in two groups, 
the cerehro-pJiaryngeal and the pedo-hranchial nerves and gang- 
lia. These two groups are connected on each side by two slender 
commissures. The principal ganglia of the first group are the 
cerebral and pharyyigeal ; of the second, the gcmglla pedalia and 
visceralia. The whole paper is so concise, and the nervous sys- 
tem so intricate, that the student is referred to the original, 
should more detailed information be required. Dr. Brandt 
having set at his work with the preconceived notion of the close 
affinities of Chiton and Patella, finished without changing his 
mind on the subject ; but the unprejudiced student, on compar- 
ing the figures of the nervous system of Chiton fascicularis upon 
the same plate with that of Patella, will hardly be disposed to 
agree with him. Indeed, the further the embryology and minute 
anatomy of the two groups are carried, the more evident does 
their dissimilarity become.* 

It is not a little astonishing that, of all the authors who have 
commented upon the nervous system of Patella as given by Cu- 
vier, not one seems to have recognized the fact that it is not 
that of Patella vulgata at all, but (| robably) that of Patina pel- 
lucida, an animal belonging to a difterent genus. Some of the 
discrepancies may be reconciled when the latter comes to be dis- 
sected. Neither of the species dissected by Cuvier can be rec- 
ognized by anything in his article as published in the " Memoires.'' 
They are generally supposed, however, to be vulgata and pellii- 
eida. In noticing the optic nerve Dr. Brandt calls attention to 
the fact that the eyes are situated upon the superior surface of 
the base of the tentacle, and not upon a tubercle at the outer 
base, as usually stated, and, I may add, not upon tlie prominent 
tubercle at the inner base, as Cuvier supposed. 

The digestive system has been treated by Cuvier and Lankes- 
ter. The latter has added little to the labors of his predecessor, 
and appeals not to have read his "Memoire," or at least to have 
overlooked the descriptions and figures (p. 18, pi. ii, f. 7, 12) of 
the crop and salivary glands, as he claims them as a discovery of 

* Nevertheless, the typically molluscan nature of the nervous system 
of Chiton, and the fact that it is somewhat allied to the Patellidae, may 
be considered as proven by Brandt's investigations. There is room for 
investigatioB with regard to possible affinities with Brachiopoda. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 271 

his own. I would remark, by the waj, that the size of the lat- 
ter diflers in different individuals of the same species, or perhaps 
in the same individual at different times. The orifice of the anus 
is simple, but, in most species, a number of subcjlindrical pa- 
pilljTe or tubercles are noticeable inside of it. The latter part of 
the rectum in Acmtea is repeatedly constricted, so that the faeces 
are expelled in sausage- shaped pellets. The renal organ, as 
shown by Lankester, is double ; one of the two sacs, however, is 
nearly abortive, and seems almost imperceptible in some species 
of ColIiseUa. These sacs empty by two papillfB, in Patella, one 
on each side of the anal tubercle ; in Collisella there is no pa- 
pilla to the left of the anus, but a non-elevated, simple, very mi- 
nute orifice, sometimes much further (to the left) from the anus 
than the papilla on the right side. Cuvier does not mention the 
left hand one in the text, but it is represented on the plate in its 
proper place (fig. 8, pi. 2). 

I have not been able to have access to the paper of MM. 
Robin and Lebert, who have noticed the generative organs. Mr. 
Lankester gives some particulars in regard to them. The ovary 
has been frequently mentioned, and I have elsewhere described 
the male gland of Collisella.* The oviduct mentioned by Cuvier 
• seems to be wanting, though I have several times thought that I 
detected a slender, exceedingly thin duct proceeding from the 
extreme left of the gland and opening into the dendritic renal 
sac. I cannot say that I feel sure of this, however, as the con- 
dition of the specimens was unsatisfactory, from the spirit in 
whioli they were preserved. There does not appear to be any 
other opening through which the young can be extruded, and I 
am inclined to believe that some such duct exists and will even- 
tually be demonstrated. If the '' capito-pedal orifices" exist, 
they must be far too small to admit of the extrusion of the young 
mollusk with its shell, as described by Fischer. 

To the latter naturalist we owe the whole of our very slender 
knowledge of the development of Patella. He found the ovaries 
filled with young mollusks in the month of March, and in April 
the rocks and the parent shells were covered with a multitude of 
young Patellie, about one millimetre in length. This disproved 
the idea that the eggs were deposited in a single mass, and 
showed that the method of extrusion rather resembled that of 
Chiton. 

It is extremely desirable that the development of this animal 
should be observed from its early stages, and after that, it is to 
be hoped that some careful anatomist will give to the world an 
account of the anatomy, on the plan of Mr. Hancock's magnifi- 
cent paper on the BracTiiopoda. It is by no means impossible 



272 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

that some of the views here brought forward may prove ill- 
founded ; yet, if their publication incites some naturalist (more 
favorably situated than myself for examination of the living 
animal) to give to the world a thorough monograph of any spe- 
cies of the order, I shall not regret their refutation. In any 
case, I would urge most strongly on all observers the duty of 
doing what they can to dispel the prevalent uncertainty in regard 
to the questions alluded to, which have too long demanded investi- 
gation, yet failed to obtain it. 

Patella pentagona, (Born.), Rve. Plate 15 fig. 22. 

Patella 'pentagona, (Born. Mus. t. Vindobonensis, pi. 15, f. 4, 

5). Rve. Conch. Icon. pi. xx, f. 48, a, b, c, 1854. 
Patella stelkeformis, Rve., Conch. Systematica. 
Patella cretacea, Rve., Conch. Icon. pi. xxi, f. 53, a, b. 
Patella tramoserica^ A. Adams, (? Chemn., not of authors),. 

Annals Nat. Hist., ii, 1868, p. 369. 
Patella paumotensis, Gld., Proc. B. S. N. H. ii, p. 150,1846. 
Expedition Shells, 8, Moll. U. S. Ex." Ex. p. 339, fig. 
MO-a to e. 
Animal with the foot gamboge yellow, remainder of the body 
pale yellow ; muzzle reddish; cirri of the mantle opaque white.* 
Foot large ; mantle margin narrow, cirri disposed in twenty-four 
clusters of five each, two short ones arising from the margin, 
two rather longer from the inner mantle-edge, and between these 
a fifth twice as large as the others. Head slender, produced. 
Branchige smaller in front, but not interrupted ; tentacles moder- 
ate, slender. Anal, infra-anal and renal orifices well defined, 
small, short, but prominent. Formula, ^! 

Hah. Society Islands, Garrett. Paumotu Islands, Tahiti, Gld. 

The dentition of this species allies it with the typical patellas 
of the type of P. vulgata ; the branchiae are similar ; not inter- 
rupted in front, as Mr. Couthouy says, but continuous, as they 
are figured in the plates of the Ex. Exp. 

Genus PATINELLA.f 

Shell solid, porcellanous, with an erect subcentral apex. Cor- 
don complete, equal all around ; sides of foot provided with scal- 
loped lappets. Teeth, " Inner uncinus plate-like, with- 

OHt a cusp. Second lateral the largest. 

* Couthouy MSS. 

t From Patina, a dish. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 273 

Type Patinella Magellanica, Gmel. Plate, 15, fig. 24. 

Patella Magellanica, Gmel., Syst. Nat. No. 52, p. 3703, 1792. 

Gualt. Test., pi. 9, f. E. Martini, Conch. Cab. i, pi. v, 

f. 40, a, b. Lnm. An. s. Vert. ed. Desh. vii, p. 534, 

No. 26. Rve, Icon., pi. x, f. 19 a, b. 
Patella fusca, Dillw., Cat. vol ii, p. 1047, No. 70. 
Patella deaurata, Gmel., Syst. Nat., p. 3719, No. 142. Lam. 

1819, An. s. Vert., vi, p. 330, No. 25. lb. Ed. Desh. vii, 

p. 534, No. 25. Martini Conch. Cab. x, p. 168, f. 1616. 

D'Orb. Voy. Am. Merid. v, p. 480, No. 44. Gould, Expl. 

Exp. Moll., p. 341, f. 444, 444 a. 
Patella ferruc/inea, Wood, Ind. Test., No. 32. Hanley's Ed., 

p. 186, No. 32, pi. 37. 
Soft parts. Foot nearly circular, dark slate color, with a row 
of leaf-like scalloped lappets all around, except below the head, 
integument soft and spongy ; mantle yellowish, with irregularities 
and patches of color corresponding to the ribs and rays of the 
•shell margin, fringed with stout, cylindrical, pointed beards or 
cirri, rather irregularly disposed in two rows, upon the thickened 
portion ; they are purple at the base and yellowish at the tips. 
Head small, rosy-white above, whitish on neck and muzzle ; ten- 
tacles long, (quite short in alcohol,) tapering, curved, rather 
bluntly pointed, yellowish white, with a purple stripe above, and 
rather swelled at the bases ; eyes small on upper part of bases ; 
branchiae lamellae produced, close-set, rather smaller on the ante- 
rior portion, but not interrupted in front ; hood short. Muzzle 
small, short, transversely oval ; mouth ditto ; disk bordered with 
a double row of slender cylindrical papillce, radiately striate, 
without a frill, indented below. Renal papilla subcylindrical, 
distinct, not sessile on the anal, which is larger, with slender 
subcylindrical papillae projecting from the orifice. Infra-anal 
tubercle to the right, prominent, distinct, smaller than the anal. 
Formula, ^ . 

' 3(1 + 1^-1-1-^+1)3 

Gould unites deaurata and Magellanica as varieties of one spe- 
cies under the former name ; but if, as seems probable, the two 
are identical, the latter name should be used, as it precedes deau- 
rata, both in the Syst. Nat. and the Conchylien Cabinet, in both 
text and plates. The latter work, however, not being binomial, 
should not be quoted as an authority for specific names. Patella 
ferruginea, Wood, according to Hanley, is identical with deau- 
rata, and also P. fusca, Dillwyn, but not the fusca of Gmelin. 
Gould separates /e/rw^mea, however, as a distinct species by the 
animal. This genus diflFers essentially from Patella, as typified 
by P. vulgata, in anatomy, external characters and dentition. 



274 f AMERICAN JOUKNAL 

It is not improbable that a large number of tropical species will 
eventuallv be referred to it, when their soft parts shall have been 
examined. Pending such an examination, it is not worth while 
to so refer any species which have not been dissected, even pro- 
visionally. I suspect, however, that P. granulans and some 
allied forms will be found to agree more nearly with Patinella 
than with Patella, as restricted. 

Patinella, sp. indet. Plate 15, fig. 25. 

Mantle bordered with two rows of fleshy elongated papillx. 
Foot with a scalloped flounce or frill extending all around except 
under the head. Muzzle short, broad ; disk fringed with beauti- 
fully arborescent papilli^ ; indented below. 

Anus prominent, stellate with five rays, richly papillose inside ; 
renal and infra-anal papillte small, inconspicuous, close to anal. 

A specimen of a very large Patinella, without any shell or 
number by which the species might be identified, was found in 
the bottle with known Magellan species. It afi"orded a second 
opportunity of figuring the dentition of this geinj^s, and w^as 
noteworthy in the particulars just mentioned. 

Genus NACELLA, Schum. 

Nacella, Schum., Essai d'un Nouv. Syst. 1817, p. 179. Gray, 
P. Z. S. 1847, p. 165 : in Patellidie. Ibid., Guide Moll. 
1857, p. 169 ; in Tecturidro. 
< Nacelhiy Chenu, Man. de Conchyl. i, p. 378. "Woodw., Man. 
p. 155. Ad., Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 467 ; in Patellidje. 
Cpr., Lect. 1860, p. 70. Second, ed. p. 72. 

Shell with the apex submarginal, anterior ; pellucid, thin or 
corneous ; animal with the cordon complete before and behind, 
the laminie persistent but diminishing in size before the head. 
Sides of the foot provided with scalloped lappets. Teeth, 

3(2— 1-1— 2)3 - Second and third laterals large, subequal. 

Notwithstanding the manner in which Gray has treated this 
genus, which would lead, by implication, to the belief that he 
had not only examined the external parts of the animal, but 
also the dentition, the weight of evidence is too great to be 
disregarded, and I believe Deshayes to be correct in identifying 
the type XaceUa m//ti'Ioide$ of Schumacher with P. ci/nibnlaria 
of Lamarck, Avhich becomes a synonym of nii/tiU)ia, Gmelin. 

Type Nacella mytilina, Gmel. sp. Plate 16, fig. 26. 

Patella nii/tilina, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. 1792, vol. i, part vi, 
p. 3698, No. 28. (Favart d'Herbigny, Dictionnaire 

» 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 275 

tVh. Nat. Test. 2, p. 238, 239, Paris, 1775; Martini, in 
Neueste Maiinigfaltigkeiten, Berlin, 1778, p. 417, t. 2, 
f. 13, 14 ; rielbling, Abh. einer Privatges, in Bohmen, 
vol. iv, p. 104, t. 1, fig. 5, 6 : 1780, Prag. fide Gmelin, 
op. cit.) , 

Patella mytilina, Schub. and Wagn., Sup. Martini, pi. 229, f. 
4052, 4053, Nlirnberg, 1829. Desb. Ed. An. s. Vert. 
1836, p. 541, No. 45. 
Patella conchacea, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. 1792, vol. 1, part vi, p. 
3708, No. 86. (Martini, in Nueste Mannigf. p. 417, t. 
2, f. 13, 14, Berlin, 1778 ; fide Gmelin). 
Patella conchacea, Bosc, Cours Compl. d'Hist. Nat. Paris, 
iii, p. 206, 1800. Leuckart, Isis, xvi. Col. 719, No. 3, 
1825. Schum., Essai, p. 179. Schrot., Einl. p. 482, 
No. 100. 
Nacella mytiloides, Schum., Essai, p. 179, pi. xxi, f. 3. 
Leuckhart, Isis, xvi, 1825. Col. 719, No. 3. Gray, 
Guide, p. 169. 
Patella mytiloides, Desh., An. s. Vert, vii, p. 541, No. 45, 

1836. 
Patella cymhularia. Lam., An. s. Vert, vi, p. 335, No. 45, 1819. 
Ed. Desb., 1836, vii, p. 541, No. 45. Blainv., Mai. pi. 
xlix, f. 6. Chenu, Man. de Concbyl. i, p. 378, f. 2846. 
Gld., Moll, U. S. Expl. Exp. p. 341. 
Patella cymbuloides, Gld., op. cit. in syn. (as of D'Orb.) erro- 
neously. 
Nacella cymhalaria^ H. and A. Ad., Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 467, 

pi. Iii, f. 10 a. 
Soft parts : foot regularly oval, rather broader before, pale 
slate color on the sole, yellowish near the edges, finely granu- 
lated. Mantle edge thick, smooth, purplish, furnished with three 
rows of retractile filaments, arranged in quincunx order in rela- 
tion to each other, the inner row the largest ; one of these fila- 
ments, at the extreme posterior end of the animal, seemed con- 
siderably larger than the rest, like a tail. The larger cirri are 
tinged with purple at the base, the remainder yellowish. Bran- 
chial lamellse small, yellowish, very fine and close set, diminishing 
anteriorly, and very small in front of the head, but not inter- 
rupted. Hood large, much prolonged, thin, very varicose. 
Head small, pale brown. Muzzle very long, almost probos- 
cidiform ; edge papillose, disk radiately granulose, destitute 
of any frill or lappets ; mouth subcircular, entire ; buccal lips 
double on each side. Tentacles moderately long, stout and 
bluntly pointed, pale brown. Renal papilla rounded, conical, 



276 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

small close to anal, aperture minute ; anal do., larger, furnished 
with papillae inside the orifice ; infra-anal do., smaller at the 
extreme right. Ejes small, on external base of tentacles. A 
puckered frill exists on the sides of the foot, extending all 
around except under the head. Formula, — - — " , „ ^ 

Lives on floating fuci near Cape Horn. 

This remarkable species was early known to naturalists, 
although its range appears to be comparative!}'' limited ; as far 
as we know, it is confined to the shores of Tierra del Fuego and 
the Straits of Magellan, where it finds a congenial home among 
the giant sea weeds for which that coast is noted. It is the ana- 
logue of Patina pellucida of Britain, but the arrangement of 
the teeth and branchiae being quite different, they cannot even 
be placed in one genus. 

This species, described by Gmelin under the name of Patella 
mytilma in one part of the Syst. Nat., is further on described 
again under the name of P. conchacea, with the identical refer- 
ences to Martini's paper which he had used in the first instance. 
Lamarck afterward gave it the name of cymbularia, by which it 
is best known ; while Schumacher's name, mytiloides, though 
given before that of Lamarck, has been frequently quoted as a 
synonym of the latter. The references given by Gmelin are all 
to non-binomial authors, and the ' name mytilina, having ten 
pages precedence of conchacea, has been here adopted. I have 
been unable to discover the name cymhuloides in D'Orbigny's 
work, which Gould quotes as a synonym. No other species is 
at present known, and the forms from the west coast of North 
America which have been called '■'•Nacella' will be distributed in 
difi'erent groups, but probably most of them will find a place in 
Colluella. 

The colors are from Couthouy's notes, taken from the living 
animal, the anatomical details from specimens collected by him. 

Genus HELCION, Montfort. 

Helcion^ Montf., Conch. Syst. 1810, ii, p. 62. Blainv., Malac. 

1825, p. 499. H. and A. Ad., Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 460, 

ii, p. 657, 1854. Gray, Guide, p. 176. P. Z. S. 1847, 

p. 168. Cpr., Lect. Second. Ed. p. 72. 
< ITelcion, Chenu, Man. de Conchyl. i, p. 375. (?) Meek, Check 

List Cret. Inv. U. S. p. 17, 1864. 
Patelloidea sp., Cantraine, Bull. Ac. Sci. Brux. 1835. 
Helcium, Meek and Hayden, Am. Journ. Sci. and Arts, vol. 

xxix, second series, p. 83 (? err. typog.) 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 277 

Not Helcion, Stoliczka, Pal. Indica, ii, p. 323 ; Pictet, Mat. 
Pal. Suisse, 3rae ser. p. 717 ; nor D'Orb., Voy. Am. Mer. 
V, p. 703 ; nor Jeffreys, Brit. Conch, iii, p. 242. 

" Shell ovate, radiately ribbed (pectinated) ; apex submargi- 

nal, anterior ; aperture ovate ; edge crenated. Gill interrupted 

over the head, of small and filiform strands." Gray, Guide, p. 
176. 

Type Helcion pectinatus, Lin. 

Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i, part vi, p. 3710, No. 93. 

Habitat. Mediterranean. 

The shell of this unique and typical species is distinguished 
by its pectinated ribs and a " peculiar glazed deposit" on the 
interior of the aperture (Ad., op. cit.) The animal has not been 
examined thoroughly, and nothing is known of its dentition. 
Until further ^information is brought forward it can hardly be 
united with the genus Patina, as has been done by Jeffreys.* 

HELCIONISCUS, uora. subg. prov. 

Shell solid, heavy, moderately elevated, with a subcentral 
inconspicuous apex. Cordon interrupted in front, ending ab- 
ruptly on each side, at the anterior ends of the adductor. Sides 
of foot and mantle edo-e smooth. Teeth ^ The inner 

° 3(2—1.1—2)3 

uncinus hardly raised above the level of the ribbon, and second 
lateral largest, as in Patinella. 

Type Helcioniscus variegatus, Dall. ex Rve. Plate 16, fig. 27. 

Patella variegata, Rve. Conch. Syst. ii, pi. 136, f. 1. Conch. 
Icon. pi. xvi, fig. 36, a, b, c. {Hah. Australia, in error?) 
Savigny, Egypt, pi. 1, f. 3. Fischer, Journ. de Conchyl. 
X, April, 1870, p. 167, No. 42. (Suez.) 

Soft parts ; foot large, oval, thin, sole lead-colored, sides 
smooth, yellowish ; mantle dotted with brown and with brown 

* Stoliczka (Pal. Indica, ii, p. 321) proposes to arrange the fossil lim- 
pets under Helcion, Nacella, Tectwa and Patella, according to the 
external characters of the shell. As it is absolutely impossible to deter- 
mine the true affinities of these remains, from the characters preserved 
in a fossil state, such a plan is doubtfully expedient, as it implies a knowl- 
edge which is not attainable. It would be preferable, perhaps, to refer 
all the fossil forms to Patella, with a query, rather than to give names 
implying the existence of characters which can never be determined. 
Paleontology, in a great measure, does not admit the prosecution of the 
only satisfactory methods of zoological research, and hence must ever 
remain far behind them. 

19 



278 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

maculae on the upper edge corresponding to the rays of the 
shell, edge somewhat irregular, resembling the shell margin, 
apparently quite smooth, and destitute of beards or fila- 
ments. Branchial lamell?3 large, not crowded, large and small 
alternate!}'', terminating anteriorly on each side close to the 
end of the adductors. Hood smooth, thin, very varicose, as 
is the thin inner part of the mantle. Head prominent, tentacles 
short, pointed, slender, bases somewhat swollen, with the eyes on 
the upper posterior portions. Muzzle short, transversely oval, 
without a frill, disk slightly granulose, especially at the edges, 
mouth large, rounded, buccal lips conspicuous ; jaw thin, pale 
yellow, edge somewhat irregular from use ; anal and infra-anal 
papillae close together on the right-hand side, long, slender, cyl- 
indrical ; anal orifice simple, not papillose internally, infra-anal 
bifid at tip, renal smaller than the others on the left side of anal 
papilla. Intestine full of red matter, probably from corallines; 
faeces expelled in cylindrical pellets. Crop moderate, a third as 
long as the body. No " capito-pedal " orifices to be detected 
iuternally, externally, or by injections. Radula coiled near the 

buccal mass, on the inferior surface of the liver. Formula, 



Ja-f3^-ri~i4+ij3' 

Locality, Red Sea and Gulf of Akaba, Smithsonian Cabinet. 

The peculiarities of the shell of Heleion render it probable 
that it differs generically from the group under consideration, 
although the bvanchiiB exhibit points ;of resemblance, and I am 
inclined to believe that such of the species, now included under 
SeuteUina, as cannot be affiliated with the Acmceidce, may find a 
resting-place in the genus Heleion. 

The Helcionisci are tropical forms most nearly allied to Pa- 
tinella. 

Helcioniscus rota, Rve. Plate 16, fig. 28. 

Patella rota, Chemn. Conchyl., Cab. x, p. 330, pi. 168, fig. 
1619. Rve Conch. Icon., pi. xvii, 39 a, b, c. ? = H. 
variegata, Rve., ante. 

Animal in every respect resembling the last. The teeth, which 
are figured in a slightly diff'erent position from those of ^. varie- 
gatus, Rve., do not exhibit any differences of value. I am in- 
clined to think that they may be identical, in which case, the 
species will take the name of II. rota, which has priority over 
variegatus. The species before me is undoubtedly the former. 

Hab. Madagascar, Caleb Cooke. 

Helcioniscus (?) argentatus. Gray, sp. 

Patella argentata, Gray, Moll. Beechey's Voyage, p. 148, pi. 
39,- f. 7. Gould, Expl. Exp. Moll., p. 345, pi. 29, f. 451. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 279 

Nothing is said about the extent of the branchiae in the diagno- 
sis, but they appear by the figure to be interrupted behind the 
head. 

Helcioniscus exaratus, Nutt. Plate 16, fig. 29. 

Patella exarata, Nutt., Jay's Cat., p. 38. Rve. Conch. Icon. 

pi. xix, fig. 47, a, b, 1854. 
Patella sandivicensis, Pse., P. Z. S., 1860, p. 437. 
Patella undato-Urata, Pse., ubi ? MSS. label. Cab. S. I. 

Mantle margin broad, thick, strongly crenate, conspicuously 
papillose. Sides of foot smooth, blackish. Tentacles stout, 
rather long ; muzzle papillose around the edges. Head small, 
short. BranchiiTe interrupted between the muscles in front, close, 
prominent. Foot stout and muscular. General coloration dusky, 
lighter in the commissures. Anal and other papilk« short but 
prominent. Inferior nuchal commissure deep and straight. 
Formula, ." 

3(2— 1-1— 2)3 

Hah. Sandwich Islands, Pease, Garrett. 

The so-called species of Mr. Pease are not even distinguish- 
able varieties, and have no characters by which they can be dif- 
ferentiated from the typical exarata. The description of the 
first is in English, without a figure. I have not been able to find 
a description of the second. 

Genus PATINA, Leach. 

Patina, Leach, MSS, 1819. Gray, Syn. Brit. Mus., 1840. 

Moll. Gt. Brit., 1852, p. 223. Guide, Moll., p. 175. 

Syn. Brit. Mus., Ed., 1842, p. 90. 
Patella, Loven, Ofv. K. Vet. Ak. For., 1847, p. 198. 
< Nacella, H. & A. Ad. i, p. 467, 1854. Chenu, Man. de Con- 

chyl., i, p. 378. Woodw. Man., p. 155. Cpr. Lect. Moll., 

p. 72. 
Helcion, Jeffreys, Brit. Conch., iii, p, 242. (Not Montfort.) 
Ansates, Sby., Conch. Man. Ed. ii, p. 68, 1842. (Not Klein.) 
? G-onicUs, Raf. (See Syn. Patella.) 

Animal with the branchial cordon interrupted in front ; teeth 
with the inner two series parallel, third series with a lai'ger den- 
ticulate cusp, posterior ; radula furnished with three uncini on 
each side. Formula, ^ Shell with the apex subter- 

' 3(J^-2-2-i^)3- _ _ ^ 

minal, anterior; smooth, thin, semi-pellucid or horny in texture. 

Should the details of the soft parts and dentition of Helcion 

(pectinatus) prove on examination to agree with those of the 



280 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

type of this genus, they must be consolidated, but, pending such 
an examination, in view of the considerable conchological differ- 
ences which exist, this would be hardly admissible. The denti- 
tion and interrupted branchiae separate it definitely from the 
genus Nacella, although the shells are very similar. It is not 
probable that any of the species of "jVacg/^a" from the north- 
west coast are congeneric. 

Type Patina pellucida, Linn., sp. PI. 16, fig. 30. 

Patella jyellucida, Lin., Syst. Nat. xx, 1260. 

Patella Icevis, Penn, Brit. Zool. iv, p. 144, pi. xc, fig. 151. 

Patella ccerulea, Pult., Cat. Dorset., pi. xxiii, f. 6. 

Patella bimaculata, Mont., Test. Brit., p. 482, pi. xiii, f. 8. 

Patina la.'vis, Leach, Moll. Gt. Brit., p. 224, No. 1. 

Patina pellucida, Leach, ib., p. 224, No. 2. 

Patella ca^ruleata, Da Costa, Brit. Conch, p. T, pi. 1, f. 5, 6. 

Patella elongata, + elliptica, Flem., Ency. Edin. pi. 204, fig. 

2, 3. 
Patella cornea, Pot. and Mich., Gal. Donai. Moll. p. 525, pi. 

xxxvii, f. 5, 6. 
Patella intorta, Pennant, + P. ?nzMor, Wallace, fide Jeff'reys. 
JTelcion pellucidum, Jeffreys, Brit. Conch, iii, p. 242. 

Soft parts. Foot oval, sole yellowish white edged with a 
narrow brown line, body cream color with a tinge of brown in 
front ; mantle often bordered with a grey or lead colored line, 
fringed with fine white cirri, alternately long and short ; gills 
whitish, interrupted in front of the adductor ; mouth minutely 
puckered, head small ; tentacles slender, long ; eyes small, on 
their outer bases. Habitat upon the stalks and fronds of large 
fuci, British and North European Seas. 

I have not been able to obtain specimens of the soft parts, 
and have quoted from Jeffreys and others; the dentition is from 
Loven. 

Although the shells are very similar, the animal differs 
strongly from that of Nacella. Clark makes the statement that 
the orifices of the anal and genital papillae are below the right 
tentacle on the side of the neck, not on the side of the body as 
in other species, but this requires confirmation, and is probably 
an error. There are a number of other species which will pro- 
bably find a place in this genus ; they are now usually termed 
Nacella. 



OF CONCHOLOGT. 281 

Genus METOPTOMA, Phillips. 

Metoptoma, Phil., Geol. Yorksh. ii, p. 223, 1836. Leonh. 

and Bronn., Jahrb. p. 750, 1841. Morris, Br. foss. p. 

151, 1843. Woodw., Man. p. 155. Stoliczka, Pal. In- 

dica, ii, p. 324. Eichw., Leth. Ross, i, p. 1098. 
Not DeslongcJiampsia, as per Chenu, Man. de Conchyl. i, p. 

376 ; nor Patella, lb. i, p. 375, fig. 2281. 

Shell patelliform, scar horseshoe shaped ; apex subcentral, 
shell truncate behind the apex, with the posterior margin broadly 
emarginate or waved, and the anterior slope the longest. 

Type M. pileus, Phil., 1, c. p. 224, pi. xiv, f. 7. Carb. lime 
stone, Great Britain. 

This genus, characterized by the extraordinary jjosterior trun- 
cation, is only known from the older rocks in a fossil state. 

Chenu wrongly places it as a synonym of Deslongchampsia, 
McCoy, (though having eighteen years priority !) with which it 
cannot be affiliated. His figure of Patella Solaris, de Kon., 
represents a typical 3fetoptoma, but not the type of the genus, a 
statement I wrongly attributed to Mr. Meek, in this Journal vol. 
vi, p. 20. Stoliczka compares Capiilus Troscheli, Mull., from 
the Aachen cretaceous beds, with Metoptoma, which it appears 
to resemble. A number of the species referred by Billings (Pal. 
Foss. Can. Geol. Survey) to this genus, are evidently not conge- 
neric. 



LIST OF FIGURES. 
Plate 14. 

1. Aemcea mitra, Esch. Original. 

2. " virginea, Miill. Confirmed from Loven's figure. 

3. " insessa, Hinds. Original. 

4. Collisella patina, Esch. Original, 

5. " strigatella, Cpr. Original ; a, uncinus. 

6. " pelta. Esch. Original. 

7. " asmi, M'ldd. Original; a, uncinus. 

8. " persona, Esch. Original. 

9. " mitella, Mke. Original. 

10. " spectrum, Rve. Original. 

11. " fascicularis, Mke. Original. 

12. " scabra, Rve. Original ; a, uncinus. 

13. " testiidinalis. Mull. Original. 

14. " suhrugosa, D'Orb. Original. 

15. " atrata, Cpr. Original ; a, uncinus. 



282 american journal 

Plate 15. 

16. Colisella pediculus, Phil. Original ; a, uncinus. 

17. " Borneensis, Rve. Original ; a, uncini. 

18. " saccharina, Lin. Original ; a, uncini. 

19. Scurria mesoleuca, Mke. Original ; a, uncinus. 

20. Lottia gigantea, Gray. Original. 

21. Ancistromesus Mexicanus, B. & S. Original. 

22. Patella pentagona. Born. Original. 

23. " vulgata, Lin. Original. 

24. Patinella magellanica, Gmel. Original. 

25. Patinella, sp. indet. Original. 

Plate 16. 

26. Nacella mytilina, Gmelin. 

27. Helcioniscus variegatus, Rve. Original. 

28. " rota, Original. 

29. " exaratus, Rve. Original. 

30. Patina pellucida, Lin, after Loven. 

31. a, muzzle o^ Acma^a ; b, do, of Collisella ; c, do, o^ Patella. 

32. a, profile of teeth of Acmoea ; b, do. of Collisella. 

33. a, jaw of Collisella ; b, do. of Patinella. 

Plate 17. 

34. Collisella syhai'itica, Dall. 

35. " [f patina var.) ochracea, Dall. 

36. " pelta, var. nacelloides, Dall. 

37. " (Collisella ?) Jderoglyphica, Dall. 

38. " Collisella Borneensis, Reeve. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 283 



NOTICES AND REVIEWS 

OF 

NEW CONCHOLOGICAL WORKS 

BY GEO. W. TRYON, JR. 



I.— AMERICAN. 

Synopsis of the Family Unionidae. By Isaac Lea, LL.D. Fourth edi- 
tion, 184 pp. 4to. Phila., 1870. 

The author states in his preface that during the eighteen 
years that have elapsed since the publication of the third edition 
of his " Synopsis," the number of admitted species and syno- 
nyms has been doubled, showing the great activity of students 
and collectors in this branch of conchology. In the introduc- 
tory portion of the admirable review of the classifications of Uni- 
onidiB proposed by former authors, Dr. Lea gives the number of 
species included in the present volume as follows : Recent spe- 
cies known to him and admitted to be distinct, 1069 ; 224 doubt- 
ful species, including those only known through descriptions ; 
183 fossil species, and 891 synonyms. 

Following the tables of species and synonyms, which, as in 
former editions, are arranged under the various genera in groups 
divided according to differences in form and surface, is a table 
of Geographical Distribution, which is a great improvement on 
the tables formerly given, as it gives the names of rivers and 
States, where formerly the divisions North and South America, 
Europe, etc., were deemed sufficiently particular. In this list 
the number of species of Unio inhabiting Europe is placed at 
nine, notwithstanding the industry with which European provin- 
cial naturalists have been enriching conchological science for 
some years by describing most of the Unionidae of their respec- 
tive neighborhoods as new ! I agree with Dr. Lea in his whole- 



2i^4 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

sale reduction. In this European list is placed, by error, " U. 
depressiis, Lam., North Holland," instead of New Holland, and 
I have noticed various other small errors of the pen and some of 
the press, in this magnificent work, but considering the im- 
mensity of an affair which required the author to consult eleven 
hundred works in its preparation, he may be congratulated upon 
having made it so nearly perfect. 

The " Synopsis " will of course become a necessary aid to all 
collectors and students of the Unionidae, and I hope that the 
author has had a sufficiently large edition prepared to enable all 
who desire it to procure copies. The mechanical execution and 
material of the volume leave nothing to be desired, being even 
superior in appearance to the usual luxurious style of Dr. Lea's 
publications. 



Canadian Naturalist. V, No. 1. July 30, 1870. 

Lower Canadian Land and Fresh Water MoUusca. By J. 
F. Whiteaves. 

Loiver Canadian Marine MoUusca. By the same. 

Two small papers containing additions to lists formerly pub- 
lished in the "Naturalist." Bythinia tentaculata is found living 
in Lachine Canal, introduced from Europe probably. 



Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. IV. Part 2, 1870. 

071 the Shells of Aritioch, Gal., and vicinity. By H. P. 
Carlton. 

Shells of Truchee River and vicinity. By H. P. Carlton. 

TJie West Coast Fresh-water Univalves. No. 1. By J. G. 
Cooper, M. D. 

In this paper the author is even more conservative than in 
his paper on the terrestrial species, reducing many species to 
" varieties," and referring many species to eastern North Ame- 
rican types, although generally recognized as distinct. It would 
be simply a waste of time to attempt to correct what appear to 
me to be the very numerous and grave errors of this paper, the 
author of which seems to have predetermined before studying 
the species, that too many had been described. Those Avho take 
a very conservative view of the subject will doubtless be well 
pleased with the paper, and we recommend it to their perusal. 



Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia- 
April, 1870 



OF CONCIIOLOGY. 285 

Descriptions of Fossils collected by the U. S. Geological Sur- 
vey, under the charge of Clarence King, Esq. By F. B. 
Meek. 
I introduce this paper in order to call attention to some of the 
remarkable fresh-water species described from Idaho, namely, 
two species of Carinifex, one of which (C. Tryoni) is made the 
type of a new subgenus, Vorticifex,* a genus hitherto repre- 
sented by a single species, C. Neivberryi, of California ; also a 
true 3Ielania of Asiatic type. 

IL— FOREIGN. 

BRITISH. 
Proceedings of the Zoological Society, London. Part 2, 1869. 

Description of a Neiv G-enus and Fourteen New Species of 
3Iarine Shells. By Henry Adams. 

Conus cernicus, Barclay MSS. Mauritius. 

Clathurella Rohillardi, Barclay MSS. Mauritius. 

Drillia Barkliensis, H. Ad. Mauritius. 

Coralliophila coronata, Barcl. MSS. Mauritius. 

Mauritia, n. gen. [Mitridw). 

Maiiritia Barclayi, H. Ad. Mauritius. 

Marginella mirabilis, Barcl. MSS. Hab. ? 

Nacella cernica, Barcl. MSS. Mauritius. 

Natica marmorata, H. Ad. Canary Isl. 

Scala delicatula, H. Ad. Lancerote. 

Symola minuta, H. Ad. Orotava. 

Turbonilla speciosa, H. Ad. Vigo. 

Cancellaria pusilla, H. Ad. Canary Isl. 

Haminea subpellncida, H. Ad. Lisbon. 

Gouldia modesta, H. Ad. Gulf of Tunis. 
The following names, preoccupied by other authors, are 
changed : 

Helix Blanfordi to Blanfordiana, and Piipina Pfeifferi to 
Pfeifferiana. Stylodo?ita rufocincta to S. rufozonata, and Na- 
nina co7iulus to iV. turritella. 

On three New Species of Australian Marine Shells. By J, 
C. Cox, M. D. 
Cyprcea Thatcheri, Voluta Harfordi. Voluta Sclateri. 

Descriptions of Neio Land and Fresh-water Molluscan Spe- 
cies collected by Dr. John Anderson in Upper Burma and 
Yunan. By W. T. Blanford. 

* By typographical error printed Vorlifex. 



286 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

Paludina Bengalensis, var. digona (vel P. digona.) 

" dissimiUs, Mull., var. decussatula (vel P. decussatula.) 

Melania Iravadica, Bithynia Irawadica, 

Fairhanhia ? (an Bithynia ?) turrita, Nanina arata, 
Cyclophorus sublcevigatus, Achatina obtusa, 

jSpiraculum Andersoni, " subfusifornm, 

Helix catostoma, Succinea acuminata^ 

'"' Andersoni, TJnio Burmanus. 

" 'percoinpressa, 

Part III, 1869. 

Notes on the Localities of two Species of Land Shells and 
three Species of Volutes. By John Brazier. 

Diplommatina 3Iartensi, H. Ad. Isl. Avola, Fiji Is. 

Palaina Coxi, H. Ad. Norfolk Isl. 

Aulica Mueckeri, Crosse. Solomon Isl. 

Volutella Tissotiana, Crosse. N. Australia. 

Alcithce Thatcher i, McCoy. Bampton Reef, New Caledonia. 

List of Cones found in Port Jackson, Neiv South Wales, 
with Notes 07i their Habitats and Distribution. By JoHN 
Brazier. 

Descriptions of eight Neiv Species of ffelicida' from the 
Western Pacific Islands. By Geo. French Angas. 

Helix Psyche, Solomon Isl. Helix Hargreavesi, Solomon Isl. 
" Adonis, " " Hermiorie, " 

" co'rulescens, " " Boydi, " 

" deidamia, " " Fessonia, Fiji Isles. 

On the Classification of the Helicterino'. By Harper Pease. 

Helicter, Fer., was described in 1821, and has eight years 
priority over Achatinella, Swains., 1828. Eleven subgenera have 
been described by authors, which are retained as genera and two 
new ones added. 388 species have been described, of which 166 
are considered synonyms, leaving 222 species believed to be dis- 
tinct. The species are entirely confined to the Sandwich Islands. 
The new genera proposed are : 

Fburnella, type Ach. casta, Newcomb. 
I^erdicella, " " Alexandri, Newc. 

The diagnosis of each genus is given, with lists of species, re- 
marks on distribution and synonymy. 



OF CONCHOLOOY. 287 

Proceedings of the Asiatic Socinty of Bengal. No. , March, 1870. 

JVotes 071 a few species of Andamanese land shells, lately 
described in the American Journal of Oonchology. By 
Dr. F. Stoliczka. 

The author corrects the assertion made by me in the paper 
referred to above, that the Andaman Islands are almost unknown 
conchologically, by showing that Messrs. Benson and Theobald 
have described and enumerated about twenty species. He also 
states that Andaman Island has a population of 8,000 foreign 
inhabitants, and has been for twelve years the largest Indian 
convict settlement. I have no excuse to offer for great negli- 
gence in preparing my paper, which I certainly would not have 
published had I been aware of the publication of the species, 
which our correspondent, Dr. Stoliczka, shows to have priority— 
although I would not have been able to identify them, having 
neither specimens nor figures to refer to, as none of the species 
had been previously figured. 

Helix Ohamhertinii^ Tryon ^= H. Eaughtoni^ Benson, 1863. 
Helix Bigsbi/i, Tryon = H. trochalia, Benson, 1861. 
Helix Andamayiensis, Tryon = H. exul, Theobald, 1864, 

=^ ?H. stephus, Benson, 1861. 
Bulimus Pealei, Tvyon=Spiraxis Haughto7i{, Bens on, 1863. 

Dr. Stoliczka also considers ? Cyclostoma Leai, nob. = Cyclo- 
phorus foliaceus Chemn. but to this decision I do not agree, and 
refer the reader to my " Note on Cyclophorus foliaceus, Reeve 
(non Chemnitz,) and C. Leai, Tryon," published in this Journal, 
vi, 25. 



Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 1867 — 
1870. Part 1, Colombo, 1870. 

Description of a new Crenus and five new species of Marine 
Univalves from the Southern Province, Ceylon. By G. 
and H. Nevill. 

Rohinsonia, Nov. gen. Pleurotoma [Mangelia) Boakei. 

R. ceylanioa, Pleur stoma curculis. 

R. p)usilla, Pleurotoma lemniscata. 



Annals and Magazine cf Natural History, 4th Series, No. 25. London, 
January, 1870. 

On a new Crenus of Testacellidce in Australia. By C 
Semper. 

The animal in question is Helix incequalis, Pfeiffer, placed by 



288 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

Albers in the group Rhytida, and as it has no jaw, while the 
dentition resembles that of Glandiyia^ it belongs to the Testacel- 
lidiB rather than the Helicidae. The author conjectures that a 
number of allied species will also have to be removed from the 
Helicidse, when the soft parts are examined, and Conchological 
characters are not wanting to distinguish the group. 

On the Spscific Distinctness of Anodonta anatina. By R. M. Lloyd. 

•' There has been a diversity of opinion as to whether Ano- 
donta anatina is a distinct species or only a variety of ^. cygnea." 

The author has attentively studied these animals and believes 
them to be distinct species, pointing out diflferences in the soft 
parts. He states that when the branchial orifice in Unio or 
Anodonta " from any cause becomes covered by sand or mud and 
the anal one remains free, it will then draw water in through the 
anal opening and expel it through the branchial one, causing the 
sand or mud to be blown away with very great violence, after 
which the normal state of affairs is resumed. This action is 
purely mechanical, the animal relaxing the adductor muscles, 
the valves gape, the opening, however, which would otherwise 
have been formed remaining closed by the thickened edges of 
the mantle being kept in contact ; this causes the water to enter 
the anal orifice ; then the valves are suddenly closed, and the 
water ejected through the branchial opening, the whole action 
being, in fact, exactly that of a pair of bellows. If both orifices 
are covered and there is water between the valves, they are 
brought together and the branchial one freed, the anal one being 
afterwards uncovered by the ordinary action of the current." 

No. 29. May, 18V0. 

Morphological Researches on the Mollusca. By M. Lacaze 

DUTHIERS. 

One of the most difficult types of the Mollusca to reduce to a 
theoretical plan is nndoubtedly that of the Gasteropods. I pro- 
pose to show that, by taking the relations of the organs and of 
the nervous system, it is always possible to refer the various 
forms to a single plan. 

Let us reduce the body of the Gasteropod, for sake of sim- 
plicity, to four parts — the head, the foot, the visceral mass, and 
the mantle. If we unroll the body of a species with a turbinated 
shell we shall have beneath the head and below the foot a re- 
versed cone containing the viscera. 

The relations of these parts are essentially variable. Thus 
the head is often separated from the visceral mass by a true 
neck. As to the mantle its morphology is difficult. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 289 

The study of the embryo of Ancylus enables us with ease to 
recognize this organ from its origin. In fact, upon the embry- 
onic sphere the head first betr<ays itself by the formation of the 
mouth. Soon two disks, bounded by a circular cushion, show 
themselves, the one near, the other opposite the mouth ; the 
former is the foot, the latter the mantle. At this moment the 
Ancylus represents the ideal being with the four principal parts. 
Starting from this state, we may vary the forms and explain 
the modifications of the Gasteropod type. But in the first place, 
to have an exact idea of the mantle, let us suppose the embry- 
onal disk from which it is derived eminently elastic and exten- 
sible ; let us assume, further, a traction exserted upon its centre 
and directed backwards, and we shall obtain a reversed cone, of 
which the apex will be the point of application of the force of 
traction, and the base the part of the body bounded by the cir- 
cular cushion of the primitive disk. The intestines will pene- 
trate by traction into the cone thus formed ; but the foot and 
head will remain without. These four parts will be deformed, 
but their relations will remain constant. 

It is easy to account for some forms which are very different 
in appearance. For example, in the Limaces the foot increases 
sufficiently below to lodge the viscera, and the mantle forms 
nothing more than a little disk or buckler ; in the Testacellse and 
the Bulbese the foot follows the neck in its excessive develop- 
ment, and the mantle remains rudimentary at the end of the 
body ; in the Aplysit^ the foot and the neck become much de- 
veloped upward, but the foot still increases sufficiently in its 
lower part to cover with its two lobes the back and even the man- 
tle, with which it has been erroneously confounded. 

The criterion which I propose enables us to determine the 
homologous parts. 

Four groups of nervous ganglia characterize the Mollusca in 
general and the Gasteropoda in particular. These are, first, 
the stomato-gastric, the cerebroid, and the pedal ganglia. The 
fourth group, intermediate between the latter two, always placed 
a little behind and below the pedal centre, is unsymmetrical — 
that is to say, formed by an uneven number of ganglia, general- 
ly five. It characterizes the Gasteropod group, and, except the 
head, the foot, and the viscera, it innervates all the organs. The 
name which would designate its relation would be that of bran- 
chia cardio-pallio-genital ; but I shall simply call it the median 
or inferior centre. It varies much ; sometimes it forms a very 
small ring, sometimes an extremely long curve which seems to 
modify and change all other relations. Thus in the Limnseae, 
the Planorbes, and the Ancyli, although its ganglia are a little 



290 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

disjointed, it is very close to the other centres. Again, in the 
Helices, the Testacellas, the Limaces, etc., its five ganglia lie 
upon the pedal centre, and are united to it in such a manner by 
a common conjunction tissue, that they have been described as 
the posterior pedal ganglia. 

In the Aplysise, the Bulleae, all the Pectinibi-anchia, and the 
Cyclostomata, the commissure which unites the inferior ganglia 
is long and twisted, and the homologous parts are difficult to rec- 
ognize. Notwithstanding this, the general connections remain 
constantly fixed. 

With regard to the mantle, the following facts leave no doubt. 
By numerous dissections of the most different types, I believe 
I am able to establish that this part of the body is exclusively 
innervated by the inferior centre, and that henceforward we may 
define it thus : — Any fold or cutaneous part of the body of the 
Gasteropod receiving nerves from the inferior or unsymmetrical 
centre, is either the mantle or a dependence of the mantle. The 
forms of the pallial fold may vary infinitely, their connections 
never. How, therefore, can we, in Aplysiae, regard the two 
large lobes which ascend at the back and at each side expose its 
back as being dependencies of the mantle, when their nerves all 
come from the pedal ganglia ? These lobes are the foot itself, 
and serve for swimming. 

The dorsal shield of the Limaces is the mantle very slightly 
developed ; it receives all its nerves from the inferior centre ; 
and the part which is drawn out along the lower part of the body 
and contains the viscera, is the foot, for its nerves are derived 
from the anterior centre. Again, in the Testacell», it is the 
upper part of the neck and of the foot which becomes developed 
and lodges the organs. The connections of the nerves show the 
mantle reduced to that inferior part which covers the shell. 

These examples suffice to prove the utility of the principle, 
which will lead us to a single scheme, the true theoretical and 
the ideal archetype of the Gasteropod. — Comptes Rendus, De- 
cember, 27, 18(39, tome Ixix, p. 1344. 

A new British Land Shell. By J. GwYN Jeffreys. 

Helix glabra, Studer, a continental species, is now first re- 
corded as British. 



Observations on the Geology and Zoology of Abyssinia. By W. T. 

Blanford. 8vo. Loiidou, 1870. 

Contains : 1. A list of Oceanic Mollusca obtained off the S. E. 
coast of Arabia. 2. Marine Mollusca from Annesley Bay. 3. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. . 291 

Freshwater Mollusca. 4. Land Mollusca. Of the land Mollus- 
ca, Mr. Bhxnford states that, " but a very meagre series was ob- 
tained, the country being evidently excessively poor in land- 
shells. No Cyclostomacea have ever been found in this part of 
Africa, and the large Achatintc and their allies were entirely 
wanting in the country traversed, although they appear to have 
been found further to the southwest, near Lake Dembea. 
No new species are described. 



Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy. Vol. XXIV. Part XI 

Dublin, 1860. 

On the Histology of the Test of the Class Palliohranchiata. 
By Prof. W. King. 

Conchologla Iconlca. Parts 282, 283. London, IS'ZO. 

Anodon. Plates 25 — 37. Completing the monograph. 

The following are described as new : 

^4. tricostatus, Sowerhy. China. 

A. Rio Flatensis, Sowerhy. Rio de la Plata. 

As A. alatus, Lea, is figured and described the Spatha alata 
of Lake Nyassa. The difference between A. imbecillis Lea and 
A. incertus Say are carefully pointed out, but the two species 
are identical nevertheless. 

Species 103, A, Burroughianus, Lea, from Isl. Luconia near 
Manilla, has a curious synonymy, namely, A. ohlitus, Lea, from 
East Tenn. and a A. kennicottit Lea, from Great Slave Lake ! 

Sp. 106, A. pholadiformis, Sowerby, N. Sp. from Montreal. 
I do not think this is distinct from A. irisans, Anth., published 
in this Journal, vol. 1. 

Sp. 107, A. subgibbbsus, Anthony " MSS." Published in this 
Journal, vol. 2, 144, 1866. 

Sp. 110,^. quadriplicatiis, Sowerby, Nov. Sp. Potomac River, 
is not even an Anodonta ; it is known in this vicinity under the 
name of Margaritana undulata, Say, is one of the commonest 
and best known of American species, and has been figured by 
Sowerby already under the latter specific name. 

Sp. 112, A. Williamsii, Lea. It is possible that this is a 
strangely formed young shell of that species, for the figure is of 
that convenient style of execution that will allow of a reference 
to almost any species. It is not half the size of an adult Wil- 
liamsii and its beaks are much too prominent. The river Poto- 
mac is not in Georgia, as stated by Sowerby. 



292 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

Anodon triangularis, Lea, Sp. 56, is a Margaritana. 

Sp. 115, A. ciconia, Gould, the two figures represent different 
species, the upper one being correct. Even the comprehensive 
locality "United States" will not cover this species, which is 
Mexican, but scarcely a synonym of A. trapezialis, Lam., as sup- 
posed by Dr. Lea in the new edition of his Synopsis. 

Sp. 122, A. Cumingii, Lea, is a Monocondyloea. 

Sp. 124, A. brevis, Sowb., Nov. Sp. Rio de la Plata. 

Sp. 135, A. cochlearis, Sowb., Nov. Sp. Hab — ? 

Sp. 137, A. Sohomburgianus, SoAvb., Nov. Sp. Brit. Guiana. 

Sp. 138, A. virens, Lea. Two localities are given — ^" River 
Euphrates," which is incorrect, and " Red River. Alexandria." 
Which Alexandria is meant is not stated, but if "Louisiana" be 
added, the latter locality will be correct. I suspect that an 
Egyptian habitat was intended by Sowerby. 

Sp. 140, A. Henri/ana, Lea, correct locality from Tamanlipas 
to Tamaulipas, Mexico. 

Sp. 150, A. Pepinianus, we are informed is found in " Lake 
Pepin, County Ohio." 

Sp. 152, A. giga7iteus, Lea. The shell previously figured 
(sp. 18) under this name, is A trapezialis, Lam. 

I here take leave of Sowerby's Unionidae, I trust forever. 
The series of monographs composing it certainly contain more 
errors than any other work on Natural History that I have ever 
seen. 

ScuTUS. 2 plates. Complete. 

TuGALiA. 1 2^late. Complete. 



FRENCH. 



Journal de Conchyliologie. Paris, July, 18V0. 87 pp. with 1 colored and 
two uncolored plates. 

Note sur quelques especes du genre Doris d^crites par Cuvier. 
By P. Fischer. 

Habitat parasitaire des Mollusques — MoUusques parasites 
des Holothurics. By Dr. A. Manzoni. 

Diagnoses Mollusconim novorum, reipublica^ Mexicance et 
Quate^aalai incolorum. By H. Crosse and P. Fischer. 

Limax Gruatemalensis, Zonites Tehuantepecensis. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 293 

Description de troisespeces nouvelles iV Helix cC Espagne. By 
Dr. J. G. Hidalgo. 

Helix Montserratensis, Helix Zapatcri. 

He lix sem ip ieta . 

Diagnoses Molluscorum Novce-Caledonice incolarum. By 
H. Crosse. 

Scaliola Caledonica, Helix multisulcata. 

Description d'esp^ces nouvelles de C'oquilles marines des cotes 
d' Australie. By John Brazier. 

Conus Cooki, Conns Rossiteri. 

Diagnoses Molluscorum novorum. By H. Crosse. 

Bulimus Kulinholtzianus. Montevideo, 

Purpura porphyroleuca. Tahiti. 

Troplion Petterdi. Tasmania. 

Fossarina Petterdi. Brazier MSS. Tasmania. 

Marginella Angasi. " " " 

Description d'especes nouvelles provenant de Vile Maurice. 

By E. LlENARD. 

Conus Julii, Leptoconchus Rohillardi. 

Note sur le Pkysa capiUata, de Vile de Crete. By J. B. Gas- 

SIES. 

Physa capillata. 
Note sur une espece nouvelle d' Avellana du lias superieur.. 

By E. DUMORTIER. 

Descriptions d'especes nouvelles du bassin de Paris. By Dr.. 
A. Bezancon. 

Description de Coquilles fossiles des terrains tertiaires infe- 
rieurs (continued.) By M. C. Mayer. 

Catalogue des Molhisques fossiles des Marnes hleues de Blot,, 
prls Antihes [Alpes-Maritimes.) By Alfred Bell. 

Description de plusieurs especes fossiles d' Auriculaces des 
terrains tertiaires superieurs. By M. R. Tournouer. 

Bibliographic. 

Revue et Magasin de Zoologie. Conducted by Guerin-Meneville. No. 3. 
1870. 

3Iollusques nouveaux, litiguex ou peu connus. By M. J. R. 
BouRGUiGNAT. Continued. 
20 



294 aaii^ukan journal 

Zonites cafoleias. Egypt. Z. Courqaiai. Barcelona, 

" Durandoianus. Algiers. "' Jaccet aniens. " 

" pictonicus. France. Helix Laurcnti. Almeria. 



Notes Malacologiques. Bj- Dr. A. Senoxer. (Transhiled from the Italian 
by Arm. Thielexs. 8vo, 6 pp. Bruxelles, 1870. 

This paper contains nothing but extracts from Prof. Strobel's 
■contribution to the "Acts" of the Natural History Society of 
Milan, Vol. xi, 1868, describing Helix Qiiyana and Vaginnlus 
Bonarieyisis from Buenos Ayres. 



Annals des Sciences Naturelles. &tb Series, Zoologie. Vol. XI. No3. 
1-4. 

Observations sur la fecondation des mollusques ceplialopodes 
du golfe de Gascogne. By M. A. La font. 



GERMAN. 



Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Konigliohen Zoologisch-botanlschen 
Gesselschaft in Wien. XIX. Vienna, 1869. 

Beitrage zur Fauna der Nicoharen. By Georg Ritter 
TON Frauenfeld. Part 8d. Mollusca. 

The geographical distribution of the species inhabiting the 
Nicobar Islands is carefully tabulated, to which is added copious 
notes on many of the species. 

Nachlese zu Tirol's Land-und Sasswasser Conchylieii. By 
ViNC. Gredler. 

This is an appendix to the author's papers on the Mollusca of 
'Tirol, published in the " Verhandlungen " for 1856—1859. 

Pupa Tirolensis, nov. spec. 



Systematisches Verzeichniss der in Deutscbland Lebendeu Binnen- 
Mollusken. By Carl Kreglixger. 8vo, 400 pp. Wiesbaden, 1870. 

This is a very complete account, apparently, of the land and 
fresh-water mollusca of Germany, prefaced by a very full list of 
authors cited. The bibliography of the three hundred and forty- 
seven species is very full, and copious remarks are made on lo- 
calities and station both in and out of Germany. At the end of 
the book is a table of distribution, dividing Germany into seven 
zoological provinces. 

The work. is careful and thorough, and will rank with Wein- 



OF t'ONCHOLOGY. 295 

kauff"s Mediterranean Mollusca, as one of the best of the m;tny 
useful works on Conchology produced during the past decade. 
The book maybe imported through any bookseller for about ten 
dollars currency, and it should be in the library of ever}' Con- 
chologist possessing an European collection. 



Archiv fur Naturgeachichte. Conducted by Dr. F. H. Troscliel. o5th 
year. 3d part. Berlin. 1869. 

The editor commences in this number his annual review of the 
conchological literature of the year 1868. 

36th year, part 1st. Berlin, 1870. 

Ueher den hydrostatisclien Ajyparat des Nautilus Pompilius. 
By Dr. Wilhelm Meigen. 



Bulletin de la Societie Imperiale des Naturalltistes de Moscou. 

No I, 1869. 

Ueher das Geruchsorgan der Cephalopoden. By Dr. D. 
Zernoff, (with two plates). 



Systematisches Conchylien-Cabinet von Martini und Chemnitz. 

Continued by H. C. Kiister, etc. Part 195. Nurnberg. 1869. 

The text and five colored plates continue the monograph of 
Veneridce. 

196th part. Nurnberg. 1869. 

The text continues Kiister's Monograph of Murex, and the 
plates illustrate Murex and Ranella. 

Murez angistoma, nov. sp. Loc. — ? 
" semidausus, nov. sp. Loc. — ? 
" pumilus, nov. sp. Loc. — ? 

197th part. Nurnberg. 1870. 

This number contains the continuation of the Monograph of 
Donax, with the following new species : 

D. siliqua, Romer. Locality unknown. 

198th part. Nurnberg, 1870. 

Contains continuation of the Monograph of Donax, with four 
colored plates. 

Donax lepidus, Romer. Loc. — ? 

There is also a continuation of the text of the monograph of 
Venus. 



296 AMERICAN JOUIINAL 

Novitates Conchologicae. Laud Conchylien. By Louis Pfeiffeh. Part 
36, completing VoL 3 ; with 3 colored plntes. Cassel. 1869. 

The plates illustrates Helices and Bidhni, principally Indian 
and Polynesian, 

Novitates Conchologicae. Supplement IIL Monographic derMoliusken- 
gattung Venus, Linne. By Dr. Edw. Romer. 22d, 23d parts, with six 
colored plates. 

Contains monography of Sunetta. 



A.mericaii, Journal of CtmrJioloqv. 1870. Tl.i) 




Biime-v & Bland . On Luujit a7 D enhfum of'MoTJiiscn 



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a.merio^:n^ 

JOURNAL OF CONCHOLOGY. 



NEW SERIES 



PUBLISHED BY THE 



CONCHOLOGICAL SECTION of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 

Vol. VI. 1870-71. Part 4. 

Annual Meeting Bee. 1st, 1870. 

Ten members present. 

Dr. Ruschenberger, Director, in the chair. 

Several additions to the Museum and Library were announced, 

The following papers, offered for publication in the Journal, 
were referred to committees : 

" Descriptions of Nudibranchiate Mollusca inhabiting Poly- 
nesia, No. 1." By Wm. Harper Pease. 

"Notes on some new forms of Terrestrial and Fluviatile 
Mollusca found in Trinidad." By R. J. L. Guppy. 

" On the Lingual Dentition of Pompholyx effusa." By W. 
G. Binney and Thomas Bland. 

" Palfeontological Notes." By T. A. Conrad. 

"On the Opercula of the family Strepomatidae." By W. D. 
Hartman, M. D. 

"Note on Waldheimia pulvinata, Gld." By J. G. Cooper, 
M. D. 

"Notes on Gadinia and llowellia." By J. G. Cooper, M. D. 

21 



298 



AMERICAN JOURNAL 



" Additions and corrections to Catalogue of Monterey Mol- 
lusca." Bj J. G. Cooper, M. D. 

"Notices and Reviews of New Conchological Works." By 
Geo. "W. Try on, Jr. 

The Annual Reports of the Recorder, Secretary, Conservator, 
Librarian and Publication Committee were read. (See Ap- 
pendix.) 

The following gentlemen were elected Officers of the Section 
for the ensuing year : 



Director, . 
Vice-Director, 
Recorder, . 
Secretary, . 
Treasurer, . 
Conservator, 



W. S. W. RUSCHENBERGER, M.D. 

GEO. W. TRYON, Jr. 

S. R. ROBERTS. 

REV. E. R. BEADLE. 

WM. L. MACTIER. 

EDW. J. NOLAN, M. D. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 299 



DESCRIPTIONS OF NUDIBRANCHIATB MOLLUSCA, IN- 
HABITING POLYNESIA. 



BY W. HARPER PEASE. 



The following series of nudibranchiate mollusca was collected 
by Mr. Andrew Garrett, and the drawings from which the fig- 
ures are taken were made by him from the living specimens, and 
may be relied on as strictly accurate. It will be noticed, that with 
few exceptions all the Genera heretofore described from the 
East Indies by Dr. Kelaart, Mr. A. Adams and Alder and Han- 
cock, inhabit Polynesia. I do not discover, however, that any 
one species is common to the two localities. Our knowledge at 
present is too limited to allow us to offer any idea as to the 
distribution of genera and species over the tropics, or compare 
them with those inhabiting the temperate regions. As the 
anatomy of the genera is worked out, especially of the widely 
diverse forms now included under genus Doris, which abound 
over Polynesia, it will be found necessary to separate many now 
confounded, especially those supposed to be common to the tropi- 
cal and temperate provinces. It becomes more evident from 
year to year, as our researches extend, that the distribution of 
the 'genera of shell-bearing mollusca is confined to isothermal 
lines, and such will prove to be the case with the above order, 
with few exceptions. 

Genus DORIOPSIS, Pease. 

Proc. Zool. Soc, London, 1860, p 32. 

The above genus, founded on a species inhabiting the 
Hawaiian Islands, has been confirmed by two others from south- 
ern Polynesia, which agree with the type in their generic char- 
acters, though specifically widely distinct. 

The genus may now be characterized as folloAvs : 
" Body oblong, oval, depressly convex above, surrounded 
equally on all sides by a flat, depressed marginal mantle, cover- 



300 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

ing the head and foot. Dorsal tentacles two, lamellate and re- 
tractile. Oral tentacles none. Branchiae simple, linear, pin- 
nate, surrounding the posterior end of the body, retractile into 
a semicircular slit." 

In the Transactions of the Zool. Soc, London, 1864, p. 124, 
Messrs. Alder and Hancock adopt the above name Doridopsis * 
for a genus inhabiting India. The species cannot be distinguished 
externally from the typical forms of Doris. The authors dis- 
- covered, however, that the mouth was suctorial, without teeth or 
jaws. From this peculiarity, I propose to distinguish it by the 
name of " Hanstellodoris," the names of both the authors being 
pre-occupied. 

I take occasion to note that the genus Phyllohrayichus (Alder 
and Hancock) Trans. Zool. Soc, London, 1864, p. 145, is 
synonymous with Polyhranchia (Pease) Proc. Zool. Soc, Lon- 
don, 1860, p. 141. This genus differs widely from any previ- 
ously described and may be easily recognized. The only differ- 
ence between the species described by Alder and Hancock from 
India and those inhabiting Polynesia, is that the branchial 
lobes on the former are slightly indented at their upper termi- 
nation. On examining several specimens after the original 
description was published, I came to the conclusion that the 
radiating lines enclosed in the lobes were not branchiae, and 
consequently changed the name of the genus to ^' Lobifera." 
As Messrs. Alder and Hancock have decided them to be true 
branchiae, the original name should be retained. 

DoRiopsis SCABRA, Pease. Plate 19, fig. 2, a, b, c 

Body coriaceous, subpellucid, pale orange yellow, oval, 
rounded above, slightly the widest at the middle, covered with 
minute filiform asperities.- 

Dorsal tentacles remote, oblong ovate, mucronate, erect, 
closely lamellate, retractile into simple cavities, peduncles short. 

Branchiae small, plumules 10, linear, pinnate, procumbent, 
decreasing in length either way from the two central ones, pro- 
jecting beyond the mantle posteriorly. Head without labial 
appendages. Foot oblong oval. Dorsal tentacles and branchiae 
colorless. 

Length, six-tenths of an inch. 

Habitat, Tahiti. 

Station, (under stones, in the upper region of the laminarian 
zone. Motions extremely sluggish. A.G.) 

* The letter d was dropped for the sake of euphony. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 



301 



DoRiopsis viRiDis, Pease. Plate 19, fig. 1, a, b, c. 
Proc. Zool. Soc, London, 1861, p. 244. 
We furnish a figure of this species in further illustration of 
the genus. 

? Triopa gracilis, Pease. Plate 19, figs. 3, a, b, c, d. 

Body elongate, narrow, rounded above, becoming laterally 
compressed behind the branchiae, and tapering to an acute point 
posteriorly, rounded in front ; subpellucid, pale cream color, and 
ornamented with small acute orange yellow papillse. 

Margin of the mantle provided with a series of tentacular pro- 
cesses, which are the largest in front, and diminishing gradually 
posteriorly. 

Head conspicuous and furnished with small cylindrical taper- 
ing appendages. 

Dorsal tentacles ovate, mucronate, coarsely obliquely lamel- 
lated, subretractile (so that the tips are only visible). Eyes 
distinct, immediately behind the tentacles. Branchial star about 
the middle of the body, very small, much narrower than the 
mantle, plumules eight, rounded, arborescent, and retractile into 
a simple common cavity. 

Vent a prominent tube. Foot very thin, pellucid, colorless, 
widest anteriorly, gradually tapering posteriorly, where it is 
wider and longer than the body. 

Length one inch. 

Habitat, Huaheine. 

Station, (on sea weed at low water mark. Motions lively. 

A. G.) 

Remarks. I refer the above species to genus Trio'pa with 
some doubt, being hardly probable that it is related generically 
to the species inhabiting Great Britian, on which the genus was 
founded. No species, so far as I can learn, has been described 
from the tropics. 

One has been discovered at the Cape of Good Hope and one 
from South Australia. 

Trevelyana picta. Pease. PI. 20, fig. 1. 

Animal pellucid, smooth, very delicate, considerably com- 
pressed, dorsal region much elevated at the middle, where it is 
also the widest, tapering either way, more suddenly posteriorly. 
Color pale watery white, and conspicuously marked with a few 
remote, bright orange red circular spots, some of which are 



302 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

elevated, forming rounded tubercles. Foot margined with orange. 
Dorsal tentacles small, compressed, oblong, ovate, tips rounded, 
erect and furnished with about twelve very oblique coarse 
lamellpe, retractile into simple cavities, the upper and anterior 
portions bright orange red. 

Labial tentacles fused into a veil, which is notched in front. 
Branchial star large, non retractile, wider than the body and 
consisting of twelve or more suberect, bipinnate plumules, of a 
narrow lanceolate form, encircling the vent, which is a simple 
orifice, rachis of the plumules bright orange red. Foot large, 
very thin, much wider than the body, truncate in front, widest 
on the posterior half, lance pointed behind and projecting con- 
siderably behind the body. 

Length, two and a half inches. 

Habitat. Island of Huaheine. 

GoNiOBRANCHUS ALBOMACULATUS, Pease. Plate 20, fig. 2, a,b,c. 
American Jour, of Conch., vol. 2, 1866, p. 204. 

BoRNELLA ARBORESCENS, Pease. Plate 20, fig. 3, a,b,c. 

Body smooth, subpellucid, elongate, rounded above, somewhat 
compressed, tapering posteriorly into a bifid tip. Branchial 
processes six on each side of the back, opposite, cylindrical, 
tapering to a point, the first trifid, the succeeding four bifid, and 
the last simple ; from the inner axillae of each process arises 
small, pinnate branchiae. The head furnished anteriorly with 
two stellated processes, the rays being about ten or twelve in 
number, unequal in size. Mouth just in front of the locomotive 
disk, and between the stellated processes. 

Tentacles compressed, lanceolate, pinnate, retractile into 
large cylindrical tapering sheaths, which terminate in four un- 
equal tapering branches. Foot or locomotive disk narrow and 
grooved. At the base of the tentacular sheaths are immersed 
two black specks, which, possibly, may be eyes. Color pale 
cream yellow, finely reticulated with orange and the upper por- 
tion of all the processes zoned with orange red. Foot color- 
less. 

Length, one and a half inches. 

Habitat. Tahiti. 

Remarks. In addition to the two species collected by Mr. 
Adams, during Voy. Samarang, on which the genus was founded, 
two others have been discovered inhabiting Ceylon and South 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 303 

Australia. The above is the most nearly allied to B. digitata 
(A. Ad.) from which it differs in the number and character of its 
branchial and tentacular processes, &c. 

As remarked by Mr. Adams, the animal lives on seaweed, for 
which its foot is adapted, is active and occasionally swims by 
rapid lateral undulations of its body. 

Placobranchus gracilis. Pease. Plate 21, fig. 1, a, b. 

Animal oblong, depressed, tapering posteriorly and truncate 
behind. Head broad, cordiform in front. Tentacles tapering, 
involute. Eyes black, on a slight prominence between the ten- 
tacles. Veil cordiform in front and slightly auriculate. Color 
cream yellow, with shades of a pale dove color, sides shaded with 
light ochre yellow. Tlie posterior end margined with violet, also 
the anterior edge of the head and veil. Tentacles annulated 
with violet near their tips and a shade of the same color beneath. 
The upper surface is closely ocellated with small, irregular sized, 
olivaceous yellow round dots, with whitish irides. Along the 
sides and on tlie front of the head the ocelli are larger, with 
bluirfh green pupils, black and white rings. The lower surface 
is bluish white and closely ocellated with irregular sized oliva- 
ceous yellow pupils and white irides. Branchiae deep grass 
green. 

Length, two inches. 

Habitat. Tahiti. 

Placobranchus variegatus, Pease. Plate 21, fig. 2, a,b. 

Animal smooth, elongate, oblong, truncate behind, sides nearly 
parallel, and slightly tapering posteriorly. Head large, broad, 
rounded and slightly emarginate in front. Tentacles large, 
grooved and blunt. Eyes approximating on a prominent tuber- 
cle, between the hinder bases of the tentacles. Veil well de- 
veloped, rounded in front, auriculate, with a slight anterior 
emargination. 

Color pale brownish grey, paler beneath. The upper part 
covered with closely set ocelli ; those on the mantle have ochre 
yellow pupils, and white irisis ; among them are interpersed a 
few black dots and rings. Along the sides, the pupils of the 
ocelli are rich yellow. The ocelli on the head have yellow pupils 
and white irisis. Beneath the ocelli are much more remote, and 
have black pupils. The branchiae are rich green. 

Length, tAVo and a half inches. 

Habitat. Island of Huaheine. 



304 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

Station, (on sea weed in sheltered places. They are very- 
active and when at rest the tentacles are recumbent, like the 
ears of a rabbit. A.G.) 

Ptbrogasteron marginatus, Pease. Plate 21, fig. 3. 

Mantle lobes, when spread out, oblong cordate, margins some- 
what waved. Tentacles stout, ear shaped and somewhat involute. 
On the interior surface of the mantle lobes, three pale lines 
radiate from the posterior part of the body on its left side and 
two on the right, one of the latter bifurcate, which probably are 
the branchiae. 

Color olivaceous green, gradually becoming greenish white 
beneath ; somewhat remotely dotted with black and opaque white. 

Mantle lobes margined with orange, white and black. There 
is a tinge of orange at the tips of the tentacles and an oblong 
white spot on each. The inner surface of the lobes is the same 
color as without, but paler and fewer spots. 

Length, two and a half inches. 

Habitat. Island of Huaheine. 

Pterogasteron rufescens. Pease. Plate 22, figs. 1, a,b,c. 

Animal rather slender, truncated behind. Color rufous brown 
passing into whitish beneath, and olivaceous brown on the head. 
Closely spotted with small, irregular, greenish white spots, which 
gives the ground color a reticulated appearance. 

Front of the head, in the region of the lips, white. Tentacles 
lineated with greenish white, and tinged with violet on their 
outer part. Mantle lobes edged with dark lead color, and an 
intramarginal orange line. Disk pale with opaque white spots. 
Inner surface of the lobes edged the same as outside, but the 
ground color is greenish lead, becoming paler centrally, with 
whitish spots, and remotely punctured with vermillion. Eyes 
pale with black pupils. 

Length, one and a quarter inches. 

Habitat. Tahiti. 

Pterogasteron nigropunctatus, Pease. Plate 22, figs 2, 
a, b, c, d. 
Mantle lobes rounded behind ; tentacles stout, upper lip 
bilobed ; locomotive disk small. Color olive green, clouded with 
darker, paler beneath, and finely reticulately veined with darker 
green. The whole surface with small irregular whitish spots 
and punctured with jet black, the latter small beneath, larger 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 305 

and crowded along the margins of the mantle lobes, and on the 
tentacles. The inner surface differs but slightly, being only 
much paler centrally and unclouded. 

Length, one inch. 

Habitat. Tahiti. 

Remarks. There is little doubt but that the branchiae in this 
genus are immersed in the surface of the mantle lobes, radiating 
in lines from the body, as in genus Placobranchus. 

Elysia grandifolia, E. punctata and E. coendea, (Kelaart) 
inhabiting Ceylon, belong to the above genus. The provisional 
name, Hydropsyche, proposed for the genus by Dr. Kelaart, 
being pre-occupied, the above will take precedence. 



306 AilLKKAN JOUKNAL. 



NOTES ON SOME NEW FORMS OF TERRESTRIAL AND 
FLUVIATILE MOLLUSCA FOUND IN TRINIDAD. 



BY R. J. LECHMERE GUPPY. 



Mr. Thomas Bland communicated in 1868, to the American 
Journal of Conchology (vol. iv, pt. 4), a memoir on the land 
shells of Trinidad and other islands. Since the discoveries 
referred to by Mr. Bland in that paper, I have detected some 
additional species, two of which appear to belong to genera pre- 
viously unknown. The descriptions of some of these shells 
have been published in the Proceedings of the Scientific Associa- 
tion of Trinidad for December, 1868 ; but further notice of 
them, and especially of the new genus Autonoe, may be of inter- 
est. Other species are now herein described for the first time. 

The genus Autonoe was created by me, in the publication above 
mentioned, for a shell which bears a certain resemblance to a 
Melampus, but differs from that genus, especially in its texture, 
which resembles that of a land-shell. 

I append the following technical diagnosis of the genus. 

AUTONOE, n. gen. Plate 17, Fig. 1. 

Testa tenuis, cornea, ovato-obconoidalis ; anfr. ultimus com- 
pressus, superne paulum angulatus ; spira brevis, conoidalis ; 
apertura elongata, angusta, ante paulum dilatata; peristoma 
simplex; columella valde torta, arcuata, plicis fortibus munita. 

Autonoe riparia, the species on which the genus is founded, is 
a nearly smooth ovate-obconoidal shell of about five whorls, 
whitish under a straw-colored epidermis. The aperture is nearly 
the length of the shell, widened below, the inner lip covered with 
a callus and furnished with a strong plait. The columella is 
strongly twisted. 

Length 10 mill., breadth, 6 mill. 

I found one example only on Mayaro Point, amongst the 
bushes, some ten or twelve feet above the highest limit reached 
by the waves of the sea, a habitat, it will be noticed, very simi- 
lar to that of the Auriculidce. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 807 



II. 



Two species of small heliciform land-shells, of which I gave 
descriptions in the Annals and Magr.zine of Natural History 
(•i ser. i, p. 440), under the names respectively of Zonites impli- 
cans, and Z. wnbratilis, require pictorial illustration to render 
clearer their differences. I take the opportunity of appending 
sketches of them.* Plate 17, figs. 2 and 3. 

Two other species present some resemblance to the Helix 
harpa of Say, and probably may be found to belong to the same 
group [Zoogenetes of Morse). These I have described in the 
Proceedings of the Scientific Association of Trinidad (Dec, 
1868), as Jlelix ierensis and H. cceca. Of the former, I append 
a sketch. PI. 17, fig. 4. H. cceca differs in being more elevated 
and less openly umbilicated, and in having a nearly circular 
rather than a lunate aperture. Mr. Ralph Tate has found H. 
ierensis in Venezuelan Guiana and St. Lucia, and in Nicaragua 
he has discovered an allied form [H. ccecoides, Tate). 

Jlelix hactricola, a species described by me in the Annals of 
Natural History (1. c), is of a very different type. The sketch 
(pi. 17, fig. 5), does not exhibit very clearly the character of the 
costellation, but it will serve to give an idea of the shape of the 
shell. The ornamentation is of the same character as that of 
H. rotimdata, Mlill., and H. perspeciiva, Say, and the shape of 
the whorls and umbilicus is also similar. H. hactricola is much 
more elevated ; but that character, although it might be scarcely 
in accordance with the existing technical definition of the group 
Patula (depressa, discoidea, vel turbinata), ought not, in my 
opinion, to exclude the Trinidad species from it. 



III. 

I have recently been fortunate enough to discover additional 
examples of Bulimulus aureolus. The specimens from which 
the species was described by me in the Annals and Magazine of 
Natural History (186G) were young and imperfect. The adult 
shell has 6| — 7 whorls; its lip is acute and slightly effuse. It 
is generally of the most beautiful transparent yellow, but I have 
found some white examples, and a banded variety is not uncom- 
mon. The latter bears considerable resemblance to B. multi- 

* There was an error in my original description of Z. umhratiUs. The 
umbilicus is not tvider than in Z. imph'cans, but it is deeper. The figures 
here ffiven are of extreme forms. 



308 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

fasciatus, but, on the whole, the nearest alliance of the species 
seems to me to be with B. poecilus, d'Orb. I think that the 
shell described by me as variety imperfectus may be referred to 
this species, rather than to B multifasciatus or Vincentinus. 
Another form of B. aureolus occurs in Tobago, specimens hav- 
ing been kindly furnished me by Governor Rawson, C. B. This 
variety (which I propose to call Bawsoni) is exceedingly remark- 
able as bearing the same relation to the Trinidad B. aureolus, as 
the Tobagan form of Bulimus ohlongus does to the Trinidad 
type of that species. There are, therefore, the following forms 
of Bulimulus aureolus : — 

Var. a typicus, (yellow). 

Var. /9 albescens, (white). 

Var. Y fasciatus, (banded). 

Var. d imperfectus, (small banded). 

Var. £ Baivsoni, (dead white with yellow umbilicus and apex). 

The following are the dimensions of a large example of the 
typical form : Length, 25 millimetres ; greatest breadth, 10 mill. ; 
height of aperture, 10 mill. 

I add a figure of var. e. PI. 17, fig. 6. 

A single example of Simpulopsis corrugatus, lately found by 
me, although not quite adult, has enabled me to ascertain the 
characters of the dentition of the genus, which resemble those of 
Succinea more than I had anticipated. The odontophore is 
moderately large, but the individual teeth are very minute, and 
resemble those of Succinea, particularly, perhaps, S. ovalis. 



IV. 

A visit recently made by me to the Cerros of Oropuche, in 
the eastern part of the northern chain of mountains of Trinidad, 
furnished me with tAvo new forms of Gasteropoda. In the same 
district, I found specimens of the Diplommatina, previously dis- 
covered near the Maracas water-fall. Its occurrence in the almost 
untrodden mountains of Oropuche impressed me strongly in favor 
of its claims to be considered an indigenous and not an intro- 
duced species, a question upon which there has been some con- 
troversy. It seems to me improbable that an introduced species 
of so delicate a nature as the Diplommatina should be found so 
far up in these forest-clad hills. 

In the present communication, I include an account of a new 
Planorhis, a Buliminus, and an Ancylus, lately found by me in 
Trinidad. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 309 

Hyalina alicea, n. sp. 

Shell depressed, planorbiform, •white, rather evenly convex 
above, and openly umbilicate beneath; whorls 5 — 6, subcarinate 
rather below the middle, marked by close and fine sinuate lines 
of growth, the last whorl descending more than the others ; 
apex scarcely above the level of the penultimate whorl ; aperture 
rather semioval, narrowed above and produced in breadth by the 
imperfect carination of the whorl ; lip sharp ; peristome pro- 
duced above and retreating below ; umbilicus open, showing all 
the whorls. Greatest breadth 8 millimetres, height 2^ mill. 

In shape, this shell approaches H. concolor, Fer., but its color 
is more nearly that of Macrocyclis concava, and in size it is 
much smaller than either of those species. It is not altogether 
unlike the S. skiaphila of D'Orbigny's South American shells, 
but it diifers in being flatter and in the tendency to carination 
of the whorls. 

BLANDIELLA, n. gen. 

Testa imperforata, cylindrica, cornea, vix nitens, anfr. nume- 
rosi, convexiusculi, lente accrescentes, sinuato-costellati ; ulti- 
mus paulum productus ; apex obtusus, truncatus ; apertura sub- 
ovalis ; peristoma expansum, continuum, paulum reflexum. Oper- 
culum paucispirale, interne cartilagineum, externe calcareum, 
rugosum. 

Testa G-eomelanice similis, sed sine appendice linguiforme. 

This genus is allied to Gfeomelania, from which it is distin- 
guished by the peculiar operculum, and the want of a linguiform 
appendage to the labrum. 

Blandiella reclusa, n. sp. PI. 17, figs. 7 and 8. 

Shell cylindrical, whitish-horny, rather solid; whorls 5 — 6 
when adult, about 4 having been lost by truncation ; each whorl 
adorned with about 30 fine, slightly-sinuate riblets ; peristome 
white, shining, thickened, continuous, somewhat reflected, espe- 
cially anteriorly. Operculum pauci-spiral, the outer surface cal- 
careous and roughened by a series of somewhat irregular elongate 
tubercles or ridges, highest near the outer margin ; the inner 
cartilaginous layer forming thin edges beyond the outer layer. 
Length of shell (exclusive of the part lost by truncation) 7 mill., 
greatest breadth 2J mill. 

I have examined the lingual dentition of this species, and it 
seems to me to indicate that the proper place of the genus (prob- 
ably with all the Aciculida> and Tnincatellidce) is intermediate 
between the Cyclophoridce and the Paludmidce. I should, there- 



810 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

fore, place it provisionally in the Plianej'opneumona, in a sepa- 
rate order from the Rhipidoglossal mollusks allied to Cyclostoma 
and HellGina. 

Hyalina alieea and Blandiella reclusa have hitherto only been 
found on the Oropuche mountains. 

BuLiMiNus PiLOSUS, n. sp, Plate 17, fig. 9. 

Shell oblong conic, rather thin ; horny-brown-colored, cov- 
ered with a fine, but not very close pubescence ; whorls about 
6, rather ventricose, and separated by a deep suture, the last 
whorl forming nearly two-thirds of the length of the shell; 
apex obtuse ; aperture oval, slightly oblique ; peristome acute, 
columella broadly reflected over the deep umbilicus. Length 
14 mill., breadth 7 mill., height of aperture 6 mill. 

This species (which I refer to the same genus as B. montanus 
and B. obscurus) is related to a form collected in Venezuelan 
Guiana by Mr. -Tate, and, so far as I know, undescribed as yet. 
But the latter has a very close pubescence, arranged in fine 
spiral lines. It is also larger, and its peristome is thickened 
and everted, a feature I have not observed in our shell. The 
Venezuelan shell forms a white calcareous epiphragm. The 
only species of d'Orbigny's which bear any resemblance to B. 
pilosus are B. crepundia and B. trichodes, whose proportions are 
much more elongate. 

The genus BuUminus does not seem to be represented in the 
West Indies, unless the shell now described, and that from Do- 
minica, named by me B. stenogyroides, should prove to belong to 
it, which I think probable. 

Planorbis meniscus, n. sp. 

Shell depressed, brownish horn-colored, diaphanous, gently 
convex above ; apex sunk, base slightly concave ; whorls about 
5, rounded above, flattened beneath ; aperture nearly semilunate, 
its basal margin nearly straight, owing to the flattening of the 
whorls. 

The Planorbis now described approaches nearest to P. parop- 
seides, a species described by d'Orbigny, from South America. 
In the form of the whorls and aperture, there is much resem- 
blance between these species, but ours differs in being larger and 
thicker. My largest specimen measures 6 mill, in extreme width, 
and its greatest thickness (= height of last whorl) is 1^ mill. 

Chatham River, Erin., Trinidad. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 311 

Ancylus textilis, n. sp. PI. 17, figs. 9, 10, 11. 

Shell suboval, rather depressed, thin, horny-brown-colored, 
minutely decussate; apex recurved towards the right margin, 
Avhich it approaches rather closel3^ A large example measures 
in length G mill., in breadth 4 mill. 

This Ancylus is near to A. culicoides, d'Orb., from Guayaquil, 
but most of my examples are of more oval figure, and the apex 
is generally more decidedly recurved. There is considerable 
variation in the proportions of the shell, some examples resem- 
bling A. concentrieus, d'Orb. Small specimens are liable to a 
peculiar monstrosity, consisting in the development of a plate, 
joining more or less extensively the margins of the aperture. 
This plate is usually slightly convex, and when, as in some cases, 
only a small opening is left for the exit of the animal, the edges 
of the opening are a little produced and everted. Fig. 11 shows 
this form ; Fig. 10 shows the aperture partly closed; Fig. 9 is 
the upper surface. 

Chatham and Santa Cruz Rivers, Trinidad. 

Bland has suggested to me that Ancylus textilis is a Cfund- 
lacliia. In all the largest examples which I have seen, there is 
no trace of the septum commonly found in young shells, and 
occasionally present in older or medium-sized individuals, such 
as those of which I give figures. A number of young specimens, 
developed in my aquarium, showed the septum, but many of 
equal size had no sign of it. I should say, then, that my species 
is an Ancylus^ which has sometimes, in its young state, the pecu- 
liar character of Gundlachia, but rarely so in its older state. 



312 AMERICAN JOUKNAL 



ON THE LINGUAL DENTITION OF POMPHOLYX EFFUSA. 



BY THOMAS BLAND AND W. G. BINNEY. 



In the Annals of the New York Lyceum of Natural History, 
vol. ix, p. 290, we described and figured the lingual dentition of 
Pompholyx effusa. We now give a more detailed illustration on 
plate 18. 

The individuals examined were among the specimens from 
which the species was, in the first instance, described. They 
were received by us from the Smithsonian Institution, with Dr. 
Lea's original label. There can, therefore, be no doubt about 
their identity. 

The figures were obtained by photography, the negatives being 
taken directly from the microscope by our friend Mr. Sam. Powel. 
This process secures absolute accuracy up to the point of trans- 
ferring the outlines upon the lithographic stone. Here, of 
course, we are dependent upon the fidelity of the artist. 

To the description of the lingual already published, which we 
copy below, we have added more details regarding the recurved 
apex of the laterals. 

Lingual membrane broad, with 22.1.22 teeth. Central teeth 
long, narrow, widening and knobby at the base ; apex recurved, 
and produced into an obtuse beak. Laterals nine on each 
side of the central line, in a straight, transverse row, wide, quad- 
rate, apex recurved, prolonged beyond the base of the tooth in 
a more or less broad blunt beak, which is normally furnished at 
either side with a short, sharp denticle. Marginals about thirteen 
on each side of the median line, in oblique, transverse rows, not 
attached to a plate, simple and not recurved ; the first eight from 
the extreme lateral edge of the membrane long, narrow, arm- 
shaped, terminating in a wrist-like contraction and hand-like 
expansion, strongly digitate. The remaining marginals gradu- 
ally changing into the shape of the laterals, but still not merging 
into them, the line of demarcation being strongly marked. 

There is great variation in the beak-like projection of the re- 
curved apex of the laterals, and still more in the digitation of 
the marginals. 



OF CONCIIOLOGY. 313 



Reference to Plate 18. 

Figure C represents the central tooth and one complete series 
of laterals on the upper line ; the lower line gives only the fourth 
to the ninth lateral with the first marginal. 

Figure A represents a group of teeth to illustrate the merging 
of the laterals into the marginals. The numerals on this and 
the other figures give the count of the teeth from the central line. 

Figure E gives one line of teeth from the sixth lateral to 
within two teeth of the extreme edge of the membrane. It illus- 
trates the passage from the laterals through the five intermediate 
marginals into the eig-ht extreme marginals, as described above. 

Figure B shows several of the outer marginals from another 
portion of the membrane. 

All the figures mentioned above are from the same membrane. 
Fig. D is drawn from another membrane. It gives portions of 
two lines of teeth, showing centrals and most of the laterals. 
These last owe, perhaps, their appearance to hard usage or acci- 
dent, but, as already observed, there is great variety in the re- 
curved apex of the laterals. 



22 



314 AMERICAN JOURNAL 



PALiEONTOLOGICAL NOTES. 

BY T. A. CONRAD. 

1. Figure and Reference to Fasciolaria suhtenta. 

FASCIOLARIA, Lam. 
F. SUBTENTA, Coiirad. PL 13, fig. 3. 

Proceed. Acad. Nat. Sciences, 1864, p. 211. 

2. Synopsis of tlie Eocene species of Catinus. 

CATINUS, Link. 

C. BiLix. PL 13, fig. 4, 7. 

Obliquely oval, stria numerous, close, wrinkled ; volutions 4, 
convex ; spire very small, apex pointed ; aperture effuse, oval, 
umbilicus small. 

C. hilix^ Conrad. x\.mer. Journ. Science, vol. xiii, p. 344, 
July, 1833. 

Natica striata Lea. Contrib. p. 105, pi. 4, fig. 88. 

Var. decUvus, fig. 2. Slightly flattened on the disk towards 
the ventral margin ; strise very fine, shell rather thick. 

The sculpture varies ; in some specimens the lines are broad 
and divided by minute lines, in others the lines are fine, unequal 
or alternated and somewhat waved. This species probably agrees 
with the subgenus JVaficina, Gray. 

C. ARCTATUS. PL 13, fig. 6. 

Discoidal, thin, flattened anteriorly, volutions 4, sculpture 
consisting of minute, unequal, much-wrinkled lines; base flat- 
tened or slightly concave, umbilicus closed in adult specimens 
by the reflexed labium ; aperture oval, patulous. 

Sigaretus arctatus, Conrad, Foss. Shells of Tert. p. 45, Aug. 

1833. 
Locality. Claiborne, Ala. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 315 

3. Description of a new Fresh- Water and a Land Shell of the 
Oregon Tertiary/. 

HELIX, Lin. 
Subgenus Zonites, Montf. 
11. MARGINICOLA, Conrad. PI. 13, fig. 9. 

Depressed ; spire scarcely raised above the margin of the last 
volution ; whorls 6, convex-depressed ; shoulder of last whorl 
subangular ; umbilicus small ; aperture obliquely subquadrate. 

PLANORBLS. 

Subgenus Spirorbis ? Swains. 

P. LUNATUS, Conrad. Pj. 13, fig. 8. 

Spire profoundl;y depr essed with a subangular margin ; um- 
bilicus with a rounded margin, profound, and exhibiting 6 volu- 
tions ; aperture narrow, lunate. 

Locality. Bridge Creek, Oregon. 

Dr. Leidy informs me that these two shells were found by 
Rev. Thomas Condon, of Dallas City, Oregon. They were in 
the same rock which -contains the remains of Oreodon sitperbus, 
Leidy, Lopldodon and llliinoceros. 



316 AMERICAN JOURNAL 



ON THE OPERCULA OF THE FAMILY STREPOMATID^. 



BY W. D. HARTMAN, M. D. 



Having enjoyed facilities for the comparison of large quanti- 
ties of operculse of the various genera of the family Strepomatidaj, 
undertaken chiefly with a view to discover diiferences that might 
exist in this organ between allied species, I find it exhibiting as 
a family trait a homogeneousness of structure not usual in mol- 
luscous animals. In speaking of the operculse of this family 
writers usually designate them as corneous. They probably 
differ from true horn in the larger percentage of siliceous or cal- 
careous matter entering into their composition, a condition 
inferred from their brittleness and the ability with which they 
resist corroding influences. The organ in question, upon which 
so much of the safety of this helpless little mollusk depends, is 
secreted from small grooves or folds in the columellar margin of 
the operculigerous lobe, situated on the posterior part of the 
foot of the animal. These grooves are successively developed 
during the several stages of growth, and are more readily seen 
in the foot of an alcoholic specimen of some of the larger species 
from which the operculum has been forced off than in one perfectly 
fresh. The operculum is composed of semi-concentric or paucis- 
spiral laminae or plates, each of which (as the animal matures) is 
more narrow and thicker next the columella and becomes wider 
and thinner as they approach the junction of the la brum with 
the body whirl. At every stage of growth the new lamina 
(which is partly overlapped by the preceding one) describes a 
larger arc of a circle, which imparts the paucis-spiral or fan- like 
form to the adult operculum. The imbricated arrangement of the 
lamina, visible to a certain extent by transmitted light under a low 
power, is more strikingly developed after boiling the operculum 
for a few moments in liquor potassa and moderate compression 
between two pieces of glass. It will then be evident that this 
organ is composed of semi-concentric plates, which are renewed 
from the columellar margin of the proligerous lobe, each layer 
being within and partly beneath the preceding one, like tile on 
a roof. Each plate is thicker on the columellar margin and tapers 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 



317 



off to a very thin edge, which, in its turn, is overlapped by the 
thick columeHar margin of the preceding plate. The usual form 
of the operculum of such Strepomatids as I have examined is 
oval or subtriangular, embracing a spiral of three or four turns, 
the polar point being near the base, but they are subject to such 
great deviation that, of large numbers belonging to t^e genera 
G-oniohasis, Euryccelon, Schizostoma and Leptoxis, the usual form 
is that of a sub-spiral, the central lamina exhibiting the spiral 
character, having become abraded or worn off. In the genera 
Tnjpanostoma, Strephobasis, Lithasia and io, the operculum is 
similar in structure to the genera before mentioned, the shape in 
Trypanostoma being usually oval, while in the latter it is sub- 
triangular. In these genera it is stouter in proportion to the 
size, more coarsely laminated, less elastic and with an oval de- 
pression at the polar point, its small size enabling the animal to 
retire to a position far within the aperture, where the closure 
becomes perfect. It would seem that the central portion of the 
operculum, having been secreted in the earlier stages of the ani- 
mal's existence, the plates of Avhich it is composed are thinner 
and more elastic at this point, and owing to the continued action 
of the foot in closing the aperture, the concavity is produced 
which is observed in these genera. In several genera the oper- 
cula, when dried, present a more or less twisted appearance, 
which is due to their varying thickness and the shape of the 
aperture into which they are forcibly drawn by the animal during 
their growth. 

In G-oniobasis Showalteri. Lea, and Leptoxis rubiginosa^ Lea, 
this organ, in some individuals inhabiting still water, presents a 
continuous growth. The earlier formed laminae, of which it is 
composed, is pushed off from the proligerous lobe in the direction 
of the labium, forming a free margin as in the human nail ; in such 
specimens the spiral character of the operculum is absent, th s 
organ forming a long wedge-shaped ribbon, tbe free end of which 
coils inward, partly by the force of its own elasticity, but chiefly 
from the direction given by the imbricated arrangement of its 
laminae.* In many specimens of operculae the polar point men- 
tioned by authors is not the centre of the spiral, the centre hav- 
ing been broken off in the continuous growth just alluded to, but 
that which is taken for the polar point is a folding or partial 
twisting upon itself near the base of the aperture of each plate 
of which it is composed, constituting, in the great majority of 
instances, the form met with in the genera Gromobasis, Euryccelon, 
Schizostoma and Leptoxis. With these genera the margin of the 

* See Lea's Obs., vol. 9, page 42, pi. 24, fig. 4. 



318 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

operculum in contact with the labrum is generally more or less de- 
tached from the foot; it is also much thinner and more elastic at 
this point, an arrangement conducing to greater flexibility, and, 
as a consequence, the animal is enabled to retire farther within 
the aperture where the closure becomes complete. 

In Leptoxis Foremanii, Lea, that portion of the operculum in 
contact with the labrum presents a beautiful, serrated appear- 
ance (plate 21, fig. 4), and is the only one of this character ob- 
served in the examination of a wide range of species. The color 
of the opercul^ of the Strepomatid(c, when viewed by transmitted 
light, is usually a dark reddish brown, while a few are of a pale 
brown or a light yellow color. In the adult operculum, beside the 
whole inner surface being strengthened by a general deposit from 
the operculigerous lobe, there are often two or three bands running 
from the polar point towards the superior angle, and some of the 
larger species of Goniohasis and Scliizostoma present, on their 
inner surface, fasciculi of irregular, radiating striae, which seem- 
ingly strengthen the attachment of this organ to the operculi- 
gerous lobe. 

In foreign 3Ielanida> the growth and structure of the opercu- 
lum is similar to the Strepomatidce, except that it is more finely 
laminnte and the spiral character is always present, a condition 
probably owing to their inhabiting still water, while the Strepo- 
matids are generally denizens of rapid and rocky streams. So 
far as I have examined, with one exception,* the number of 
spiral turns in the operculum of native and foreign 3Ielanic7is bear 
no relation to the number of whirls in the shell, the deposit of 
the semi-concentric plates being seemingly limited only by the 
growth of the animal and the necessity for a perfect closure of 
the aperture of the shell. 

The spiral character of the operculum indicates the design 
(so far as it relates to the external covering in this family) to 
carry out the bi-lateral form. 

When the animal retires within the shell the posterior half of 
the body is folded on the anterior, resembling, in its action, the 
shutting of a clasp-knife, after which the head and body is with- 
drawn, leaving the operculum, which is situated on the end of the 
tail, to close the aperture. 

* In Mtlania Largillierti, Phil., the number of turns in the shell and 
operculum correspond, being seven in each. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 319 



NOTE ON GADINIA AND ROWELLIA. 



BY J. G. COOPER, M. D. 



In Mr. Ball's late article on G-adinia he founds his description 
wliollj on the species which is the type of Mowellia, and assumes 
that all former investigators must have been mistaken, because 
their types did not agree with that before him. A naturalist as 
cautious in associating similar shells without comparing the soft 
parts, might have better hesitated before asserting that Dr. Gray, 
Dr. Philippi and the Adams were all mistaken, because there is a 
similarity in the shells of the species described and figured by 
them, to the one which he has alone examined. It is certainly 
7iot proved by his assertions that the species are congeneric. 

The young living specimens found by me at Catalina Island, on 
which I founded Roivellia, were living on the under sides of 
stones, between tides, and Avere submerged during part of the 
day. Not having means for more than a sketch of their ex- 
ternal form I made one, resembling that on plate 2, fig. 6. The 
tentacles in this appear as if "pectinated" or divided in a ser- 
rate manner. On comDarison of this with the animal figrured 
by the Adams as a Gadinia, (which we may suppose was drawn 
by one of them from life, while on one of his tropical collecting 
tours), the differences are so marked that I proposed the sub- 
genus Rowellia for our species, in honor of the zealous concholo- 
gist who first obtained it in California. Now, according to Mr. 
Dall's own table of synonyms, all preceding names were founded 
on the Mediterranean species (except, perhaps, Muretia^ D'Orb., 
preoccupied by Gray as Mouretia.) It is, therefore, still to be 
proved that Rowellia, of which the anatomy is so well described 
by Dall, is not a good genus. 

As to its specific identity with the tropical " Cr. reticulata, 
Sby.," I will not pretend to decide, but as that species is "reti- 
culate " above, and ours simply radiately ornamented or ribbed, 
(with occasional concentric lines of growth crossing the rays), it 
appears safest to consider tiiem distinct until better means of 
comparison are offered. In the Fissurellidce great importance 



320 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

is attached by Carpenter himself to minute details of sculpture, 
and I have found species, in that family and others, of which 
the shells are scarcely distinguishable, to differ generically in 
the soft parts. 

Mr. Dall says that the " tentacles are consolidated and lost in 
the expanded lobes of the muzzle." He then proceeds to name 
these lobes "ears," although they undoubtedly serve the pur- 
pose of tentacles, that is, for touch, while their auditory func- 
tion is doubtful, though possible. His highly magnified figure 
shows that, instead of being pectinated, the serrated marks are 
merely colored, (or indicate internal folds, if I understand him.) 

It is certain that in my young ones the tentacles were sub- 
circular, and appeared from above flat and lobed. 

It is quite possible that the young animal is different in form, 
and really branchiate, afterwards leaving the water and becom- 
pulmonate. I have found the adult at Santa Cruz above the 
highest tides as described by Mr. Dall. Larval differences exist 
among mollusca, quite as strange, and are familiar to us in the 
higher Batrachia. 



NOTE ON "WALDHEIIVriA PtJLVINATA, GLD. 



BY J. G. COOPER, M. D. 

In Mr. Ball's recent review of the Terehratulidce he makes 
the statement that the range of distribution given by me, in my 
Geographical Catalogue, for the above species, namely : "Puget's 
Sound to the Arctic Sea," is ■•' entirely gratuitous." 

If Mr. Dall (and others) will look at Dr. P. P. Carpenter's 
report to the Brit. Assoc, for 1863, p. 586, they will find " T. 
pulvinata^ Gld., Arctic Ocean, gravel 30 fms.,'' as collected by 
Dr. W. Stimpson, and determined by Dr. Gould himself (p. 583). 
They may also rest assured that I can give good authority for 
all the ranges of species in the Catalogue. 



OF CONCHOLOOY, 



321 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS TO THE CATALOGUE OF 
MONTEREY MOLLUSCA, PUBLISHED IN THE AMERI- 
CAN JOUR. CONCHOLOGY, VOL. VI, PART 1, p. 49. 



BY J. G. COOPER, M. D. 

Having lately received from Dr. Carpenter a number of speci- 
mens sent to him for identification, I find eighteen additions to 
my Catalogue of California Shells, and the following particularly 
relating to my Monterey collection : 

Original No. 462. Cat. No. 80. Clementia subdiaphana, Cpr. 
Range, Str. Fuca to S. Diego. One valve dredged 20 fms. 
Also southward. 

0. No. 373. C. No. 141. Cryptodon serrieatus, Cpr. Str. Fuca 
to Monterey. Cat. I. 3 dredged 80 fms., living. 

C. No. 594. Alvania reticulata, Cpr. Neeah Bay to Monterey. 
One dead. 

C. No. 599. Barheia haliotiphila, Cpr. Monterey (to Lower 
Cal. ?) One dead. 

C. No. QQl. Odostomia nuciformis, " var. nitens,'" Cpr. Mon- 
terey. One dead. 

O. No. 427. C. No. 662. Odostomia satura, Cpr. Neeah Bay 
to Monterey. One dead, bch. ("Not 0. gravida, Gld.") 

C. No, 606. Odostomia straminea, Cpr. Monterey to Lower 
Cal. 1 dead. 

0. No. 1162. C. No. 680. Chemnitzia Gahhiana, Cpr. Is a 
form of No. 678, teste Carpenter. 

0. No. 459. C. No. 681. Also considered a var. of C. tor- 
quata, by Carpenter. 

0. No. 421. C. No. 683. Considered a form of 671, C. triden- 
tata, by Carpenter. 

C. No. 704. Cerithiopsis munita, Cpr. Neeah Bay to Cata- 
lina Id. Rare, dead. 



322 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

0. No. 515. C. No. 776. Muricidea squamuUfer, Cpr. "Pro- 
bably ^^= foveolata, Hds., but Barharensis, Gabb, proba- 
bly = perita, Hds., both from Lower Cal." 

I thus add eight species to the list, drop one, and reduce four 
to varieties, making the total for Monterey two hundred species. 



Corrections — Page 56 et seq. 

By some unaccountable mistake, the sign f before Catal. Nos. 
246, 249, 253, 427, 503, 586, 765, 766, was changed by the 
printers to *, so that they appear to have been discovered at 
Monterey instead of elsewhere, though Santa Cruz is correctly 
given as the locality, and the table requires eleven f marks. 

Page Q6, No. 680. Omit the words " Carpenter's list." 

Note. The following should have their northward range ex- 
tended to Bodega Bay, lat. 38° 15', where Dr. Newcomb and 
Mr. Stearns collected them, (see list in Proc. Cal, Acad. Sci., 
Ill, 382, 1868) : Nos. 48, 108, 114, 178, 179, 452, 460, 470, 
475, 518, 539, 624, 628, 664, 693, 733. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 323 



NOTICES AND REVIEWS 

OP 

NEW CONCHOLOGICAL AYOEKS. 

BY GEO. W. TRYON, JPw • 



BRITISH. 



Report of the Thirty-ninth Meeting of the British Association for 
the Advancement of Science ; held at Exeter in August, 18G9. 8vo. 
London. 

On the Land and Fresh-ivater Mollusca of Nicaragua. By 
Ralph Tate. 



Conchologla Indica ; beirEc illustratious of the Land and Fresh-water Shells 
of British India. Edited by Sylvants Haxley and William Theobald. 
Part l,4to, 20 plates, colored. London, 1870. 

A very valuable and much-needed work, prepared by gentle- 
men who thoroughly understand their subject. The text does 
not include descriptions, but full synonymy and localities. 



Annals and Magazine cf Natural History. Vol. 5, No. 30. London, 
June, 1870. 

On some Species of Prohoscidiferous G-asteropods lohicli in- 
luibit the Seas of Japan. By Arthur Adams. 

This paper is a continuation of a list of Japanese Gasteropods 
noticed by me on several previous occasions. 

The species of the families Tritonidas, Buccinida^, Fasciolari- 
idjfi, Volutidse, Cassidte, Doliidge and Sycotypidse, collected by 
the author, are enumerated. The folIo\Ying are new : 
Simpulum lirostoma, Epidromus reticosus, 

" papillosum, Volutharpa Fischeriana, 

" nodiliratum, Zeuxis clandestina, 

" tringa, Cyllene gibba. 

Cabestana dorsuosa. 



324 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

Mr. Adams remarks that Buc. Yessoensis, Schrenck, and Eu- 
thria badia, A. Ad., belong to Stimpson's genus Urosalpinx, 
first described in this Journal. 

Norwegian 31ollusca. By J. Gwyn Jeffreys. 

This paper gives a list, with remarks, of a large number of 
species dredged by the author at Drobak in Christianiafiord. 

The fry of Isocardia cor is proved, by a complete series of 
ages, to be identical with Kellia ahyssicola, Forbes, Venus mi- 
liaris, Phil., and Kelliella ahyssicola, Sars. " Some of Forbes 
^gean specimens, named by him Kellia ahyssicola, belong to 
Axinus ferruginosTHs, and others to the present species ; his de- 
scription will suit either," 

Naera obesa, Lov., is distinct from JV. cuspidata, to which 
latter the author referred it in his British Conchology. 

The animal of Scissurella crispata, Fleming (of which S. angu- 
lata, Loven, is a synonym), is described. 

Rissoa turgida, nov. spec. 

Cerithiiim pcrversum, Linn., belongs to the genus Trifoi'is. 

Taranis is the name of a new genus proposed for Trophon 
Morcld, Malm., = Bela demersa^ Tiberi. It has no opercu- 
lum ; the canal is very short and sculpture peculiar. 

Cylichna acuminata^ Brug., belongs to the genus Rhizorus, 
Montf., or Volvula, A. Ad. 

No. 31, July, 1870. 

Mediterrayiean Mollusea. By J. Gwyn Jeffreys. 

This paper embodies the results of several dredgings in vari- 
ous parts of the Mediterranean, principally from greater depths 
than heretofore examined. "Not the least interesting result 
from all these Mediterranean dredgings consists in the discovery, 
in a living or recent state, of several species which had previ- 
ously been known as fossil only, and were considered extinct. 
More extended investigation and gradual experience confirm my 
opinion, published eight years ago (Brit. Conch, i, Introd.), that 
probably all the Mollusea which lived during the periods repre- 
sented by our newer Tertiary strata still survive in some part or 
other of the European seas." 

Leda acuminata, Jeffreys. Nov. sp. 
Bentalium gracile, " " 

Hela. Nov. gen. type Lacuna tenella, Jeffreys. 
Odostoniia nitens, Jeffreys. Nov. sp. 
Actceon exilis, " " 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 325 

No. 32, August, 1870. 

On some Genera and Species of G aster op o do us MoUusca 
collected by 3Ir. M^Andreiv in the Gulf of Suez. By 
Arthur Adams. 

Ceratia pyrgula. Corena, n. gen. allied to Onoha. 
3Iicrostelma concinna. " tuherculifera. 

Rissoa gracilis. Styliferina callosa. 

Hyala nitida. Syrnola lucida. 

" concinna. Orina pinyuicula. 

" pu7nila. Styloptygma nivea. 

Diala succincta. Agatha vitrca. 

Scalenostoma Deshayesii, 3Iormula Macandrea^. 



FRENCH. 



Journal de Conchyliologie. Sd Ser. x, No. 3. Paris, July, 1870. 86 pp. 
8vo, with one colored and two plain plates. 

Note sur quelques especes du genre Doris dicrites par Cuvier. 
By P. Fischer. 

The author, comparing the types in the Museum of Natural 
History with the descriptions, makes the following determina- 
tions : 

Doris tuhcrculata. This is the same species as D. tuherculata 
"of Alder and Hancock. 

Doris stellata and D. Icevis, both = D. pilosa Miiller. 

Habitat parasitaire des Mollusques, — Blollusqiies parasites 
des Holothuries. By Dr. A. Manzoni. 

Diagnoses Molluscorum novorwn, reipublicce 3Iexican(x et 
Guatemalce incolarum. By H. Crosse and P. Fischer. 

Limax Guatemalensis. Zonites Tehuantepecensis. 

Description de trois especes nouvelles d'Helix d' Espagne. 
By Dr. J. G. Hidalgo. 

H. Montserratensis, IT. semipicta. 

H. Zapateri. 

Diagnoses Molluscorum Novce- Caledonice incolarum. By 
H. Crosse. 

Scaliola Caledonica^ Helix multisulcata. 

Description cV especes nouvelles de Coquilles marines des cotes 
d'Australie. By John Brazier. 

Conus Cooki, Oonus Rossiteri. 



326 AMERICAN JOURNAL 

Diagnoses Molluscorum novorum. Bj H. Crosse. 

Bulimus ICuhnhoUzianus, Trophon Petterdi^ 

Purpura ptorphyroleuca, Fossarina Petterdi, 

Marginella Angasi. 

Description d'especes nouvelles p>rovenant de Vile Maurice, 

By E. LlENARD. 

Conus Jidii, LeptoconcJius Rohillardi. 

Note sur le PJiysa capillata, de Vile Crlte. By J. B. Gas- 

SIES. 

Note sur une espece nouvelle d' Avellana du lias superieur. 

By E. DUMORTIER. 

Descriptions cFespeces nouvelles du hassin de Paris. By Dr. 
A. Bezancon. 

Description de Coquilles fossiles des terrains tertiaires infe- 
rieurs (continued). By M. C. Mayer. 

Catalogue des 3IoUusques fossiles des marnes bleues de Biot, 
pres Antihes [Alpes-Maritimes). By Alfred Bell. 

Description de plusieurs especes fossiles d' Auriculae h des 
terraines tertiaires superieurs. By M. R. Tournouer. 

Bihliograpliie. Nouvelles. 



Revue et Magasin de Zoologie. Conducted by Guerin-M^neville. No. 5. 

Paris, Ma^-, 1870. 

Mollusques nouveaux, litiguex ou peu connus. By M. J. R. 
BouRGUiGNAT. Continued. 

Helix Henoniana. Algiers. Limna>a Martorelli. Spain. 

Valvata Coronadoi, Spain. Sphcerium Hispanicum, " 



Actes de la Societe Linneenne de Bordeaux. 3d Ser. iv, Part 6. Bor- 
deaux, 1870. 

Description de Vile de Crete. By M. V. Raulin. 

In this paper is included a list of the terrestrial fluviatile and 
marine moUusks, as determined by Messrs. Deshayes and Gas- 
sies. 

Pliysa capillata.^ Gassies. Nov. spec. 

There are useful tables of the bathymetrical distribution of 
the species appended to the paper. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 327 

Vol. VII, Part 1. Bordeaux, 1870. 

Melanges Malacologiques. By M. C. Recluz. 

1. Table de la Classification des Mollusques lamelli- 
hranches. 

2. Monogi'aphie du genre Jagonia, Recluz^ 1853. 

This genus includes species described as Lucinas, and belong- 
ing to the type of Lueina pecten, Lam., L. reticulata, Poli, L. 
squamosa, Brug., L. muricata, Chemn., etc. 

3. Quelques observations sur les Littorines^ et catalogue 
des especes. 

4. Description du Souleyetia, nouveau genre de coquille 
bivalve. 

S. Moulinsii, Recluz. Isl. Borneo. 
This genus appears to be related to Anatina. 

5. Description de deux especes de Davignons. 

L. Deshayesii. Gulf of St. Tropes in Provence. 
L. Moulinsii. Languedoc and H^rault. 

The author includes in his genus three other species, viz., L. 
calcinella, Adanson, L. piperatus, Belon, L. lacteus, Lam., usu- 
ally known as Serobicularia. 

6. Qu'est-ce que le Turbo clathrus de Linne et le Venus 
decussata du mhne auteur ? 

7. Observations sur T Onchidium Celticum de Cuvier. 

8. Extract from a letter to Oh. des 3Ioulins, President of 
the Linjieen Society, on certain species of Solen, with 
an additional note relative to Sole^i curtus. 

Faune Conchyliologique marine du departement de la Gri- 
ronde. Supplement. By Dr. P. Fischer. 

This is an important addition to the author's work, published 
under the foregoing title, as it embraces one hundred and sixty- 
eight additional species inhabiting the south-east coasts of France, 
making the whole number catalogued three hundred and forty- 
six species. 



328 AMERICAN JOURNAL 



GERMAN. 

Systematisches Conchylien-Cabinet von Martini und Chemnitz. 

199th Part. 4to. Nurnberg, 1870. 

Contains continuation of monograph of" Venus, with plates 
35 — 38, illustrating the genus. 



Novitates Conchologicae. Supplement TIL Monographic der Mollusken- 
gattung Venus, Linn6. By Dr. Edward Romer. 24th and 25th Parts, with 
six colored plates. 

In this issue is commenced the monograph of the sub-genus 
Tapes. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 



329 



APPENDIX. 



LIBRARIAN" S REPORT. 



The Librarian respectfully reports that there have been pre- 
sented, during the past year, to the library of the Conchological 
Section, 104 pamphlets, 3 volumes and an almost complete suite 
of the publications of the Academy. Of these, 27 were received 
from Societies, 32 from Editors, 32 from Authors, 6 from Pub- 
lication Committee, from Geo. W. Try on, Jr., 2 from Isaac 
Lea, 1 from Prof. Marsh, and 1 from P. P. Carpenter. 

The Proceedings and Journal of the Academy were received 
from J. S. Phillips. 

In addition, 26 pamphlets and continuations of Conchological 
works have been received through the Academy. 

The work of transcribing the revised Catalogue of the Library 
lias been carried on during the year as rapidly as circumstances 
would permit. 

All of which is respectfully submitted, 

Edward J. Nolan, Lihrarian. 



CONSERVATOR'S REPORT. 



The Conservator of the Conchological Section respectfully 
reports that the donations to the Cabinet, during the year, have 
been as follows : 

From Rev. E. R. Beadle. Ten species of Mollusca, princi- 
pally from St. Martin's, W. I. 

H. F. Carpenter. Limnea columella, Say. from Providence, 
R. L 

23 



330 AMERICA?! JOURNAL 

J. C. Cox. One hundred and thirty-four species of Australian 
and Polynesian Land, fresh-water and marine shells. 

A. 0. Currier. A collection of land and fresh-water shells 
from Nicaragua^ including types of several new species form- 
ing part of the collections of the MncNiel Expedition to Cen- 
tral America. A collection of Limyiceidce and Viviparidce 
from Kent County, Mich. 

W. H. Dall. Two species of Physa from Arizona and Nicara- 
gua. Grcidinia reticidata, Say, from Monterey, Cal., and one 
unknown species of Cradinia. 

H. A. GiLLlAT. Fifty-seven species of Australian marine 
shells. 

F. A. IIassler, M. D. Model of animal of Stromhus gigcts, 
Linn. Suite of specimens of Helix sphracita, Hartm., from 
Syria. 

F. V. Hayden, M. D. Six species of fresh-water shells, from 
Ancient Lake margins, Salt Lake, Utah. 

G. A. Lathrop. Five species of Helices from Tennessee. 

Isaac Lea. Types of Physa Qarltoni and eight species of Unio 
from Big Black River, Wis. 

M. L. Leach. Pomatiopsis lapidaria^ Say, from St. Louis, 
Mich. 

J. A. McNeil. Unio Macneilii and a species of Melania. 

M. McDonald. Leucocheila fallax, Say, and Triodopsis intro- 
ferens, Bland, from Lexington, Va. 

F. B. Meek. Tiara Jnunerosa, Meek, from Utah — fossil. 

C. W. Peale. Specimens of G-landina. 

W. H. Pease. Melania ICauaiensis, Lhnnea rubella, Lea, L. 
turgidula, L. ambigua, and L. compacta. 

J. S. Phillips. Two species of 3Iarginella ; Aricia Scottii, 
Brod.; Porcellana erythroeensis, Beck. 

J. H. Redfield. Oyclophorus Nilagiricus, Benson ; fourteen 
species of Auriculidce, eight species of Ringicida, and nine 
species of Cylindrella. 

S. R. Roberts. Helix alternata, Say, from Niagara Falls. 

Rev. J. Rowell. Groniobasis circumlineata, Tryon, and a spe- 
cies of Physa. 



OF CONCHOLOGY. 



331 



W. S. W. RusciiENBERGER. Two Specimens oi Spondylus Be- 

lessertit, CheQiii., from Navigator's Island. 
Mrs. Lucy W. Say. A rayed specimen of Unio cylindricus^ 

Say, from the Wabash river. 

John Wolf. Pkurocera Letvisn, and P. suhidare, Lea, from 
Illinois River, Canton, III.; two species oi Physa ; two species 
of Limneidce ; Amnicola parva, Lea, A. rustica, Say, and A. 
decisa, H;ild., from Illinois ; eleven species of Unionidce and 
one of Sphcerium, from Canton, 111. 

The following were purchased with funds received from the 
sale of duplicates: Cataidm hcemastoma, from India; Helix 
Skinneri, Reeve, from Ceylon ; twenty-eight species operculate 
land shells from West Indies, new to collection, named by Thos. 
Bland, and six species of Cylindrella. 

A collection of one hundred and fifty-two species was sent to 
Sylvanus Hanley for shells received from him in 1869. A sim- 
ilar collection was sent in exchange to Dr. J. C. Cox, of Sydney, 
N. S. W. 

Selections from the publications of the Section were sent in 
exchange to E. A. Bielz, of Hermannstadt, F. de Malzine, of 
Bruxelles, E. von Martens, of Berlin, M. Petit de la Saussaye, 
of Paris, W. H. Pease, of Honolulu, Paul Terver, of Lyons, 
and Ralph Tate. 

In consequence of the comparative completeness of our col- 
lection in many of the families, we have been forced to decline 
exchanging with foreign naturalists, except when they are able 
to furnish us with specified desiderata. 

Through the liberality of Messrs. Joseph Jeanes, J. H. Red- 
field, Wm. L. Mactier and W. S. Vaux, we have been enabled 
to place sixty-four drawers under the horizontal cases. These 
drawers afford accommodations for the arrangement of the fol- 
lowing families: the Porcellanidce, OyUndrellidce^ Cydostomacea, 
Aiiriculacea, the Helices, except the North American species, 
the iSlugs, Vitrmce, Suceinece, and part of the Qorhlculadce. 

During the year, 10,0t>0 shells have been cleansed, oiled, 
labelled and placed in 3771 trays. Fifty beautiful sections, 
illustrating the genera arranged, have been prepared by Dr. F. 
A. Hassler. 

Your Committee on the Arrangement of the Collection have 
met frequently and devoted much time to the performance of the 
duty assigned them. They have reason to refer with satisfaction 
to the above summary of the results of their labors. 

All of which is respectfully submitted, 

Edward J. Nolan, Conservator. 



332 AMERICAN JOURNAL 



REPORT OF PUBLICATION COMMITTEE. 



Hall op the Academy of Natural Sciences, "( 
Philadelphia, Dec. \st, 18Y0. J 

The Publication Committee of the Conchological Section 
reports its transactions for the year 1870 : 

Parts 3 and 4, Vol. Fifth, American Journal of Conchology, 
containing together 125 pp. and four colored plates, were issued 
Feb. 3d and May 5th respectively. Of the current (6th) vol- 
ume, two Parts have been published, the dates of issue being 
July 7th and Nov. 3d. These two parts contain 290 pp., illus- 
trated by nine plates and numerous wood engravings. The 
aggregate number of pages of the Journal issued is 415. 

Vol. 6th, Part 3d, is now in the printer's hands, and Part 4th, 
completing the Sixth Volume, will embrace the papers and 
reports presented for publication this evening. 

Besides the Journal, your Committee has published: 

"Catalogue of Recent Mollusca," Part 5, containing Margi- 
nellidge, by John H. Redfield, and Melanidce, by Aug. Brot, 
M. D. 110 pp. Nov., 1870. 

Monograph of the Fresh-water Univalve Mollusca of the 
United States, by Greo. W. Tryon, Jr., Part 1, 82 pp., 6 colored 
plates. July, 1870. 

The subscription list of the Journal has again increased, so 
that it is nearly or quite self-sustaining, and, in congratulating, 
the Section upon this very satisfactory evidence of the impor- 
tance and value to conchologists of its official publication, we can 
reasonably anticipate that in the early future a reduction oi the 
subscription price will become practicable without involving the 
Section in loss. 

Quite a number of complete sets of the Journal have been 
sold during the year, so that our supply of the early volumes 
has become scant. We recommend that the price for complete 
sets be increased to six dollars per volume. 
Respectfully submitted by 

Geo. W. Tryon, Jr.,^ Puhlkation 

T-, T TVT ' I Committee. 

Edward J. Nolan, j 



INDEX TO GENERA AND SPECIES. 



833 



INDEX 

TO THE GENERA AND SPECIES DESCRIBED. 



Abra bella, 


199 


Bulimu] 


us multifasciatus. 


308 


protexta, 


199 






sufflatus, 


209 


Achatina fasciata, 


211 


Bulimus 


Han ley i. 


208 


virginea, 


209 






linteus. 


195 


Acmaea insessa, 


244 






magnificus. 


208 


instabilis, 


245 






multicolor. 


208 


mitra, . 


241 






odontostomus, 


209 


virginea. 


243 










Aenona eufalensis, 


74 


Ci 


imptonectes Burlington- 




papyria, 


74 






ensis, 


76 


Aeora cretacea, 


72 


C< 


ipulus 


Shreevei, 


71 


Ancistromesus mexicanus, 


266 


Ci 


irdium dumosura, 


75 


Anculosa Cincinnatiensis, 


219 


C; 


iryatis convexa, 


200 


praerosa, 


220 






exigua, 


201 


subglobosa, 


221 


Ci 


itinus 


arctatus, 


314 


Tryoni. 


221 






bilix, 


314 


virgata, 


222 


c 


3ntronella glans-fagea, 


103 


Ancylus textilis, 


311 


Ci 


Stella antillarum, 


146 


Anisomyon borealis, 


39 






Barrettiana, 


146 


Anodonta decurtata, 


200 






cistellula, 


146 


Amphiperas ovum, 


183 






cuneata, 


146 


Artena undulata 


76. 






Neapolitana, 


146 


Astarte staminea, 


73 






Schramm!, 


146 


Angitrema verrucosa, 


222 






Woodwardiana, 


146 


Autonce riparia, 


306 


Collisel] 


a araucana, 


257 










asmi. 


252 


Blandiella reclusa, 


309 






atrata, 


255 


Bornella arborescens, 


302 






Borneensia, 


259 


Bouchardia fibula, 


142 






depicta. 


254 


tulipa. 


141 






fascicularis. 


253 


Buliminus pilosus, 


310 






hieroglyphica. 


258 


Bulimulus aureolus. 


307 






mitella, 


253 


marielinus, 


209 






paleacea, 


253 



334 



INDEX TO GENERA AND SPECIES. 



Collisella patina, 


247 


Gad 


nia stellata, 


10 


pediculus, 


255 


Glandina rosea, 


202- 


pelta, 


246 


Glottidia albida, 


157 


persona, 


250 




antillarum, 


159 


rosacea, 


256 




Audebarti, 


159 


saccharina, 


259 




pyramidata. 


158 


scabra. 


251 




semen, 


159 


spectrum, 


251 


Gon 


lobasis Showalteri, 


317 


strigatella, 


253 


Goniobranchus albomacu- 




subrugosa. 


255 




latus, 


302 


sybaritica, 


257 


Gotl 


andia. 


160 


testudinalis, 


249 








triangularis, 


254 


Helicina orbiculata, 


214 


Crepidula recurvirostra, 


78 


Helcion pectinatus, 


277 


rostrata, 


77 


Helcioniscus acuta, 


204 


Virginica, 


78 




argentatus, 


278 


Cryptonella, 


107 




exaratus, 


279 


Cjclopliorus foliaceus, 


25 




rota, 


278 


Leai, 


26 




variegatus, 


277 






Helix albolabris, 


188 


Dentalium hamatus, 


77 




alternala,' 


188 


Deslongchampsia appendi- 






appressa. 


188 


culata. 


21 




armifera, 


191 


Eugenei, 


20 




aspera, 


204 


loricata, 


20 




avara. 


191 


Donax pictus, 


23 




capsella, 


188 


Doriopsis scabra, 


300 




concava. 


189 


viridis. 


301 




Cooperi, 


207 


Dosinia obovata, 


77 




demissa. 


189 


Dyris gracilis, 


195 




Downieana, 
elevata, 


189 
189 


Ebora crassilabra. 


194 




exoleta. 


189 


bella, 


194 




fallax. 


189 


Epithyris elongata. 


103 




fidelis, 


207 


Eurycaelon Antlionyi, 


222 




fuliginosa, 
gularis. 


189 

189 


Gadinia afra. 


9 




Hazard!, 


189 


Angasii, 


11 




Hemphilli, 


207 


carinata, 


18 




inflecta. 


206 


conica. 


11 




interna, 


189 


costata. 


11 




intertexta, 


189 


excentrica, 


19 




introferens. 


189 


Garnotii, 


10 




laevigata. 


190 


Peruviana, 


10 




lasmodon, 


190 


reticulata, 11, 


319 




ligera, 


190 



INDEX TO GENERA AND SPECIES. 



335 



Helix loricata, 


206 


Lirani^a contigua, 


7 


major, 


190 




Kauaiensis, 


7 


margin! col a, 


315 




Mauiensis, 


6 


microdonta, 


205 




Newcombii, 


6 


monodon, 


190 




Oahuensis, 


5 


muscarum, 


204 




producta, 


5 


orbiculata, 


205 




reticulata, 


5 


perspectiva, 


190 




rubella, 


5 


redimita, 


206 




turgidula. 


5 


Rugeli, 


190 




umbilicata. 


5 


Sayii, 


191 




Verreauxiana, 


6 


septemvolva, 


206 


Linearia, 


74 


spinosa, 


191 


Lingu] 


a anatina. 


155 


stenotrema, 191 


,207 




exusta, 


156 


suppress a, 


191 




hians, 


156 


thyroides, 


191 




hirundo, 


156 


Townsendiana, 


206 




jaspidea, 


156 


tridentata, 


191 




lepidula, 


156 


tudiculata, 


20S 




Murphiana, 


156 


tumida, 


203 




ovalis. 


156 


varians, 


206 




smaragdina, 


156 


Hemisinus sulcatus, 


194 




tumidula, 


156 


Hyalina alicea, 


309 


Lingulella Davisii, 


159 






Lingul 


epis pinngeformis, 


161 


Inooeramus peculiaris, 


76 


Liris la.^ueata, 


194 


lo spiuosa, 


223 


Lottia 


gigantea, 


260 


turrita, 


223 


Lyra Meadii, 


115 


Isaea lintea, 


193 








• Ortoni, 


193 


Macha 


Wilsonii, 


23 


Ismenia pectunculus, 


127 


Macoma sublintea, 


199 


sanguinea, 


127 




subrosea. 


71 






Magas 


Davidsoni, 


132 


Kingena lima, 


126 




patagonica. 


133 


Kraussina Lamarckiana, 


139 




pumila. 


131 


Kutorgina cingulata, 


163 


Magasella flexuosa, 


135 








Isevis, 


136 


Lagena tincta, 


72 


Marginella bullata, 


2 


Laqueus californicus, 


123 




cingulata. 


2 


suffusus, 


125 




constricta. 


78 


Leptomya, 


76 




Delessertiana, 


2 


Leptoxis Foremanii, 


318 




elegans. 


2 


rubiginosa, 


317 




fab a, 


2 


Limax ambigua. 


6 




glabella, 


2 


maximus. 


203 




guttata. 


2 


Limnsea compacta, 


6 




ovulata, 


3 



336 



INDEX TO GENERA AND SPECIES. 



Marginella persicula, 


2 


pulchra, 


2 


pyrum, 


2 


rosea, 


2 


Megalomastoma bitubercu- 




latum, 


218 


Meganteris archiaci, 


112 


Megathyris decollata, 


145 


Megerlia truncata, 


130 


Melania clecursa, 


200 


Melantho ponderosus, 


223 


Metoptoma pileus, 


281 


Monobolina pluinbea, 


163 


Nacella mytilina, 


274 


Neritina Ortoni, 


195 


pupa, 


195 


Obolella chromatica, 


163 


Obolus apollinis, 


162 


Orthalicus undatus, 


213 


zebra, 


212 


Pachydon altus, 


197 


carinatus, 


196 


cuneatus, 


197 


erectum, 


197 


obliquis, 


196 


ovatus, 


197 


tenuis, 


197 


Patella pentagona. 


272 


vulgata. 


268 


Patina pellucida, 


280 


Patinella magellanica, 


273 


Persicula ovula. 


78 


Physa Saffordii, 


223 


Physella Berendtii, 


181 


Placobranchus gracilis. 


303 


variegatus, 


303 


Planorbis lunatus, 


315 


miniscus. 


310 


Platidia anomioides, 


143 


Pompholyx efFusa, 


312 


Pterogasteron marginatus. 


304 



Pterogasteron nigropunc- 

tatus, 304 

rufescens, 304 

Pygope dipliya, 104 

Radius volva, 184 

Rensselseria ovoides, 105 

Rhynchonella Grayi, 153 

loxia, 152 

lucida, 153 

nigricans, 152 

psittacea, 152 

Woodwardii, 153 

Scurria mesoleuca, 264 

scurra, 263 

zebrina, 264 

Simpulopsis corrugatus, 308 

Siplionaria alternata, 32 

peltoides, 37 

thersites, 33 

Tristensis, 33 

Solemya lineolatus, 75 

Somatogyrns Currierianus, 223 

Sphaerella subvexa, 200 

Spondylobus craniolaris, 164 

Strebelia Berendtii, 181 

Strephobasis Clarkii, 223 

corpulenta, 224 

Lyonii, 224 

Strigilla producta, 24 

Stringocephalus Burtini, 113 

Succinea eflfusa, 218 

Tellimera eborea, 73 

Tellina Conrad i, 24 

Tenea parilis, 73 

Terebratella, caurina, 119 

coreanica, 121 

cruenta, 117 
Terebratulina caput-ser- 

pentis, 106 

dorsata, 116 

pulvinata, 117 

rubicunda, 117 

Terebratula un^uicula, 102 



INDEX TO GENERA AND SPECIES. 



337 



Thecidium Barretti, 


151 


Unio pudicus, 


219 


Mediterraneura 


,151 


tuberosus, 


219 


pumilum, 


148 






Trevelyana picta. 


301 


Venus alveata, 


77 


Trimerella grandls, 


160 


Volvaria bulloides, 


3 


Tringonosemus elegans, 


114 


Venilia elevata. 


74 


Trypanostoma affine, 


224 


Veleda lintea, 


74 


canaliculatum, 


224 






cur turn, 


224 


Waldheimia cranium, 


110 


gradatum, 


225 


flavescens. 


108 


ligatum, 


225 


Grayi, 


110 


parvum, 


225 


pulvinata. 


329 


ponderosum, 


225 


Raphaelis, 


111 


undulatum, 


225 


venosa, 


109 


Unio Barncsianus, 


217 


Yoldia eufalensis, 


74 


caperatus, 


217 






ebenus, 


218 


Zonites implicans. 


307 






umbratilis, 


307 



Afnencan- JoumaZ of O)mihology~ lS7f?. 



Tlcdf.jr. 




J^y(js.H2Jl.J. Ouppy MolLusrtvof'Trim/i/id 
:; j4-SS.WJ/.DaM.0nt/ieZimpf:tg. 



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MoUiisca. inTialjTtiTuyFolvTwsia^. 



A GAPPE7X0EI. 





r jv^ 



Published at $10 per Annum- Payable in Advance. 'I 

Vol. 6. Part 4. 

AMERICAN 



COINTCHOLOG^Y 



1870-71. 



PUBLICATION COMMITTEE: 
GEORGE W. TRYON, Jr., Editor, 
S. R. ROBERTS, 
E. J. NOLAN, M, D. 



PHILADELPHIA : 

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from l'£00 to IJfOO species, 
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FOR SAl<E, a very large collection of BOOKS relating to Concbology ; 
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VALUABLE WORKS ON CONCHOLOGY 




1. American Journal of Conchology, 1865-1868. Four volumes, 8vo. 

(.'oiitiiiii'it^ over iiixtceii limiiln.'d [Ki^^es. illustrated by one hundred litlio- 
{jraphic plates of shells, many of them finely colored, several portraits of 
distinguished couciiolojrists, and about a thousand wood engravings. The 
articles are contributed by all the prominent American Conchologists. 
Published at $40. Price reduced to .^16 for the set. 

2. American Journal of Conchology, Vol. 5, 18G9-70. Containing 

;-i5u pages of valuable articles by Wni. M. Gabb, James Lewis, M.D., Wm. 
G. Binney, Thomas lilami, T. A. Conrad, Wni. Harper Pease, John H. Red- 
field, Theo. Gill, Wni. H. Dall, Ralph Tate, Wesley Newcomb, M.D., S. R. 
Roberts, J. G. Cooper, M.D , John Wolf, and George W. Tryon, jr. The 
illustrations con.-ist of 17 lithographic plates, partly colored, and wood 
engravings. Price $10.00. 

3. Monograph of the Terrestrial Mollusca of the United States. 

With illustrations of all the iSpecies. By George W. Trvoa, Jr. The 
work is now completed. It contains over 200 jiages of text and is illus- 
trated by 18 lithographic plates crowded with figures. Only 100 copies 
were printed, which are mostly sold. The work is published in the 
following styles : 
1st. Plain edition, printed on fine calendered paper, with uncolored 

plates. Price, $8.50. 

2d. Colored edition, same paper, plates finely colored, Price, $13.50. 

3d. Fine edition, on very heavy plate paper, with duplicate plates, plain 

on tinted paper, and finely colored, Price, $20.00. 

4. TRYON. GEO. W., Jr., Synonymy of the Species of Strepoma- 
tidae (Melaniaiis^ of the United States, with critical observations 
on their Affinities, and Descriptions of E^and, Fresh Water and Marine 
Mollusca. 8vo, over 100 pp., with lithographic plates. 1865. 

Cloth, $2.00. Paper, $1.75. 

CONTENTS: Contrihaliomt towards a Mnnngraphy of the. Order Phnladacea, with Difcrtptions of 
Xkiv Sp'cies. Di'scriplinns nf twn new Species of Fresh Water Mollusca from Panama. Des- 
cription of a new Exotic Mdania. Descriptions of new Species of Fresh Watf'r Mollusca he- 
Inm/inij to the Families Ainnicolidee, Valeatidx and Limnseidx, inhahitin;/ California. De- 
scription nf a new Species of FUumcera. D'lscription of a new Species of Teredo, from New 
Bedford. Mass. Descriptions of two new Spe-ies of Mexican Land Shells. Synonymy of the 
Species of Slrepomatidx. Parts 1, "i, 3, i and Supplement. 
The Kdition is very limited — unly 7o copies. Early application will, therefore, be nece.osary to 

Hcure the work. 

5. RAFINESQUE, C. S., Complete Writings on Recent and Fossil 
Conchology. Edited by William G. Binney and Geo. W. Tryon, Jr. 
8vo. 1864. With lithographic plates. Price, $2.50. 

This is the only edition of Rafinesque's Complete Writings ever published, and contains reprints 
of many papers, which had been entirely forgotten by naturalists. 

6. TRYON, GEO. "W., Jr., List of American Writers on Recent 
Conchology, with the Titles of their Memoirs and Dates of Publication. 
8vo. 1860. Printed on fine plate paper. Cloth, $2.00. Paper, $1.75. 

7. TRYON, GEO. W., Jr., Monograph of the Order Pholadacea. 

and other Papers. 8vo, 127 pp., with plates. 18G2. 

Cloth, $2.00. Paper, $1.75. 
Contains Monographs of the Fumilies GastrochaenidsB, Pholadi iae, and Tere<lid:e. History of 
American Conchology, and Descriptions of new Species of Fresh Water and Marine Shells. 




,^*„ A discount of 20 per cnt. will he allowed from the above prices, to Membert 
of the Conchological Section and to Booksellers. Apply to 

CoNCHoLOGiCAL SECTION ACADEMY OF NATURAL SciE.NCEs, Philadelphia, 
Or to its Agents — see 1st page of this cover. 






CONTENTS. 



r.\oE. 

1. Record of Meetings 2!t7 

2. Descriptions of Nudibranchlate Mollusca inhabiting Poly- 

nesia. By W. Harper Peasft 209 

3. Notes on some New Forms of Terrestrial and Fluviatile 

Mollusca found in Trinidad. By R. J. Lechmere Gupjiy 30G 

4. On the Lingual Dentition of Pompholyx effusa. By W. G. 

Biiniey aiul Thomas Bland 312 

5. Palasontological Notes. By T. A. Co mad 314 

1. Figure and Reference to Faseiolaria subtenta. 2. Synopsis of the Eocene 

Species of Catinus. 3. Description of a new Fresh-water and a Land Shell of 
the Oregon Tertiary. 

G. On the Opercula of the Family Strepomatidae. By W. D. 

Hartmau, M D 3 : 

7. Note on Gadinia and Rowellia. By J. G. Cooper, M. D 319 

8. Note on Waldhelmia pulvinata, Gld. By J. G. Cooper, iM.D... 320 

9. Additions and Corrections to the Catalogue of Monterey 

Mollu»ca (publishe i in the American Jour. Conch. Vol. 
vi, Parti, p. 49). By J. G. Cooper, M.D 321 

10. Notices and tlevievsrs of New Conchological "Works. By 

Ge6rge W. Tryon, Jr 323 

British— Annals and Magazine of Natural History— Conchologica Indiea. 

French. — Journal de Conchy liologie— Revue et Magasin de Zoologie— Actes de la 

Soeiete Linneenne de Bordeaux. 
German — Novitates Conchologicte — Systematisches Conchylien Cabinet. 

APPENDIX. 

11. Conservator's Annual Report. By PL J. Nolan, M.D 329 

12. Report of Librarian. By E. J. Nolan, M.D ||^9 

13. Report of Publication Committee... 332 

NOTICE TO CONTRIBUTORS. 



Authors sending specimens with their papers, can have colored illustra- 
tions furnished without expense to them. 

Twenty copies of every contribution (without re-paging- or illustration) is at 
the service of its author, if applied for iu season. 

Extra copies, re-paged, can be had on the IbllowiDg terras : 

25 ciipies. 50 copirs. 1(10 copies. 250 copifs 

16 pages, $4 00 |5 00 5^6 75 5?10 00 

8 pages, 3 00 3 75 5 25 7 50 

2 to 4 pages, 2 50 3 12 4 25 6 25 

Uncolored plates at 3 cents each, or colored plates 12 to 18 cents each. 

Contributions, as well as Papers and Works for Review or Exchange, 

should be directed to 

Conchological Section, Academy of Natural Scitnccs, Philadelphia. 






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